ONLINE FASHION RESALE in the Netherlands.

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ONLINE FASHION RESALE in the Netherlands.
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ONLINE!
FASHION
RESALE!
in the Netherlands.!
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28th of May 2015!
Bachelor Thesis
Tessa Pauw!
Student nr: 500624492
Course: International Fashion & Management
Coach: Ligia Hera !
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!Disclaimer:
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1. This report, as part of the graduation project aimed at attaining the BA title from the Amsterdam
University of Applied Sciences, has been written and/or compiled solely by me.
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2. This project report (or any amended form of it) has never before been submitted by me or anyone else
in the framework of a learning assignment aimed at the attainment of a certificate or degree, within
the AMFI program or elsewhere.
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3. The work that was necessary for the realization of this project was performed entirely by me. All the
data that have been collected are original.
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4. All quotes from other sources are recognizable in the report by quotation marks and the sources of all
my information have specifically been indicated.
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Gucci Bamboo Leather Backpack!
available secondhand on eBay!
drawing: Freshly Framed!
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How can online fashion resale become a prevailing trend in the fashion industry of
the Netherlands?
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Table of Contents.!
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Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………..!8!
Executive Summary………………………………………………………………………………! 9!
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..! 11!
Chapter 1 Research & Methodology……………………………………………………………!13!
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1.1 Research Questions ………………………………………………………………..! 14!
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1.2 Relevance……………………………………………………………………………! 15!
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1.3 Methodology…………………………………………………………………………! 15!
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1.4 Limitations……………………………………………………………………………! 18!
Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………..! 19!
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2.1 Fast Fashion…………………………………………………………………………! 20!
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2.1.1 Environmental Pollution………………………………………………….! 21!
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2.1.2 Ethical Issues……………………………………………………………..! 21!
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2.2 Consuming fashion…………………………………………………………………! 22!
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2.3 Sustainable fashion consumption…………………………………………………! 23!
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2.3.1 Sustainable Fiber production……………………………………………! 23!
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2.3.2 Recycling and Reusing textiles…………………………………………! 24!
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2.4 Re-Using initiatives…………………………………………………………………! 24!
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2.4.1 Secondhand stores………………………………………………………! 25!
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2.4.2 Secondhand markets……………………………………………………! 25!
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2.4.3 Swap events & closet sales……………………………………………..! 25!
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2.4.4 The clothing library………………………………………………………! 26!
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2.4.5 Retail initiatives…………………………………………………………..! 26!
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2.4.6 Not sustainable enough…………………………………………………! 27!
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2.5 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………! 27!
Chapter 3 The online C2C fashion market……………………………………………………! 29!
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3.1 C2C e-commerce……………………………………………………………………! 30!
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3.2 C2C e-commerce in Fashion………………………………………………………! 31!
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3.2.1 Online C2C fashion market on Social Media…………………………! 31!
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3.2.2 Online C2C fashion market places……………………………………..! 32!
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3.2.2.1 Online C2C fashion market places in the US………………! 32!
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3.2.2.1 Online C2C fashion market places in the Netherlands……! 35!
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3.3 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………! 36!
Chapter 4: What is the current situation of the online C2C clothing market in the NL?…..! 37!
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4.1 How well-known is this movement in the Netherlands…………………………..!38!
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4.1.1 Theoretical: Press and Information……………………………………..! 38!
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4.1.2 Empirical: Survey Data …………………………………………………..!39!
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4.1.2.1!Results and Discussion…………………………………………….….! 38!
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4.1.2.2!Survey Data Limitations………………………………………………..!43!
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4.1.2.3!Survey Data Conclusion………………………………………………..!43!
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4.2 Who are the main users of these online marketplaces?…………………………!44!
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4.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….!45!
Chapter 5: Stimulants of this movement……………………………………………………….! 46!
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5.1 Theoretical……………………………………………………………………………! 47!
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5.1.1 Business owners………………………………………………………….! 47!
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5.1.2 Analysis Facebook sellers posts…………………………………………!48!
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5.2 Empirical………….…………………………………………………………………..! 49!
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5.2.1 Survey data - Online sellers……………………………………………..! 49!
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5.2.2 Survey data - Offline sellers……………………………………………..! 53!
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5.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….!57!
Chapter 6: The opportunities in the Netherlands………………………………………………!59!
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6.1 Analyzing empirical research and existing business models……………………!60!
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6.2 What does the Dutch consumer say about opportunities: Survey results……..!61!
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6.3 SWOT Analysis of online fashion resale………………………………………….. 62!
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6.4 Estimated Market Potential………………………………………………………… 63!
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6.5 Future threats and recommendations……………………………………………..! 63!
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6.6 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………! 64!
Chapter 7: Conclusion & Recommendations…………………………………………………..!65!
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7.1 Research Conclusions………………………………………………………………!66!
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7.2 Discussion & Recommendations…………………………………………………..! 69!
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7.3 Research Limitations………………………………………………………………..! 73!
References………………………………………………………………………………………..! 74!
Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………..! 86!
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Preface.!
Amsterdam, May 2015.!
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This research report is part of my graduation project for the studies ‘International Fashion
Management’ commissioned by the Amsterdam Fashion Institute. !
The research report addresses the question “how online fashion resale can become a prevailing
trend in the fashion industry of the Netherlands”, and tries to answer this question as accurately
as possible on the basis of empirical research, theoretical research and recommendations
towards start up resale businesses or retailers interested in fashion resale.!
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What gave rise for this was an internship in New York where I experienced that many of my
colleagues frequently brought their clothing to a hip secondhand fashion chain and earned a bit
of extra cash with this. Initially the project would be examining why this is not common in the
Netherlands yet, until I stumbled upon the online variant and noticed a gigantic emerging market
abroad. These findings brought me to conduct further studies regarding the future possibilities of
the secondhand clothing market going digital.!
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The aim of this study is to map out the current online fashion resale market in the Netherlands
and to test if this is a worthy business opportunity for the future.!
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During the process of this research I have received a lot of help from various sources. !
First of all, I would like to express my thanks to my coach Ligia Hera and advisor Henny
Jordaan for guiding me along the way, no matter how long that was. !
Second thanks go out to all who helped and inspired me during the making of this report: Leo
Pauw and Liesbeth van de Graaf for their critical advice, Xoel Rey for his everlasting moral
support, Bregje Lampe and Jesse Weltevreden for sharing their knowledge and opinions, and of
course a special thanks to United Wardrobe, The Next Closet, Designer Vintage and De Kast
van Amsterdam for their kindness and cooperation when building this project to what it is now.!
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Executive Summary.!
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The fact that the fashion industry holds a negative impact on this world, is now well known.
Environmentally and human-friendly alternatives are emerging because of this. !
Many of these alternatives focus on creating a sustainable process of garment manufacturing
and fabric production, that is to become sustainable. But what happens after that? The aftersale stage of a garment is just as important. What are we supposed to do with the millions of
kilos of textile waste that gets disposed into this world annually?!
One solution for this is the reusing of clothing. After an economic recession and a rising
sustainability movement in Western societies, many people begin to realize this. The internet
connectivity transformed this realization into an online fashion resale movement and has proven
to be successful in the US and Europe. Multiple online resale platforms arose in these regions
over the past three years and established a vast emerging market. But what is the situation in
the Netherlands?!
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This study maps out the current situation of Dutch online fashion resale and will find answers to
the question: ‘How can online fashion resale become a prevailing trend in the Netherlands?’. !
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Empirical research conducted for this thesis shows that over 75 per cent of the respondents
claim they will buy more used fashion in the future. This shows a positive perspective for the
secondhand clothing market in general. In combination with the present day’s digital revolution,
online shopping continues to grow incessantly. It is becoming more and more accepted to buy
fashion online. Will the secondhand clothing market reach a similar level of leverage digitally?!
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Research shows that many Dutch people only see Marktplaats as an online alternative to sell
and buy secondhand, and are not yet aware of the possibilities of the current online fashion
resale market. In addition to Marktplaats, eBay and Facebook - who are not specialized in
fashion - major players of online fashion resale in the Netherlands at the moment are the
companies United Wardrobe, The Next Closet and Designer-Vintage. These companies all work
with a different business model. Where United Wardrobe has more of a resemblance with
Marktplaats and only uses C2C e-commerce, The Next Closet and Designer-Vintage have more
of an authentic B2C business model, but with a product that comes from a consumers closet.!
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To get a better understanding of this online movement, the study looks at the origin of the
movement and researches the motivation of people to participate.!
