1 - Australian Earthquake Engineering Society



1 - Australian Earthquake Engineering Society
President’s Report .....................................................................1
Request for Proposals: GEM Risk Global Components ..........2
Earthquakes threaten geothermal power ..................................2
Indonesia Recovery and Reconstruction Assistance ...............3
The Haiti Earthquake ................................................................4
The Chile earthquake .................................................................6
AEES 2009 – Newcastle ...........................................................8
Australian earthquakes: Jan – Mar 2010.................................9
Conferences ..............................................................................10
Worst earthquakes of the last decade ......................................10
AEES Contact Details.............................................................10
President’s Report
The last decade of the 20th century was dubbed the
United Nations’ International Decade for Natural
Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). The International
Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth’s
Interior organised a contribution that became GSHAP,
the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, and a
map of earthquake hazard for the whole world was
published. Unfortunately the equivalent IAEE
contribution WSSI or World Seismic Safety Initiative
wasn’t realised. The reason for the declaration of the
1990s as the IDNDR was that over the previous 100
years nearly 10,000 people were killed per year on
average as a result of earthquakes, a quarter of them in
a single earthquake near Tangshan China in 1976. In
Australia there were 15 earthquake fatalities in the
Already by 2009 this century the death toll had
exceeded 653,000. One might conclude that either the
IDNDR was a complete failure, or governments chose
to ignore the warning inherent in the GSHAP maps, the
level of seismicity has not changed.
Take the case of Haiti on the back steps of the US.
Destroyed twice previously by earthquakes in the last
400 years, the capital city of Port-au-Prince straddles a
plate boundary and now with a population of more
than 3 million people has again been flattened with
devastating consequences. On 12th January 2010 a
major magnitude 7 earthquake caused a great disaster;
the collapse of many buildings including homes,
schools and hospitals, the main Cathedral, presidential
March 2010
buildings and UN headquarters leaving a reported 200
000 people dead and more than a million people
homeless. On 27th February Chile suffered a great
earthquake causing a moderate disaster, perhaps a
thousand killed in collapsed buildings and subsequent
tsunami. How could this be? what is happening?
Have there been more earthquakes? No! Worldwide
records collected since 1900 show that every year there
are about 10 to 12 shallow magnitude 7 or greater
earthquakes on average and this hasn’t changed since
Did GSHAP change anything? the publication of a
global map of earthquake hazard? It certainly didn’t
drive any change in region 10 of the GSHAP map
which covered New Zealand, Australia, Indonesia and
all the countries of the SW Pacific in between. Papua
New Guinea hasn’t had a building code upgrade since
1982, the Solomon Islands doesn’t have a building code,
Indonesia is in the process of upgrading its code, Samoa
uses an old code based on a superseded NZ loading
code. Both Australia and New Zealand have updated
their codes though not influenced by GSHAP. It is
doubtful there was any follow-up after the GSHAP
map was published, few engineers would have known
about it let alone politicians. Haiti had no earthquake
One of the contributing factors to the increasing
casualty figures worldwide is population growth.
Haiti’s population has doubled since about 1970 and it
now has the highest population density of any country
in the western hemisphere. The current population of
Port-au-Prince has been estimated at up to 4 million,
quadruple the number in the mid 1990s. Another
contributor coupled with the lack of an earthquake
code is the poor quality of materials and construction.
A poll of senior members of AEES including the
committee concluded that Haiti, half way round the
World and at the backdoor of the US, was outside our
area of influence and that we would not send a team to
investigate the damage. We are discussing the
possibility of sending a joint NZ/Aus team to Chile.
What else can/should we do? Let us make a
contribution in our area of interest/influence. GSHAP
region 10 is a good starting point. We need to assist
neighbouring countries develop earthquake codes
specific to their needs which should incorporate an
earthquake hazard map. We have already raised the
possibility of jointly sponsoring earthquake code
development in the SW Pacific with the NZSEE and
made a start with PNG (thanks to Lawrence Anton, see
the last two AEES conference proceedings). It could be
as simple as adopting the current Australian or New
Zealand codes and assessing the hazard factor Z. We
need to encourage development and application of
software like EQLIPSE to identify cities most at risk and
work at a political level to have codes adopted and
enforced there, even encouraging retrospective
application for special structures like schools and
The NZSEE has decided to hold the next Pacific
Conference on Earthquake Engineering (PCEE) in New
Zealand in 2011 which would be an excellent
opportunity to roll out a program in our region. We
need to start work now to identify appropriate
professional engineering organisations in each SW
Pacific country and raise support for getting their
delegates to the PCEE.