Exclusivity and uniqueness of secondhand fashion items seem to be important stimulants to
attract buyers in this movement. By expanding the offer of vintage and secondhand garments
through the global internet, it has gained popularity under fashionistas. However, the
economical aspect of used clothing also seems to be an important factor, especially when it
comes to high-segment clothing that becomes available at lower prices through resale.!
The economic crisis has been a major stimulant for sellers to participate in this movement,
considering the general consumer started looking for ways to obtain some additional income.!
The environment is not a major stimulus to many yet, with only 24% of the respondents claiming
to sell their clothing from a sustainable perspective. This can - and maybe should - be enhanced
through education and awareness. Because although the economical crisis might blow over, the
climate crisis will not dissipate so easily.!
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Since it is an absolute necessity for our future on this planet to have a focus on durability and
sustainability from now on, it is a smart move to anticipate on this and make it a main factor for
a fashion business in the future. This sustainable mind-set is based on serious climate issues,
and therefore will grow in ‘popularity’ in the coming years. By prolonging the life of a garment
and reducing the demand for new made clothing, online fashion resale should have a strong link
to sustainability, not only from an economical point of view, but also from a social point of view.
Consumers should constantly be informed about and be urged to make a positive contribution to
the green fashion movement.!
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Introduction.!
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Background!
In the current fashion industry, fast fashion retailers such as Zara, Topshop and Primark are
introducing new lines every two to three weeks at very low prices, to maximize sales through
impulse purchasing (McAfee et al., 2004). This has led to a “throw-away culture” where products
and fashion have lost their value and consumers are encouraged to replace and dispose of
products before their real life cycle has ended (Birtwistle and Moore, 2007).!
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As a result, sustainability in fashion has gained more and more attention over the years,
focussing on recycling textiles, environmentally friendly production, ethical issues, green supply
chains and more. But what about the post-retail phase of a garment? !
Research has shown that most of the environmental impact caused by clothing is generated
during the usage phase (Hethorn and Ulasewicz, 2008). When a garment is purchased the
responsibility of the product’s care and maintenance is transferred to the new owner, so the
‘burden’ of being concerned with the impact of the piece of clothing is also shifted to the user. !
A garment goes through many different activities during it’s life cycle including wearing, washing,
drying, storing and eventually being disposed of (Gwilt, 2014). How it fares and for how long it
lasts depends entirely on each individual. And being influenced by this “throw-away culture” of
the fast fashion retailers, this is remarkably short nowadays.!
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The exchange of secondhand clothing is widely done, starting with donating to friends and
family, and resulting in consignment shops all over the world. Research shows 27% of the Dutch
consumers frequently buys secondhand clothing (NCDO, 2012), and over 88% thinks its
important that garments are being reused (NCDO, 2014). Seeing that sustainability is growing in
popularity and reusing clothing counts as a sustainable initiative, the question rises: will the
reuse of garments also grow in popularity in the future? Not only can the increasing
consciousness of consumers be a drive for this, it is also a much more economic way for a
consumer to buy ‘new’ and exclusive clothing.!
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Since a few years, more and more online platforms are popping up, giving consumers the
possibility to buy and sell their unwanted fashion items to other consumers. These e-commerce
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platforms have their focus on consumer-to-consumer trading, just as for instance Marktplaats
and eBay do, but are specialized in featuring only clothing, shoes and accessories. !
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In the Netherlands this online secondhand fashion market is just starting to grow. Whereas in
the United States, where I personally lived for six months, I noticed this market is a lot more
evolved. More and more online consignment stores and platforms have emerged there in the
past years: The RealReal (founded 2011), Bib+Tuck (2011), Poshmark (2011), Copious (2011),
Vaunte (2012), Threadflip (2012), Shop-Hers (2012), Twice (2012), Material Wrld (2012), The
Luxury Closet (2012), Tradesy (2012), Walk in My Closet (2013), SnobSwap (2013), Portero
(2014), to name a few. All focussed on the resale of pre owned fashion items.!
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This research is an attempt to discover if this upcoming market of online fashion resale is an
actual threat (or opportunity) to clothing retailers in the Netherlands and worth taking into
consideration for the future, or not.!
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CH 1!
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Research & Methodology
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Chapter 1. Research & Methodology!
With the current media attention and awareness campaigns around the environmental and
humanitarian impacts of the fashion industry and a sustainability movement as a result,
attention towards prolonging a products life cycle by reusing it has grown. Since we are moving
into a digital era where online purchasing is increasing every year (Thuiswinkel, 2014; CBS,
2013), an online market for the reuse and resale of fashion between consumers is rising. !
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1.1 Research Questions!
The main question of this research report entails:!
How can online fashion resale become a prevailing trend in the fashion industry of the
Netherlands?!
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Sub questions:!
1. What is the current situation of the online fashion resale market in the Netherlands?!
What does this movement entail? What platforms are being used here in the Netherlands? How
well-known are those platforms? How many users/visitors do they have daily? Who are the main
participants of this movement? !
Hypothesis: There is only a small group of fashion authorities and followers that are up to date
on the current secondhand market online. !
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2. What is driving people to participate in this movement? !
What are the motives of people to buy and sell used fashion online, or why not?!
Hypothesis: We would want people to buy and sell secondhand from an environmental
perspective, unfortunately this is probably only driven by a financial stimulus.!
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3. What are the chances for this movement to grow in the fashion industry of the Netherlands?!
How can we make it more popular, and why?!
Hypothesis: There is an interest towards new sustainable fashion companies, and consumers
are willing to participate, as long as the participatory process is highly user-friendly done.!
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1.2 Relevance!
It is relevant for any Western society to take actions against the consumer culture as it is right
now, including the Netherlands. Researching a movement focussed on reusing each others
clothing, which is growing in popularity, is an opportunity for this. !
Finding out what motivates people to participate in this movement and researching how the
tools of the movement can be improved and how the awareness could be enhanced, would be a
step towards a more responsible fashion industry. !
This research will also serve the purpose of informing Dutch retailers about the possible rise in
popularity of the online fashion resale market. They will benefit from this report by informing
themselves on the current thoughts and ecological responsibilities of their target group and see
if this ‘grey’ market is something to take into account for the future, and might possibly consider
implementing this into their business model.!
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1.3 Methodology!
Multiple kinds of research methods have been used within this thesis. First of all, there has been
desk research through internet, literature, and journals. Consulted sources are mentioned in
footnotes and in the References list.!
For the field research there has been a joint approach of qualitative and quantitative research. !
Qualitative research is often found to be impressionistic, not reflecting facts. What has been
said by the interviewees will always be subjected to individual interpretation. At the positive side,
qualitative research is open for more in-depth inquiries and unexpected findings or insights. By
asking an open question, the answer can also turn out to be outside the proposed frameworks,
which could lead to a more honest answer, and in the end a more honest result. !
Qualitative research has been done through eight in-depth interviews with fashion professionals
focussing on online fashion resale, market developments and secondhand retailing1.!
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Next to in-depth interviews, research has also been done through a group discussion with five
female participants who have experience in both selling and buying secondhand clothing online
and offline. This group discussion ensured that there was the possibility to go deeper into the
subject and at the same time participants who did not agree on a question could discuss with
one another, which in the end lead to more open and honest conclusions.!
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See list of interviewees and interviews in appendices.
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Quantitative research has been done through three questionnaires with a total of 203
respondents. The results of the surveys were imported into the program SPSS and it’s data was
analyzed. The downside of quantitative research is that the answers are pre-conceived and
because of that limited. The positive side is that through questionnaires there is the ability to
have a high quantity of opinions of consumers and their vision on the subject, even though the
answering options are limited. !
Survey 1 was a random online survey done with 53 respondents focused on ‘the average Dutch
consumer’.!
Survey 2 was a specific online survey with 100 respondents focused on online fashion sellers.!
Survey 3 was a specific online survey with 50 respondents focused on offline fashion sellers at
the IJhallen. !
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The combination of qualitative and quantitative research ensures different perspectives on the
subject. This joint approach of research led to a more honest and realistic answer to the main
questions.!
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Methodology per sub question:!
Sub question 1. What is the current situation of the online fashion resale market in the
Netherlands?!
What does this movement entail? What platforms are being used here in the Netherlands? How
well-known are those platforms? How many users/visitors do they have daily? Who are the main
participants of this movement?!
Data and information has been collected on the extent of this movement in the Netherlands, by:!
• Researching data from branche organizations, such as:!
Marktplaats, INretail, Textilia, Sympany, Fashion United, Eureco, NCDO, Thuiswinkel,
and general data organizations CBS and OIS.