AEES must also establish a register of members
prepared to participate in post-disaster investigations,
seismologists and engineers, and we are most grateful
to the AEES members who, at short notice, went to
Sumatra as part of the AusAID team facilitated by
Geoscience Australia last year, and reported on at
AEES2009 in Newcastle. If you are interested please
contact me or the Secretariat.
Kevin McCue
Request for Proposals: GEM Risk Global Components
GEM (Global Earthquake Model) aims to achieve its
goals by developing state-of-the-art open source
software and global databases necessary for reliably
mapping earthquake risk. To this end, GEM has issued
five requests for proposals for Global Components of its
Risk Module. GEM’s Risk Module will calculate
damage and direct losses resulting from this damage,
such as fatalities, injuries and cost of repair.
Earthquakes threaten geothermal power
New Scientist Environment
Geothermal energy is in the dock in Germany, but some
scientists are pleading for leniency.
A government panel is investigating claims by the
geological survey for the state of Rhineland-Palatinate
that a geothermal plant triggered a magnitude-2.7
earthquake on 15 August in the town of Landau in the
state. If the panel finds against the company that built
the plant, Geo X of Landau, it could be shut down.
Geothermal plants work by pumping water into hot
rocks several kilometres down, forcing small cracks in
the rock to expand. Steam escapes through the cracks to
the surface, where it drives a turbine, producing clean
energy. But critics say the process increases the risk of
"Any process that injects pressurised water at depth
into rocks will cause them to fracture and possibly
trigger earthquakes," says Brian Baptie, an earthquake
specialist at the British Geological Society.
Whose fault is it?
Engineers rather than technology must take some of the
blame, says Roy Baria, a geophysicist on the panel
reviewing the Landau quake, who also works for
geothermal energy company EGS Energy, based in
Penzance, UK. Past quakes triggered by plants in Basel,
Switzerland, were avoidable, he says. "The engineers
failed to adhere to best-practice guidelines."
Even the worst geothermal earthquakes have failed to
topple a building or kill a human, says Ernest Majer, a
seismologist at the Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory in California, pointing out that geothermal
power isn't the only industry that triggers earthquakes.
"Any industry which injects high-pressure fluid into
rock, and that includes the oil, nuclear and carbon
sequestration projects, has the potential to cause
tremors," he says.
(Ed: there is a lesson here for Australia).
The five RfPs cover the following topics: GEM
Ontology & Taxonomy, Inventory Data Capture Tools,
Global Exposure Database, Global Earthquake
Consequences Database and Global Vulnerability
Estimations methods; the target budgets for these calls
range from 300,000 – 900,000 €. The deadline for
submission is 18th March 2010, 0:00 CET. More
information can be found by visiting the GEM website
[link below to www.globalquakemodel.org/node/373
<http://www.globalquakemodel.org/node/373> ].
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 2
Subject: Estimates for Haiti Earthquake.
Dear Kevin,
It was great to meet you at the AEES conference, and
look forward to seeing you again next year.
I noticed a quote on a website regarding the Haiti
Earthquake from you and I thought that you might be
interested in my estimate of socio-economic losses.
I use a hybrid methodology to come up with my
estimates. With more information these will be refined.
It is a rapid loss scenario-based method (similar to
WAPMERR and PAGER-CAT, but different again). I
am hoping to automate this by the end of the year.
Kind Regards,
James Daniell.
With over 220,000 people exposed to intensity IX and
above, and over 3,000,000 people exposed to intensity
VII and above.
There has only been a greater earthquake in Haiti in
1842 with 5000 deaths caused by a M8.1 earthquake.
An earthquake of Mw5.7 occurred 25.01.1953 with 2
deaths recorded, and an earthquake of Mw5.4 occurred
in 1994 with 4 deaths recorded.
However, this Mw7.0 earthquake is catastrophic, even
taking the lower estimate of the deaths via EQLIPSE.
Subject: School Seismology
Dear Kevin,
seismometer.html please?
There are two good quality seismometers designed for
school use here. The SEPUK records from 5 Hz to over
20 seconds with a 16 bit ADC. The sales according to
MUTR have now exceeded 400!
This seems to be a very successful project by the BGS.
Is there any chance of getting a secondary school in
your area interested?
Chris Chapman MA (Physics)
[email protected]
and military health and engineering assessment teams
to the disaster area.
Our initial response focused on search and rescue. At
the height of this phase Australia had 582 personnel
committed to Indonesia. This includes 570 ADF
personnel, of which 323 are onboard HMAS Kanimbla,
13 Embassy personnel on the ground in Padang and a
36-member Queensland Fire and Rescue Service team.
Our response has now moved towards the relief and
reconstruction phase. Initial needs assessments
identified water supply, medical care and shelter as the
key priorities and Australia is responding to these
Australian civilian and military personnel in Padang
and the surrounding region are now involved in a Joint
Task Force assessing and carrying out recovery
operations. The task force includes ADF medical and
health specialists providing medical assistance through
an Australian field hospital located 75km north of
Padang. ADF engineers are also establishing water
purification plants and assessing infrastructure.
Australia maintains relief supplies in Indonesia in
preparation for these types of emergencies. Some of
these stores have been released to the Red Cross in
Indonesia including 1290 family kits each designed for
a family of four and 50 family tents. These kits contain
much-needed basic goods such as clothes, soap and
Australia has also provided support to Indonesian nongovernmental organisation Muhammadiyah and
Nahdlatul Ulama to provide medical teams, temporary
schools, school books and trauma counselling.
Australian officials are working closely with colleagues
from the Government of Indonesia to ensure that our
assistance helps to relieve the suffering of those affected
by this disaster.
Media release
Indonesia Recovery and Reconstruction Assistance
Australian urban search and rescue workers examine a
building in Padang, West Sumatra, damaged by a
magnitude 7.6 earthquake on 30 September 2009.
Australia responded quickly to the earthquake with a
$2.8 million response package. This initial response
included a 36 person search and rescue team, relief
supplies, including cooking hygiene and medical kits,
Photo AusAID Indonesia
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 3
The Haiti Earthquake
16:53 local time (21:53 UTC), 12 January 2010
This is the second deadly earthquake this century with casualties in the hundreds of thousands. Unlike the
Sumatran earthquake of December 2004, this was not of great magnitude, nor did it cause secondary effects
such as a tsunami or widespread landslides to contribute to the destruction. The latest estimates of casualties in
the magnitude 7.0 earthquake: deaths exceed 200,000 with more than one million homeless! All of these deaths
are due to building collapse, no landslides, no tsunami, no fires, not even a fault scarp.
The earthquake occurred in the collision zone between the Caribbean and North American plates (see figure
above from the USGS, the yellow dot is the epicentre or initial point of fault rupture. It was a major, shallow
earthquake close to a capital city, Port au Prince, with more than 3 million residents. A capital city whose
buildings were not designed to resist an earthquake, nor built accordingly.
The earthquake ruptured a 50-60-km long section of the more than 500-km-long Enriquillo-Plantain Garden
Fault, which runs east-west through Haiti, between the Dominican Republic in the east and Jamaica to the west.
The fault system is a “strike-slip” fault, the Caribbean Plate south of the fault sliding east and the smaller plate
fragment, the Gonave Plate north of the fault, was sliding west. The situation is similar to California’s San
Andreas Fault, another better known transform fault.
This is not a fast moving fault, perhaps 7mm/yr, so
earthquakes are relatively infrequent on it but are well known
to occur in the fault system (see below).
Apartment above in Haiti. Pancake collapse opposite
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 4
The Haiti earthquake did not trigger a tsunami because its epicentre was on land and its mechanism strike-slip,
mostly horizontal movement. No pictures of the fault scarp have so far been published.
The earthquake caused major damage to Port-au-Prince,
Jacmel and other settlements in the region. Many notable
landmark buildings were significantly damaged or
destroyed, including the Presidential Palace, the National
Assembly building, the Port-au-Prince Cathedral (right),
and the main jail. The headquarters of the United Nations
Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), located in the
capital, collapsed, killing many, including the Mission's
Chief, Hédi Annabi. Also killed were opposition leader
Micha Gaillard and Archbishop of Port-au-Prince
Monsignor Joseph Serge Miot.