—> this is collected by browsing the internet to see if there are published articles,
research reports or data overviews of these organizations, but information is also
collected through one-on-one interviews via email or telephone.!
• Researching data from Dutch online fashion resale platforms such as United Wardrobe, The
Next Closet, Designer Vintage and De Kast van Amsterdam.!
• Browsing the internet for published research on the subject: consulting data bases such as
Google Scholar, HvA Kennisbank, HvA online Library, UvA online Library, Web of Science,
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Jstor, Wiley Online Library and LexisNexis searching for published articles regarding the
secondhand clothing market (online and offline), C2C business models, the life cycle of a
clothing piece and the post-purchase responsibility of a garment piece.!
• A small online survey was held: approximately 50 random Dutch respondents.
This has been an exploratory research to find out how many people are aware of this trend
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and are actually participating in it.!
Sub question 2. What is driving people to participate in this movement? What are the
motives of people to buy and sell used fashion online, or why not?!
Data and information has been collected about the stimulants of this movement in the
Netherlands, by:!
• An online survey conducted with individual online sellers and buyers: users of United
Wardrobe, Facebook group Kleding aangeboden/gezocht, Marktplaats and other platforms.
The respondents were recruited through United Wardrobe and Facebook groups.
Approximately 100 respondents.!
• A survey with offline fashion resale sellers: at de IJhallen. Approximately 50 respondents.!
• A focusgroup: an in-depth group discussion between female Dutch consumers 18-25 years
old, asking about their needs, opinions and thoughts on this subject for the future (see
appendices). Approximately 5 consumers.!
• Various individual business interviews: with the owners of the platforms United Wardrobe, The
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Next Closet, Designer Vintage and De Kast van Amsterdam.!
Sub question 3. What are the chances for this movement to grow in the fashion industry
of the Netherlands?!
How can we make it more popular, and why?!
Data and information has been collected about the opportunities of this movement in the
Netherlands by:!
• Gathering information out of the first survey: the respondents opinions about secondhand
clothing and its future. !
• Gathering information out of the second and third surveys: asking about improvements, in
what way can online fashion resale become easier/better in their eyes?!
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• Gathering information out of the interviews with platform owners: why do they think it works in
the Netherlands? What can block this movement from becoming bigger? What is the future of
online fashion resale, according to them?!
• Gathering information out of press articles about the Dutch platforms: What is the opinion of
the fashion press? Do they have a view on the future of this market? Any (negative) prospects
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or feedback?!
All survey questions can be found in the Appendices. The survey data is available upon request.!
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1.4 Limitations!
The empirical data conducted for this thesis has it’s limitations. In total, the surveys count 203
respondents. However, this was done in three groups: !
1. 53 ‘random’ consumers, where the majority was female and average age 26 years.!
2. 100 online sellers or buyers, of which 87 already sell online, 97% female and average age
also 25 years.!
3. 50 sellers at the IJhallen, 90% female and average age 29 years.!
These limitations color the survey results and therefore we cannot make conclusions about the
‘average Dutch consumer’. Especially the age bracket - average age of 203 respondents
between 25 - 29 years old - is an important limitation to our answers. For a follow up study it
would be interesting to interview a large group of women for instance over the 30 years old and
see how their opinions differ from the younger group.!
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More info on research limitations and recommendations can be found in paragraph 7.3
‘Research Limitations’.!
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CH 2!
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Theoretical Framework
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Chapter 2. Theoretical Framework!
This chapter will explain in depth the relevance of this research report. It will discuss the issues
as a result of the current fashion industry and the antecedent of the contemporary secondhand
market online and its reason to exist.!
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2.1 Fast Fashion!
Since the early years of the twentieth century the techniques of mass production were perfected
and new modes of advertising and design helped produce mass consumption and consumers,
who would purchase and utilize the new world of commodities. The result is the now familiar
consumer society within which most of us were born and in which we work, consume, amuse
ourselves and suffer (Kellner, 2014). !
As Kellner points out, we are living in a consumerist society, in which we enjoy ourselves but
also suffer, in many different aspects. Not only do we suffer by letting consumption practically
define our identities (Dittmar, 1992), but also the world we live in is suffering: the production of
our consumption requires the use and extraction of natural resources (wood, ore, fossil fuels,
and water); it requires the creation of factories whose operation creates toxic byproducts
(Robbins, 2005) and are often also a seriously hazardous environment for their workers
(Boonstoppel and Carabain, 2013).!
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The term fast fashion originally refers to “the retail strategy of adapting merchandise
assortments to current and emerging trends as quickly and effectively as possible” (Turconi and
Sull, 2008). Fast fashion retailers do not ‘predict’ as most retailers do, but they ‘follow quickly’.
They are managing their supply chain to meet consumers demand (and sell more this way). If
the demand is for instance, a one-shouldered cocktail dress worn by a fashion influencer such
as Sienna Miller (autumn 2006), fast fashion retailers would have made sure they got it
produced and on shelves within three weeks, in order to make it available for the masses.!
Fast fashion developed from a product-driven concept based on a manufacturing model referred
to as "quick response" developed in the U.S. in the 1980s (Lowson, King and Hunter, 1999) and
moved to a market-based model of "fast fashion" in the late 1990s.!
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For the reason that fast fashion chains strive to deliver designer products to a mass market at
relatively low prices, items lose their quality and production is sought elsewhere. Fast fashion is
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now being held responsible for pollution and shoddy workmanship and has come under lots of
criticism for contributing to poor working conditions in developing countries. !
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2.1.1 Environmental pollution!
The production of clothing is part of a worldwide trade industry with a significant ecological
footprint. The production of textile fibers usually requires extraordinary amounts of water and
heavy chemicals. When producing one kilogram of cotton for instance - which is just enough for
one pair of jeans - an average of 8000 liters of water is required (NCDO, 2014-1). On top of that,
a quarter of all agricultural pesticides used worldwide are used for the cotton industry alone
(NRC, 2010; DSFW, 2014; Nudge, 2014). !
With the manufacturing process of synthetic and cellulosic fibers, a high amount of oil and
energy is required. For traditional synthetics, the picture is far from green. They are derived from
petrochemicals, meaning their production depends on declining reserves of oil and gas and they!
are not renewable. Also, their production is energy-intensive, the fibers do not biodegrade and
are not easy to recycle.!
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Not only does the production of textiles cause environmental damage, transportation used for
the fashion industry holds a tremendous environmental impact as well. It is an international
business with the production of a single garment often involving at least three different
countries. Each designer or retailer must choose among container ships, railroads, trucks and
airplanes to move their garments from factory to market. Each mode of transportation sends
different levels of pollution into the environment and affects different populations and
ecosystems around the world (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2012). ASOS for instance,
has a total carbon footprint of 23.000 tones, only for customer deliveries, and of which 97% is
produced by their air freight (ASOS Responsibility, 2015). Shipments by air, which is often the
fastest way for a retailer to get its goods and therefore the most used, emits more than 40 times
the carbon dioxide than using a container ship for instance. !
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2.1.2 Ethical issues!
According to the International Labour Organization, there are 246 million child-workers (ages 5
to 14) in the world today2. The Asian-Pacific region leads in child labour exploitation, followed by
2
ILO report (2002)
21
sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. In the textile sector, children are a cheap
workforce for picking cotton, hand-sewing, labeling, etcetera.!
Labour conditions for adult workers are also lacking humanitarian standards. Hours being too
long, miserably low wages and unsafe factories are a few of the standards many textile industry
personnel must work with. Take for instance the incident of 2013 in Bangladesh, where a factory
collapsed and killed over 1100 workers. Or a shoe factory in Cambodia where the ceiling came
down, just a month later, injuring a dozen workers. !
Textile industry workers are also often exposed to a number of chemicals, especially those
engaged in the activities of dyeing, printing and finishing. Chemical dyes are cause for many
diseases including commonly colorectal cancer, thyroid cancer, testicular cancer and nasal
cancer (Fibre to Fashion, 2014). These examples are just a few of the humanitarian issues
employers face in the industry.!
!
2.2 Consuming Fashion!
The average Dutch female consumer buys around 75 clothing pieces per year (Femke Mosch,
2013) and all together the Netherlands spends about 13.8 billion euros per year on clothing and
shoes (CBS, 2013).!
!
Fast fashion characterizes the speed of today’s clothing production and consumption: clothing is
designed to be cheap, easy and quick to produce, and is created to be distributed, sold and
consumed in ever-increasing quantities (Clark, 2008). In addition to the negative environmental
impacts discussed in the last section, these new standards are also influencing a garment’s life
cycle.!