Collapsed school (left) and damaged cathedral (above)
There does not appear to be a record of the ground motion but no doubt the ground shaking was strong and the
strong motion lasted perhaps 30 seconds (using Ambraseys’ formula) but even under those extreme conditions,
buildings should be able to remain standing as many indeed did even though they were not designed or built
to an earthquake loading code. With such planning the death toll could have been a fraction of what occurred.
Now countries from around the world are contributing to the huge relief effort but if they had contributed
earlier with directed aid and education, surely this disaster could have been averted or at least mitigated. Will
they stay the distance and ensure the replacement buildings are robust, are designed and built to withstand the
next earthquake whether it is next year of another 200 years in the future, and Haitians are educated to build a
more resilient, self reliant society?
The lesson of all this is that we should now be looking more closely at our own region. We should be teaching
young engineers and scientists from the SW Pacific, we should be helping them develop loading codes for their
individual situation, developing hazard maps and codes and most importantly, keeping them up to date. Lastly
we should be a bit introspective and see whether what we are doing here in Australia is sustainable, whether
our school children and hospital patients are safe, educating our fellow Australians that earthquakes do happen
here and that they themselves can act to make their home and office more secure.
History of past earthquakes in or near Haiti:
In 1946, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake, struck the northeastern corner of Hispaniola causing many casualties. The
likely sequence of earthquakes on the Enriquillio fault to1860 are as follows (from USGS).
• October 18, 1751: a major earthquake caused heavy destruction in the gulf of Azua (the eastern end of
the Enriquillio Fault) which also generated a tsunami. It is unclear if the rupture occurred on the
Muertos thrust belt or on the eastern end of Enriquillio Fault.
• Nov. 21, 1751: a major earthquake destroyed Port au Prince but was centred to the east of the city along
the Cul de-Sac plain.
• June 3, 1770: a major earthquake destroyed Port au Prince again and appeared to be centred west of the
city. As a result of the 1751 and 1770 earthquakes and minor ones in between, the authorities required
building with wood and forbade building with masonry.
• April 8, 1860: there was a major earthquake farther west accompanied by a tsunami.
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 5
The Chile earthquake
03:34 am local time (06:34 UTC), 27 February 2010
Saturday, February 27, 2010 at 03:34:14 am local time, a great earthquake Mw 8.8 struck the coast of Chile,
causing extensive damage in Chilean cities. Many buildings including more than 500 000 homes were
destroyed. The earthquake triggered a Pacific-wide tsunami, locally measuring 2.34m in the port city of
Concepción. The tsunami caused serious damage to port facilities and drove boats ashore.
The epicentre was 115km north-northeast of Chile's second largest city, Concepción, and 325km southwest of
the capital Santiago but aftershocks in the first few days outlined a 700km long bilateral rupture zone extending
as far north as Santiago, explaining the high intensity there.
Aftershock extent after 2 days extending north and south of the epicentre.
Shaking is reported to have lasted three minutes, the Mercalli intensity rated VII (very strong) in Santiago, and
VIII (destructive) in other cities such as Arauco, Concepción, Chiguayante, and San Antonio.
Chilean president Michelle Bachelet declared a state of catastrophe and confirmed the deaths of at least 723
people. The Chilean minister of housing Patricia Poblete estimated that the earthquake had damaged 1.5
million homes and had affected 2 million people.
In the disaster zone, extending from Valparaíso to Araucania, eight hospitals are unusable and 10 have major
damage although 76 hospitals are operating without major difficulties.
Some seaports suffered structural damage. The airport in Concepción was closed to commercial flights, but the
main airport in Santiago reopened quickly.
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 6
An apartment building in Concepción
The Chilean coast is no stranger to mega-thrust earthquakes and in 1960 was the site of the greatest earthquake
ever measured, the magnitude rated at 9.5. The epicentre of the 1960 earthquake was near the southern edge of
the aftershock zone of the 2010 earthquake and in 1960 the fault ruptured from the epicentre to the south.
Tsunami warnings were issued in 53 countries including the east coast of Australia and a small tsunami was
recorded on tide gauges, at one site in New Zealand the tsunami was more than 1m high. Most of the slip on
the 700 km long fault plane was in the depth range 20 to 40km deep which explains why the tsunami was not as
large as expected.
Following a formal request from the Chilean ambassador, the Australian government made an initial
contribution of $1 million in emergency supplies including 50 portable generators, 150 family tents and 1060
field beds for affected communities. Australia will also make an initial contribution of $4 million in
reconstruction assistance following detailed needs assessments by Chilean authorities. Australia has committed
to providing emergency and reconstruction assistance. Australia is also considering sending a team of
structural engineers to support the Chilean Government to carry out damage assessments on public buildings
and infrastructure affected by the earthquake (AusAID website on 12 March 2010).
AEES has had preliminary discussions with NZSEE regarding the possibility of participating in a joint New
Zealand/Australia mission to Chile to learn from the earthquake. Buildings there have been designed and built
according to modern codes yet new buildings like the one above suffered severe damage. Importantly there is a
network of strong motion recorders throughout Chile and initial data distributed unofficially indicate that the
shaking was quite a lot stronger than the code spectrum. We hope to be able to release the data in the next
These two earthquakes, in Haiti and Chile, exemplify a common paradox, in one case a major, shallow, close
earthquake duration 30s causing a huge disaster (Haiti), in the other (Chile) a great, shallow, close earthquake
duration 350s causing a modest disaster. A lot is expected to be learned from Chile after the analysed strong
motion records are compared with the damage to properly engineered structures, but it is doubtful there will
be any new engineering lessons to come from Haiti. This is perhaps the first lesson for Australia; it is very
beneficial after the earthquake to have an accurate record of the ground shaking. How valuable it would have
been in Newcastle after the 1989 earthquake to have had recordings of the ground motion in Hamilton and
other suburbs of Newcastle. Having appropriate equipment installed would have been a small price to pay.
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 7
AEES 2009 – Newcastle
Bill Jordan take a bow. The conference was over all too early, at least for the participants if not the organisers. It
was another significant contribution to our knowledge of earthquakes and their effects in Australia and a
convivial gathering of most of the active participants in earthquake engineering in Australia and prominent
regional experts. I have never had so many emails from members saying how much they enjoyed the
conference. On the 20th anniversary of the Newcastle earthquake let’s hope our efforts contribute to Newcastle
1989 remaining the worst Australian earthquake disaster ever.
The keynote talks were particularly good, Professor Melcher’s analysis of the failure of the Workers Club so
pertinent to the theme and naturally of great interest to Novocastrians and it garnered front page of the
Newcastle Herald on 12 December 2009. It was a significant victory of our right-to-know over threats of
litigation still hanging around 20 years later. Rod Caldwell’s movie was poignant, bringing the earthquake’s
impact on the electrical network back in time, an amazing restoration effort. The talks by Drs Paul Somerville,
John Adams (Canada) and Mark Stirling (New Zealand) serendipitously coincided with Geoscience Australia’s
return to earthquake hazard assessment for the next generation Australian Loading Code.
Gary Gibson’s talk was cut short but the written paper should be read closely by everyone doing or using a
probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Student papers maintained the high standard of previous years, the
best student presentation judged to be that of James Daniell on loss modelling. Session chairs were well briefed
on their roles and the 3-minute poster presentations worked very well as a consequence. The sessions were
memorable for the lack of audio-visual problems.
AEES’s very attractive AS1170.4 Code Commentary was launched at the conference, a tribute to Professor John
Wilson and his team. We just hope it doesn’t signal the complete withdrawal of Standards Australia from the
The experiment of the public forum on Saturday afternoon wasn’t a great success in attracting participants on a
hot Saturday afternoon but Christ Church Cathedral was a magnificent setting for the talk by Bill Jordan and
Barney Coffin about the post-earthquake strengthening of this heritage listed building (soon available on the
AEES website) and a warm service afterwards to commemorate those who died in the earthquake-induced
collapse of the Workers Club and shopfront awnings on Beaumont Street Hamilton.
The social dinners on Friday night on the most attractive Newcastle waterfront and Saturday night at the
formal Newcastle Club were memorable, a very talented musical trio on the Saturday night and the bard from
Gin Gin Queensland, Mike Turnbull in
impeccable form. Everyone participated in the
options game and it was interesting to see who
was left standing at the end.