With its convenience and affordability, fast fashion has devalued personal attachment to
clothing, as items are more quickly disposed of and easily replaced (Reily and DeLong, 2011).!
This “throwaway culture” is leading us to an increasing problem of textile waste. !
!
The Netherlands yearly disposes of 135 million kilos of textile, of which 65% is still suitable for
recycling (Agentschap NL, 2013). This means we could reuse or recycle over 80 million kilos of
textile more every year. But we don’t.!
As an example: research findings of Eureco (in association with the Vereniging Herwinning
Textiel en Agentschap NL) show that if no one in the Netherlands would throw away their textile
waste together with their regular waste again, the country would eliminate a CO2 emission of
22
425m kilos. This reduction equals driving 2250m kilometers by car, which equals 56.000 spins
around the world (Eureco, 2010). !
!
2.3 Sustainable Fashion consumption!
During the 1970’s and 1980’s, there was an increased concern with environmental and ethical
issues among marketing scholars (Anderson and Cunningham, 1972; Doane, 2001; Sanne,
2002). This has encouraged new areas of research related to the effect of the environment on
consumer behavior. One of the main themes that emerged from this was that of sustainable
consumption (Jackson, 2004) which is defined as ‘consumption that supports the ability of
current and future generations to meet their material and other needs, without causing
irreversible damage to the environment or loss of function in natural systems’ (Jackson and
Michaelis, 2003, p. 14).!
Over the years, consumers have realized that their purchasing behavior can have a direct
impact on several elements of the environment (Montoro-Rios et al., 2006). As a result, some
consumers are considering environmental issues during their shopping such as checking for
labels that use recycled materials or purchasing sustainable products (Laroche et al., 2001).!
Not only the buying process is important when talking about sustainable consumption, also the
post-purchase phase remains important, if not more. A research of Hethorn and Ulasewicz
(2008) shows that most of clothes’ environmental impact is created during the using phase.
Washing, wearing and disposing are a consumers responsibility, but can have great impact on
the environment. Especially disposing is increasingly becoming an issue, as consumers
possess more and more garments nowadays. General methods by which consumers dispose of
their clothing are donating to charity, giving away to family or friends, selling through
secondhand shops or C2C e-commerce, and throwing away into rubbish bins (Birtwistle and
Moore, 2007). This brings us back to the 135 million kilos of textile waste every year.
!
2.3.1 Sustainable fiber production!
One of the ways into a more sustainable clothing industry, is the rise of organic textile
production. Zooming in on the very beginning of a garment piece, namely the production of the
fiber:
Organic clothing may be composed of cotton, jute, silk, ramie, or wool. In organic farming, no
genetically modified seeds, pesticides or other chemical yielding aids are used. This positively
affects the environment, agriculture and the health of cotton planters worldwide. 23
Textiles that are certified as organic means that both the production of the fibre on the farm, and
the processing of this fibre into textiles has met organic agricultural standards and has been
checked at every step of the processing supply chain for social and environmental responsibility
(Organic Cotton Market Report, 2011).!
Next to the organic production process of natural fibers, there are also more and more
sustainable options appearing for man-made fibers, including cellulosic- and synthetic fibers.
Recycled polyester (made from PET), Ingeo (made from a polymer derived from corn), Bamboo
Rayon (viscose alternative made from a bamboo plant) are examples of sustainable alternatives
for synthetic fibers. On top of that there are now fabric alternatives made out of wood (Tencel),
beechwood (Modal), Hennep and Soya, and farmers conceived a friendlier version of silk
(Peace silk), recycled cotton and ecologically tanned or vegetarian leather (DSFW, 2014). There
is even textile being made from bacteria now (BioCouture, 2014).!
!
2.3.2 Recycling and reusing textiles!
Of all the textile that is already on this planet, and all the future textiles that will be
manufactured, a tremendous amount ends up in local waste incinerators, producing more
pollution and negative health impact by burning the waste and generating gas and ashes during
this process (Greenpeace Digital Report, 1999). Recycling and reusing these textiles is a
sustainable solution for this problem. Textile recycling can mean that textile products are being
processed back into fibers and turned into paper, yarn, insulation, carpet padding, and other
items (Secondary Materials and Recycled Items Report, 2012). Reusing textiles can of course
entail cutting up old clothing into cleaning cloths and so, but mostly this is done keeping the
garment piece intact and giving it a second life.!
!
2.4 Reusing initiatives!
One way to give your garment a second life is to simply give it away, for someone else to reuse
it. 88.5 Percent of the Dutch are used to bringing their unwanted or unused garment pieces to a
charity textile container or directly to a charity, and about 37% give their clothing away to family
or friends (NCDO, 2012). Next to donating clothing to people in need, or relatives in need, a big
part of the Dutch consumer also sees a business opportunity in these unused garments.!
!
!
!
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2.4.1 Secondhand stores!
One of the very first reusing business initiatives are secondhand stores. People have always
been wearing secondhand clothing in the sense that it is not a new practice, but in the 1990s it
became popular as part of a fashion trend, which led to secondhand shops opening in big cites
all around the world (Calefato, 2004). Around 2000, secondhand stores lost its popularity.
Looking at Amsterdam for instance, the amount of secondhand stores in the city was decreasing
heavily (Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek, 2007), and is now not more than around 50 stores
(tweedehandskledingwinkels.nl, 2014). But, since an economic recession came into our lives
and motivated consumers to cut back on spendings, including clothing, the secondhand market
has seen growth again. Recent data of the OIS of Amsterdam shows that the amount of
secondhand clothing stores in our capital city has been increasing again since 2010 until now.
Especially vintage fashion - used fashion from the 1920’s until 1990’s - became a popular
commerce.!
!
2.4.2 Secondhand markets!
Thrift shopping can be broadly denned as consumers are shopping in a number of alternative
retail formats such as estate sales, garage sales, yard sales, flea markets and thrift stores
(Bardhi, 2003). Thrift shopping is not just for those individuals with limited economic resources
(Bardhi, 2003; Sherry, 1990). Instead, it is a form of shopping which appeals to a large number
of consumers with a wide range of household income.!
A well known and very successful thrift shopping/secondhand market initiative in the
Netherlands is the ‘IJhallen’ in Amsterdam. A monthly flea market holding 750 stands (IJhallen,
2014). Next to selling consumer-to-consumer antiques and secondhand furniture, the clothing
section has been expanding the past years. The flea market has an established and still
growing popularity, with around 80.000 ‘likes’ on Facebook3.!
!
2.4.3 Swap events & Closet sales!
Another key action that reduces waste and extends products lives is swapping. As a disposal
method swapping is not a new activity, since exchanging clothes between friends and family
members is very common (Fisher et al., 2008). But in the past years special swap events have
taken place in order to work toward a more sustainable fashion industry. Big institutes such as
The Global Fashion Exchange are organizing clothing swap markets all around the world,
3
on May 27th, 2015.
25
starting in Copenhagen where 1500 people swapped 5.2 tons of clothes (Global Fashion
Exchange, 2014). Local organizations such as ‘Krijg de Kleren!’ hosted a monthly clothing swap
event at different locations in Amsterdam between 2010 and 2014, and turned out to be the
biggest clothing swap event in the Netherlands so far (FoliaWeb, 2014). The American website
SwapStyle.com is an example of a digital swap place for clothing, aimed to swap clothing and
accessories with people all around the world.!
Swapping clothing is a part of the ‘collaborative consumption’ ideal, which is ultimately about
people sharing and collaborating to meet certain needs, whether it concerns transportation,
accommodation, land etcetera. Existing examples include AirBnB (space sharing) and ZipCar
(car sharing), although the term collaborative consumption covers practically all types of
products and services where people share excess resources (Pedersen and Netter, 2013).
Collaborative consumption is experiencing significant growth (Botsman and Rogers, 2010) and
is expected to have great business potential for the fashion industry.!
!
2.4.4 Clothing library!
A fairly new initiative is a clothing library. Just like in a regular library, a consumer has the option
to borrow a garment piece for a limited amount of time. After the borrowing period there is the
possibility to buy the item. A Dutch example of a clothing library is ‘LENA - the fashion library’ in
Amsterdam, founded in 2014.