Congratulations to the organisers, Bill Jordan
and his Newcastle team with Sharon Anderson
running the secretariat from Melbourne. Thanks
also to all those other helpers, the paper
reviewers, Lord Mayors past and present, John
McNaughton and John Tate,
the forum
panelists and University Chancellor Professor
Trevor Waring. The organisers addressed the
media involvement properly and did attract a
lot of publicity in newspapers and on radio
though this didn’t translate into record numbers
attending the conference which was a little
Professor Hong Hao has invited us all to Perth next November for AEES2010 at the University of Western
Australia so it would be prudent for you to start thinking now about your presentation, a call for papers will be
issued shortly.
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 8
Australian earthquakes: Jan – Mar 2010
In contrast to the high level of world seismicity so far in 2010, there have been few earthquakes in Australia, the
largest a magnitude 3.8 earthquake near Mt Rebecca WA (see table below). Several of the earthquakes were felt
including the last event listed that was felt by many residents of Newcastle NSW.
Lat °S
Long °E
SW of Dargo Vic
N of Ravensthorpe WA
Meckering WA
Mt Rebecca WA
NE Lake Eyre SA
NE Lithgow NSW
SE Norseman WA
NW of Goulburn NSW
E Jamieson Vic
Off Ulladulla NSW
NW Alice Springs NT
Nelson Bay area NSW
Earthquakes in the Australian region Jan – 13 Mar 2010 located by GA, ES&S, SADME and ASC
Figure obtained using GoogleEarth and GA database online.
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 9
AEES Contact Details
2010, 26-28 March, NZSEE Annual
Conference and AGM, Wellington.
The 2010 conference theme is "Earthquake Prone
Buildings: how ready are we?".
The New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering
Conference is an annual forum where current research
and practice related to earthquake engineering is
presented in papers and posters.
In 2010 the conference will be held at the iconic
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.
Professor Michele Calvi will deliver the keynote
address on the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake in Italy. A
panel forum will stimulate discussion on New
Zealand’s readiness for the ‘big one’ and a special
session will honour the lifetime achievements of
Professor Tom Paulay. Field trips on the Saturday
afternoon will showcase Wellington’s assets, faults,
hazards, and their mitigation.
2010, 17–24 May AGU Chapman Conference on Giant
Earthquakes and their tsunamis Valparaíso, Viña del
Mar, Valdivia, Chile
2010, 22–25 June Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting
Taipei, Taiwan.
2010, 8-12 August 5th Civil Engineering Conference in
the Asian Region and Australasian Structural
Engineering Conference 2010. Sydney Convention and
Exhibition Centre.
PO Box 4014
McKinnon P.O. VIC 3204
[email protected]
0414 492 210
The 2010 AEES Committee
Committee members:
Kevin McCue
Paul Somerville
Mark Edwards
Gerhard Horoschun
Helen Goldsworthy
Gary Gibson
Sharon Anderson
Kevin McCue
Adam Pascale
State Representatives
New South Wales
South Australia
Western Australia
Northern Territory
Gary Gibson
Russell Cuthbertson
Colin Gurley
Angus Swindon
Mark Edwards
David Love
Hong Hao
IAEE Representative:
Worst earthquakes of the last decade
Largest Earthquakes (USGS)
Deadliest Earthquakes (USGS)
Samoa Islands region
South Sumatra, Indonesia
Eastern Sichuan, China
Eastern Sichuan, China
South Sumatra Indonesia
Central Peru
Kuril Islands
Java, Indonesia
North Sumatra Indonesia
North Sumatra
North Sumatra
Hokkaido, Japan
Southeast Iran
Central Alaska
Hindu Kush, Afghanistan
Near Coast of Peru
New Ireland Region PNG
South Sumatra, Indonesia
AEES is a Technical Society of IEAust The Institution of Engineers Australia and is affiliated with IAEE
Page 10

Similar documents

The 2009 L`Aquila earthquake - YERBİLİMLERİ

The 2009 L`Aquila earthquake - YERBİLİMLERİ The earthquake’s effects were distinctly observed over a 20 km long and 10 km wide area. Some surface ruptures were observed along the expected surface trace of the earthquake fault. Nevertheless, ...

More information