Fashion libraries and other initiatives based on the collaborative consumption model are
popping up all over the world. They represent a new and innovative concept that breaks with the
dominant fashion business model based on buying and selling. Aside from the fact that existing
fashion library models are experiencing a number of challenges related to limited resources and
the existing ownership culture, a study of the Copenhagen Business School (2013) is advising
new start-ups and more established brands to glean important lessons from the fashion library
experience, and begin to build offerings to consumers with the collaborative consumption model
in mind - in order to carve the way for collaborative consumption to become common practice in
the fashion industry.!
!
2.4.5 Retail initiatives:!
Conceptualizations of the post-retail fate of garments have typically been derived from a textile
recycling perspective or from a consumer behavior perspective by studying consumers’ use and
disposal habits of their unwanted garments (Kant Hvass, 2013). But since designers, producers
26
and retailers are bringing these textiles into the world, should the post-purchase responsibility
not be with the retailers themselves?!
Currently there are several discussions at legislative level on Extended Producer Responsibility
(EPR), pioneered by French self financing entity Eco TLC (Kelly, 2012). !
In this context, a handful of fashion brands have started reviewing their business models to
incorporate ‘complete life cycle’ strategies into their practices (Kant Hvass, 2013).!
The global fashion chain H&M collected over 13.000 tons of textile in 2014 of their customers4,
with the goal of upcycling this used clothing into a new collection; the Conscious Collection.!
Filippa K created ‘Filippa K Second Hand’ in collaboration with a local Swedish consignment
store where pre-owned clothes and collection samples are being sold. !
Eileen Fisher has the ‘Green Eileen Initiative’ including several Green Eileen secondhand stores
with the same purpose. The outdoor clothing brand Patagonia has gone a step further with their
‘Common Threads Initiative’ including in-store product take-back and a Patagonia-only resell
platform in collaboration with eBay.!
The more fashion brands take this responsibility, the more it can change the unsustainable
practices of the current fashion industry.!
!
2.4.6 Not sustainable enough!
Of course reusing or swapping garment pieces does not tackle the problem of fast fashion in its
roots. A hunger for new clothing is still being fed, by making (secondhand) clothing cheaper and
more accessible in a consumers life. This way it can still encourage people to keep buying and
buying and buying. Some say this hunger and desire should be brought back to a slower pace,
where better quality and the cherishing of garments are of higher value in the buying process
(Business of Fashion, 2013). This evolved in the movement of ‘slow fashion’: a collective formed
to encourage a consumer’s education about the garment industry’s impact on the environment
and as an incentive to choose quality - and therefore durability - over quantity.!
It is important to not see the secondhand clothing market as a completely sustainable solution,
but to also try and change our buying behavior.!
!
!
!
!
4
Fashion United, 2015
27
2.5 Conclusion!
The (fast) fashion industry is mainly responsible for a great amount of ethical and environmental
issues influencing the entire world. Sustainable initiatives have risen and are gaining popularity
with the current consumer, as their conscience is being addressed. Next to eco-friendly
producing methods, and the recycling of textiles and fibers, a movement focussed on reusing
fashion items is evolving. !
88% of the Dutch consumers believes it is important that clothing is being reused (NCDO,
2014b). This can be done in various ways; donating, swapping, leasing, reselling etcetera. More
and more of such initiatives are establishing themselves nowadays, driven by consumers and
retailers perspectives, unfortunately, not nearly enough to make a difference. Awareness needs
to be raised and consumers need to be educated more about the clothing industry’s impact on
the environment and the workers in the supply chain.!
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CH 3!
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The online C2C fashion market
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Chapter 3. The online C2C fashion market !
!
With the digitalization of the current Western societies, it is only natural that the reusing
initiatives mentioned in the last chapter are establishing an online market. Especially the resale
of fashion from consumer to consumer is gaining attention on the world wide web. This chapter
looks at the online fashion resale market in the United States and !
!
3.1 C2C e-commerce!
C2C stands for consumer-to-consumer, focussed on commerce directly between consumers.
Recently, armed with the global connectivity provided by the internet, C2C commerce has
begun to extend into the online domain in a manner significant both in financial terms as well as
for its impact on consumer behavior (Mäkeläinen, 2006). A well-known worldwide example for
this would be the online marketplace eBay, an auction and selling website that has been one of
the leaders of C2C e-commerce since it launched in 2005. In the Netherlands, the most popular
C2C e-commerce site is Marktplaats.nl , followed by E-bay.nl and Bol.com’s marketplace5.
These three websites represent far above 50% of all C2C e-commerce transactions in the
Netherlands6. !
!
Remarkably, in the Netherlands, the online C2C e-commerce market seems to outweigh the
B2C7 e-commerce market in terms of sales volume. Where the turnover of the online B2C
market in 2013 was around 10.8 billion euros, Marktplaats alone had a turnover that same year
of almost 14 billion euros (Shopping2020, 2014).!
We can only imagine that this has been growing over the past years, especially since more and
more C2C platforms are emerging since then.!
C2C e-commerce is known for its advantages such as easy access, high profitability and low
transaction costs. However, there is also the risk of a non-guaranteed payment or that the
quality of the product does not match the buyer’s expectations (Dan, 2014). That is where the
in-between websites come in: online consumer-to-consumer platforms with a template for
displaying and often providing a secure and convenient payment method, compared to Social
Media groups or other unregulated fora.!
5
Interview Prof. Jesse Weltevreden, see appendices
Interview Prof. Jesse Weltevreden, see appendices
7 Business-to-consumer
6
30
EBay, Marktplaats, Craigslist, AirBnB, Kickstarter and Peerby all offer functions to enable C2C
transactions and interactions. These intermediary websites are facilitated in large part by
offering free classified advertisements, auctions, fora and individual pages for start-up
entrepreneurs or just regular private sellers. A small fee is often charged to the sellers, which is
mostly the main income of the website, together with paid advertisements.!
!
3.2 C2C e-commerce in fashion!
Research shows that 4% of the Dutch consumers frequently resell their unwanted or unused
clothing in a secondhand shop, while almost 10% resell it on the internet nowadays8. This is a
very interesting analysis, meaning that of all the unwanted clothing in the Netherlands, more
than a double is being sold on the internet, instead of being sold in brick-and-mortar
secondhand businesses.!
!
3.2.1 Online C2C fashion market on Social Media:!
Social media has become a popular place for people to resell their unwanted clothing, mostly
because this already holds an online community which makes it easier to generate customers.
Especially Facebook is a well-used media platform for the resale of fashion in the Netherlands.
‘Kleding Aangeboden/Gezocht’ is by far the most popular Facebook group focussed on
consumer to consumer clothing sales, with now over 21.000 members9. This group is meant for
all of the Netherlands to communicate with each other and bid on another persons ‘unwanted’
fashion items. Other Facebook groups are more local and therefore smaller, e.g. ‘Kleding ruil/verkoop
Leiden’ (270 members) or ‘Amsterdamse kleding’ (193 members).!
With the advantage of no warehouse costs, no marketing costs and no legal costs, Facebook or
other social media groups are the most economic way for a seller to resell his/hers unwanted
clothing. But this also brings challenges with it. Issues such as trust, monetary transactions or
no product-take-back are making these platforms an unsafe trading place and it is losing
popularity because of it10.!
!
!
8
NCDO, 2012
on February 6th, 2015 - see appendices for overview.
10 Focusgroup discussion outcome - see appendices for summary.
9
31
3.2.2 Online C2C fashion market places!
Derived from unstructured social media platforms and the clothing section on general C2C ecommerce giants such as eBay and Marktplaats, online C2C platforms have become a serious
business opportunity for the fashion industry. This opportunity arouse since there is a certain
need for trusted, third party entities offering the required infrastructure for C2C e-commerce11 in
order to solve issues mentioned in the last paragraph. Taking as an example the website
unitedwardrobe.nl, an online C2C marketplace focussed on clothing, shoes and accessories.
The incentive to set up this business was a female friend of the owner complaining about trust
and transaction issues when she was buying and selling fashion on social media.!
!
3.2.2.1 Online fashion market places in the US!
Looking at the United States as an inspiration, for the reason that a great deal of new online
fashion resale platforms have been established there in the past five years (with some amazing
revenues). To name a few: The RealReal (founded 2011), Bib+Tuck (2011), Poshmark (2011),
Copious (2011), Vaunte (2012), Threadflip (2012), Shop-Hers (2012), Twice (2012), Material
Wrld (2012), The Luxury Closet (2012), Tradesy (2012), Walk in My Closet (2013), SnobSwap
(2013), Portero (2014). !
Revenues and investments of these platforms are remarkably high: e.g. US based platform ’The
RealReal’ had a revenue of 55 million dollars in 2013 (Bloomberg Business Week, 2014),
‘Twice’ raised 23 million dollars in funding only (Forbes, 2014), ‘Vaunte’ raised 1.2 million dollars
in funding (TechCrunch, 2013), and we can list out a few more. All dealing with secondhand
fashion items.!
Of course there are differences in the value of the goods, and therefore in platforms and their
target groups - and their revenues. There are high-end fashion items such as Chanel bags,
Hermes scarves, Prada shoes etcetera being sold through certain platforms, who deliberately
have a main focus on this price segment. On the other hand there are platforms focussed on the
resale of fast fashion items such as H&M and Zara products; with shirts and dresses for not
over 20 euros. !
!
!
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!
11
interview Thijs Verheul, owner United Wardrobe - see appendices for summary
32
!
Price segments!
Lets divide the US online fashion resale market into three segments:!
!
Price Segment
Main focus on the resale of..
Includes platforms such as..
Premium
Women’s luxury fashion items selling
The RealReal !
brands like Chanel, Hermes and Prada. ! Vaunte!
Snobswap !
The product mostly goes from consumer Shop Hers !
to business to consumer.
Portero !
Material Wrld
Mid
Women’s Designers fashion items
selling brands like Marc Jacobs, Filippa
K and Rag&Bone.
Low
Women’s (fast) fashion items selling
Thred Up!
brands like Calvin Klein, Zara and GAP. ! Twice!
Poshmark!
The product mostly goes directly from
Threadflip
consumer to consumer.
!
Walk in My Closet !
Bib+Tuck
!
!
The RealReal, Vaunte, Walk in My Closet, SnobSwap, Material Wrld and Portero are all profit
driven businesses that make their money by functioning as an in-between business, avoiding
consumers to have actual contact with each other. This is more of a consumer-to-business-toconsumer model instead of a consumer-to-consumer business model.!
Just as regular brick-and-mortar consignment shops, these online platforms take possession of
the merchandise, and will then sell it again, sharing the profit with you. !
!
!
How it works!
The process of buying and selling at the mentioned online marketplaces mostly goes like this:!
1. The online store invites the seller to send over the unwanted items.!
2. A pick up at your house is arranged by a transportation company hired by the business
itself.!
3. The store will choose what they buy from the seller and what they will not buy.!
4. If the company decides not to purchase said item, they have the options of returning to
seller or asking permission to donate the items to a charity of their choice.!
5. The items the company buys from you, in consignment, are stored in a warehouse. A team
of stylists and photographers will shoot attractive photographs of the items and post them
online.!
33
6. When the item sells, the seller will receive a percentage of the buying price the company
has established for you, most of the time around 70%. The other 30% goes to the company.
This is on average a much better deal than in regular brick and mortar secondhand shops.!
7. If the item does not sell after a certain period of time, they offer the same option as with the
items that are not going into consignment: they can get sent back to the home address or
!
donated to a charity the company is collaborating with.!
Platforms such as Bib + Tuck and Copious have a different business model. These platforms let
you produce and upload the photos of your garments yourself (they might do a quick scan to
check if it is representable), and let you be the seller. These companies do not have a
warehouse where they collect the items, you as a seller will have the products with you until
they are sold online. What they are offering their sellers is merely an online template with an
established community, safe monetary transactions and insured sendings. This difference often
also shows in the percentages a seller has to hand over to the company; it requires less work
and therefore a lower percentage of what a seller has to pay the webshop is asked. The
balance is often 80-20 or 90-10, compared to an average 60-40 or 70-30 with the online
consignment stores.!
!
Another different concept is that of the company Material Wrld. This website works just as the
online consignment stores, as it lets you send your items (or get picked up) to their offices and
will then post it online for you. However, you will not earn liquid cash for your sold products.
Instead you will receive a retailer gift card that you can use at department stores such as
Barneys New York, Bloomingdale’s or Nordstrom. !
This is interesting since it encourages the consumer to buy secondhand, but also to keep
buying new garments. Therefore this would not count as a sustainable alternative.!
!
Poshmark also has a particular business model. This C2C platform is completely focussed on
mobile users. It suits as an application on your smartphone, with which you can shoot pictures,
put an attractive filter over it and upload it right away. Poshmark aims to be more than a
marketplace, by hosting real-time digital ‘Poshmark parties’ where the members gather in the
app to buy and sell within certain themes or designers. Consciously, it is building a highly
engaged community and tries to acknowledge how shopping is inherently a social experience
for women.!
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3.2.2.2 Online fashion resale market places in the Netherlands!
In the Netherlands, this market of online C2C fashion platforms is just starting to grow. !
Popular Dutch online C2C fashion marketplaces at this moment are12:!
• United Wardrobe (founded 2013)!
• Designer Vintage (founded 2008)!
• The Next Closet (founded 2013)!
• Luxury Vintage (founded 2013)!
• De Kast van Amsterdam (founded 2013)!
• Trash to Treasure (founded 2013)!
!
• Poppintags (founded 2014)!
Looking at the Dutch platforms, similar differences appear between these marketplaces, just as
with the American platforms. Where United Wardrobe and Poppintags (both launched within the
last years) let you produce and upload the photos of your garment yourself, the rest of the
mentioned webshops maintain the authentic B2C model of consignment stores by keeping a
warehouse where the clothing is being collected. The Next Closet chooses to do both, offering a
DIY service and a Premium service on their website, where the DIY service requires the seller to
make their own images and prices and the Premium service picks up the goods and lets the
TNC office photograph and price the items. The DIY service is also frequently used by small
boutiques to create an online presence for themselves.!
!
Price segments!
Dividing the Dutch online platforms into the same price segments:!
12
Price Segment
Main focus on the resale of..
Includes platforms such as..
Premium
Women’s luxury fashion items selling
brands like Chanel, Louis Vuitton and
Prada.
Luxury-Vintage
Mid
Women’s Designers fashion items
selling brands like Isabel Marant, DvF
and Spijkers&Spijkers.
The Next Closet!
Designer-Vintage
Low
Women’s (fast) fashion items selling
brands like Tommy Hilfiger, Topshop
and Levi’s. !
United Wardrobe!
Trash to Treasure!
Poppintags!
De Kast van Amsterdam
See appendices for ranking list
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3.3 Conclusion!
It seems as though the online market for secondhand clothing is growing in popularity in the
United States, as well as in the Netherlands. In the past four years, a numerous amount of new
webshops opened, all with a different approach on how to share and sell from a consumers
closet. !
This movement has gained a great amount of attention under consumers and entrepreneurs in
Europe and the US, where platforms like these are seen as a valuable business opportunity.
High investments are made into the business models with the hope of eventually having a
globally online fashion resale market.!
In the Netherlands, this market can still grow existentially, provided that the consumers are
ready for it. !
!
This research is an attempt to discover the current extent of the movement in the Netherlands,
what the motivation behind this movement entails and what kind of opportunities lie in the future.!
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CH 4!
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Current online C2C market
Chapter 4. What is the current situation of the online consumer to
consumer clothing market in the Netherlands?!
In order to find out in what ways the online fashion resale movement can become a prevailing
trend in the Netherlands, we first need to map out the magnitude of it. What is its reach? Who
knows about it? Who are its users? The coming chapter will answer these questions by online
research, interviews with established platform owners and other professionals, and an online
conducted survey.!
!
4.1 How well known is the online C2C fashion market in the Netherlands nowadays?!
Marktplaats.nl has one of the strongest positions in the online consumer-to-consumer market13
with over 1.3 million daily visitors14. This can also be stated about their fashion section.
According to a research by InSites Consulting an average of 69% of the online fashion
consumers frequently visits Marktplaats to browse for secondhand clothing15. In 2012, the
‘Womens Clothing’ section had the second most listings of all Marktplaats listings that year with
over 11,3 million secondhand clothing advertisements16. This shows there is a huge animo for
secondhand clothing now.!
The biggest online C2C platform with an absolute focus on fashion is currently
UnitedWardrobe.com. This platform has over 55.000 users - which equals about 0,3 per cent of
the entire Dutch population17 - and around 75.000 unique monthly visitors (interview T. Verheul).
It has gone live since 2013 and seems to currently gain around a thousand new members each
month. !
!
4.1.1 Theoretical: press and information!
According to Bregje Lampe (Fashion Editor at De Volkskrant) the online secondhand clothing
market is growing extensively18. The economical crisis of the last years might have been a
trigger she says; people are searching for ways to spend less money on clothing (De
Onderzoek Groep, 2013), and still remain in line with their previous style and standards. She
cites the example of ‘Vestiaire Collective’, a French platform, that now has over 1.5 million
13
Interview Prof. Jesse Weltevreden - see appendices for summary
Marktplaats, 2014
15 Marktplaats Media, 2011
16 Marktplaats Jaaroverzicht, 2012
17 CBS, 2014
18 De Volkskrant, 2013 + in-depth interview - see appendices for summary
14
38
members and got an injection of 14.6 million euros from Condé Nast. This shows that there is
room for such initiatives now.!
Lieke Pijpers - Marketing & Sales Manager of The Next Closet - confirms this growth. TNC has
circa 2000 members and 13.000 unique visitors monthly and this is expanding rapidly every
month.!
More fashion professionals share this idea. Fashion United cites used clothing as a ‘gold mine
on the internet’ (Fashion United, 2014) and Sophie Zimmerman (de Telegraaf, 2013) points out
that used clothing has transcended its dusty image: “The revaluation of old garments, fueled by
the current economical crisis, is a trend where many entrepreneurs are jumping in nowadays”.
This translates in the capital injection of the French online platform ‘Vestiaire Collective’ in 2013,
followed by G+J Uitgevers that decided to monopolize the Dutch online luxury fashion platform
‘Designer Vintage’ in that same year (Textilia, 2013).!
This overview shows there is indeed interest towards this emerging market of online fashion
resale, also in the Netherlands.!
!
4.1.2 Empirical: Survey Data !
An online survey was conducted with 53 respondents about the current reach and awareness of
the online fashion resale platforms.!
!
!
Results & Discussion!
Buying secondhand!
Of the questioned respondents, only 88% frequently buys secondhand clothing. The 12% that
states never to buy secondhand clothing claims to prefer new garments over used ones as the
biggest reason not to buy. !
Of course we are aware that secondhand is not for everyone. However, the platforms do have
categories of the usage state of a garment piece and new items are included. But, it ís almost a
fact that the fashion on these platforms is bound to be outdated, since it is bought by someone a
certain period of time before it appears on the site. This is why for instance online platforms with
a focus on classical fashion items, such as The Next Closet, might have a better formula to
reach a big audience. A well-made black dress, blazer or coat (preferably from a known
designer) shows quality and a style that lasts longer than the average fast fashion item.!
39
One of the other decisive reasons of why 12% of the respondents are not buying secondhand is
because they find it a bigger hassle to find the right item, the right size or the right style
compared to regular clothing webshops - that offer a size and color range per item. !
This points out how important it is for an online platform to have an organized and optimal
search engine. As well as a division by sub collections with their own style and choice of fabrics.
United Wardrobe for instance has developed an important new algorithm that makes your page
overview as personal as possible by saving your preferences, your size and your likes.!
But where?!
Figure 1. Where do you buy
secondhand clothing?
Online
18%
Secondhand Stores
35%
Events
14%
Markets
33%
Figure 1 shows that, of the 88% that buys secondhand clothing, more respondents bought this
in physical stores or markets than online. This does not correspond with for instance the data of
the NCDO in 2012 - mentioned in chapter 3 - where only 4% resell their garments at a
secondhand shop against a 10% that frequently resell their clothing on the internet. It seems as
though people prefer to sell on the internet, but are still mostly buying in physical stores. This
could be so because the online market is not at the same standards as the physical
secondhand market yet. Buyers find it unsafe to buy online from consumer to consumer, and
are often unaware of the existence of the current platforms and their benefits.
Markets and secondhand events also seem to be a popular sales market for private individuals. !
40
Figure 2. Where do you buy secondhand online?
60
60
53
49
Recognition in %
45
30
31
24
15
15
8
0
Marktplaats
Facebook
eBay
Asos MP
UW
Poppintags
none
!
Secondhand platforms online!
When asking the respondents what online platforms they know to purchase secondhand
clothing with, Marktplaats and Facebook were the most well-known. Respondents had to
choose from a list including Marktplaats, Facebook, eBay, Asos Marketplace, United Wardrobe,
Poppintags or none of the above. A respondent could know more than one of the mentioned
platforms, which is the reason why the percentages do not add up to a total of 100.!
!
And where did you actually purchase?!
Of the 30% that frequently buys secondhand clothing on the internet, every single person has
bought a garment piece via Marktplaats once. This confirms the fact the Marktplaats is still the
biggest player on the online C2C fashion field and is seen as one of the biggest competitors still
(interview UW and TNC). Facebook is the second most popular place where the respondents
41
have ever purchased a secondhand item (79%). Only 26% purchased something via United
Wardrobe, or other specialized platforms. eBay and Asos Marketplace do not seem to be
popular places to buy secondhand among these Dutch respondents.!
!
Selling your own garments!
When asking the respondents whether they have sold a fashion item of their own in the last
year, 43% said yes, against a close majority of 57% that did not sell or has ever sold a fashion
item of their own in any way. Of the 43% that díd sell their own items in the past year, 39% sold
0-5 items, while 47% sold more than 10 items. The frequency with which the respondents sell
their own clothing is diverse. !
If yes, where?!
Of the respondents that frequently sell their own clothing, the majority (60%) does this online.
This makes an interesting comparison with the scarce 30% that buys secondhand clothing
online. We could conclude that there is more supply than there is demand for secondhand
fashion online. This also gets confirmed by the question about the preferences of the
respondents to buy and sell online or offline. The majority prefers to buy secondhand clothing
offline (75%), while the majority also prefers to sell their own clothing online (62%). This does
not go well together. It shows that the consumers might not be ready for the online secondhand
clothing market yet and that the market might need to make some changes in order to convince
the consumer that buying secondhand online has its benefits. !
!
Where do you sell online?!
Marktplaats and Facebook are the most used platforms for the respondents to sell their own
clothing. This corresponds well with the data outcome of what platforms are used most to buy
secondhand clothing on. !
Can we convince you?!
Of the 57% that has not ever sold their own garments, the majority (67%) is indeed interested to
be doing this in the future. This is a good prospect. !
The future of secondhand!
When asking the respondents whether they believe that they will personally buy secondhand
clothing more often in the future, the vast majority (74%) says “Yes”. They do ask for more and
easier possibilities to do this, but are also agreeing on the quote that ‘we - as consumers - are
42
getting more and more aware of the impact that the clothing industry is having on the world
around us and we will all focus more on sustainability in the future’. !
!
!
Survey Data Limitations!
For the reason that this survey only collected data during a limited period of time, and had a
total of just 53 participants, a certain caution should be taken when interpreting the results.
Further research is advised to see if the results can be replicated with a larger group of
respondents.!
Of the respondents 77% were female, and 13% male. These figures might limit our insight
regarding the male sector of this market, but do attest to the fact that this is still a feminine
consumer dominated market, which is why the female opinion matters right now.!
Another 77% of the respondents are currently residing in Amsterdam. This might also be of
influence on the answers that are given, seeing that bigger cities always seem to be the leader
when it comes to fashion and trends, and the smaller villages to be the followers.!
The average age of the respondents was between 22 and 24 years old. When viewing the age
bracket of the respondents we can assume that an older age bracket would have differing
responses, and therefore the outcome is subjective.!
!
!
Survey Data Conclusion!
According to the data collected a large percentage (88%) of the respondents are frequently
purchasing secondhand. One-third of the secondhand buyers make their purchases online.
Marktplaats, e-Bay and Facebook are most well-known by the participants, although not many
have reported to make use of the e-Bay platform. The participants reported that they use
Marktplaats and Facebook pages the most to purchase secondhand ánd sell their own
garments. !
Not too many people are selling their own clothing yet (43%), but of the 43% that is, the majority
does this online (60%). !
And of the 57% that does not sell their own garments yet, two-third is interested in doing this in
the future. !
The majority of the respondents claim to buy more secondhand fashion in the future.!
Most respondents prefer buying secondhand fashion offline instead of online. While the majority
chooses to sell their secondhand items online. This does not align. In order to solve this
problem, the online market should try to integrate the benefits of buying secondhand offline into
43
their platform. For instance, since you cannot try an item on when purchasing it online, it should
have an easy and free returning service. Another option would be to wait to apply the actual
monetary transaction until a buyer has received the product at home and tried it on. !
In order to address the problem that people want to see and feel the fabric of the item, the
description per item needs to be as detailed as possible. The complete material overview, sizes,
shape and fall. Asos shows it’s clients how products move through a virtual catwalk, which could
prove to be beneficial for other platforms.!
Another problem to counteract is that people enjoy having contact between seller-buyer. The
aspect of seeing the person you’re buying it from or selling it to, gives a certain value to the
product. A platform such as De Kast van Amsterdam solves this by letting the seller write a
personal note about the item that they are sending to the buyer, explaining when they wore it
and what kind of experiences they had with it. This could make the buying experience more
intimate and personal.!
!
4.2 Who are the main users of these online marketplaces?!
The users of the online fashion platforms distinguish themselves by the market segment of the
platform itself. Users of the low-segment platforms tend to be between 16 and 25 years19. While
users of the mid and high segment platforms seem to have a higher age-average, which is more
around 30 years20. One thing we can say with certainty is that the majority of the users are
female. Male users do have a presence, and it is definitely growing, but the focus lies on
women.!
United Wardrobe confirms this by their user profile statistics (see appendices) where the
majority of their users are female, between 18-24 years old.!
!
The Next Closet points out that their user profile differs between their services. The website
includes a DIY service and a Premium service. The DIY service requires the consumer to make
its own pictures, and upload them on their own little ‘boutique’ on the website. This is
comparable to the C2C business models of United Wardrobe and Poppintags. The average user
of the DIY service is in her end twenties, early thirties. While the average user of their Premium
service, where TNC does the selling themselves, is more around 40 - 65 years old. This also
relates to the products, since the Premium service is used mostly for products with a higher
19
20
interview United Wardrobe - see appendices for summary
interview The Next Closet & Designer Vintage - see appendices for summary
44
financial value, coming from ladies with a higher income that they have earned over the years
(interview Lieke Pijpers, TNC).!
!
4.3 Conclusion!
As previously stated, secondhand clothing has lost its dusty image. Many consumers are
frequently buying secondhand and several people are claiming to buy even more secondhand in
the future. This mainly because the collections have extended to unique - almost antique clothing from years and years ago (vintage) but also exceptionally recent fashion from only one
season ago, that is offered for a better price. However, the majority of the respondents prefer
offline purchasing of over online purchasing. Marktplaats and Facebook are well known as a
medium for this, but most of the consumers are not aware that there are online resale platforms
focussed on fashion existing. !
Their demand is mostly that it should cost them as little effort as possible, to make them willing
to participate.!
!
Women are the main users so far. The platforms often have their own target groups naturally
established by the services they provide and their product selection. !
The largest group of users are now younger women with the age roughly between 18 and 24
years old. Then there is a high-end market with female users with a the age more around 30.
The market of used fashion for children and men is still developing. !
!
!
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45
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CH 5!
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46
The motives for people to participate
Chapter 5. What is driving people to participate in this
movement?!
Second-hand clothing shoppers appear to be motivated by several factors.!
According to Guiot and Roux (2010) fair price, ethics, environmental concerns, and!
recreational benefits have enabled the proliferation of second-hand markets. However, many
say the economical crisis gave a substantial boost to the secondhand market nowadays. Or is it
the trending sustainability movement that makes people rethink their fast fashion habits? !
This chapter finds out: What are the stimulants of the consumers to buy and sell used clothing
online?!
!
5.1 Theoretical!
5.1.1 Business owners!
Four in-depth interviews were conducted with the owners of online resale platforms United
Wardrobe, The Next Closet, Designer-Vintage and De Kast van Amsterdam, and an interview
with fashion journalist Bregje Lampe. We have asked the fashion professionals about their view
on the motivation of secondhand buyers and sellers.!
!
!
Buying used fashion!
Finding exclusive pieces that are often still in great shape, for an economically very good deal,
is the main stimulant for the buyers in this movement according to The Next Closet. Unique
pieces, a Chanel bag for instance, that normally would be unaffordable to most people, are now
being brought together on a platform where that same group of people can buy this with almost
an 80% discount. !
Depending on the target group, the stimulants differ. One target group searches mainly for
vintage fashion, and has a stimulant of uniqueness behind it. One target group looks for
bargains since they do not have so much money to spend and discovered used fashion is an
economical way to get (quality) clothing. Another target group is against consumerism and only
wants to recycle or reuse clothing. But the fact that the garments are often quite cheap in
relation to their quality shows to be a stimulant for all target groups. Bregje Lampe confirms this
when explaining how the economical crisis might have been a big stimulation for people to cut
back on clothing expenses and finding ways to ‘get more for less’. Another reason for people to
buy secondhand according to the platform owners is the exclusivity of the garments. Taking real
47
‘vintage’ finds as an example, made in the fifties for instance; these are rare items that are often
one of a kind and you cannot buy in a regular shop anymore. This is what makes them unique
and exclusive. !
!
!
Selling used fashion!
The stimulant of the sellers seems to be more about cleaning out their closets, making room
and tidying up the house, according to the platform owners. When people have spent money on
a certain fashion item or had an emotional connection with it but then do not seem to be using it
for a long period of time, they tend to feel like it is a waste of the product that is made (and the
money that they have spent). It would make them feel at ease when somebody else is
experiencing happiness through the same product and can give it back the value and attention it
deserves. It is not only about earning some extra cash, it is also about the emotional connection
consumers want to have with a fashion product, or that they become aware that that connection
is missing. Nevertheless, the recession has been a major stimulation for people to seek for
ways to earn something extra, according to Bregje Lampe. “Just as with AirBnB, where people
discovered they could earn some money by renting out their living space, people also found out
they can earn some money with selling garments that are not being used anyway. If there is an
easy way for people to make money, they will do it.”!
!
5.1.2 Analysis Facebook sellers posts !
Analyzing the most popular Facebook group for secondhand clothing ‘Kleding aangeboden/
gezocht’ (21.521 members21) exhibited the following results: !
Most of the sellers do not necessarily include a reason of why they are selling their products in
their posts, but we can assume that financial reasons is one of them, since the sellers dó ask a
price for their items instead of giving them away for free.
Of the posts that did indeed show a reason of selling, the most mentioned reason was “Cleaning
up”. We have come across a lot of posts where the seller begins their story with “I am cleaning
out my closet” or “I needed to tidy up my house”22. This corresponds well with the view of the
business owners about their target group’s stimulants to sell.!
!
!
21
22
See appendices for ranking list
See appendices for overview of Facebook posts
48
5.2 Empirical!
Trying to find out what the motivational aspects of this movement are, two surveys were
conducted with a total of 150 respondents focussing on consumers that sell their own clothing.
The first survey was done online, focused on online sellers. The second survey was done at the
IJhallen, a big secondhand market in Amsterdam, and had a focus on offline sellers and their
opinions.!
Both surveys can be found in the appendices.!
!
5.2.1 Survey Data - Online sellers!
An online survey was conducted with 100 respondents about the motivation to sell and buy
used fashion items online.!
!
!
Results & Discussion!
Out of the 100 respondents, 87 sell their own clothing online. !
!
We’ve asked those 87 participants where they do this. The majority sells their fashion items
through Marktplaats (67%) and Facebook (62%), which corresponds well with the last chapter,
in which we concluded that Marktplaats and Facebook are the two main players when it comes
to buying and selling secondhand online.!
33% also sells on United Wardrobe, and only 2% sells on eBay.!
!
So you sell, but why?!
We’ve asked the group of online sellers what their main motivation for this is. They could choose
the following answers:!
“Financial reasons: I could use the cash”!
“Cleaning up: I needed to make space in my closet”!
“Environmentally aware: I believe people should reuse as much as possible”!
“Hobby: I like to share my fashion style with others”!
“Other”: they could add another reason themselves.!
!
!
!
!
!
49
Figure 3. Stimulants of online sellers
Votes out of 97 online sellers
80
75
66
60
40
30
20
0
18
Cleaning up
Financial
Environment
Hobby
The majority says “Cleaning up” their closets was the main reason to sell their own clothing.
Followed closely by “Financial reasons”. It is interesting to compare this outcome with the
hypotheses mentioned in the first chapter, in which we predicted that the sellers are only driven
by financial stimulus. Partly, this is correct, and completely logical because if this was not a
component, the sellers could just donate it to charitable institutions. But apparently tidying up
the house, creating space in your closet is also a main factor to drive people to sell their own
clothing.!
Out of 97 participants, 30 tell us they do it from a sustainable perspective. This is a little over
one-third, which ideally would be pushed towards a majority in the coming years. This was also
expected this way and is another factor showing us how much effort there is still to put in the
environmental awareness of the Dutch consumer, and how reusing clothing is a part of that.!
!
So you sell. But do you buy?!
95 out of the 100 respondents also buy secondhand. Only 4 sellers claim to only sell, and never
buy.!
Out of the 95 that do frequently buy secondhand clothing, 78 also does this online. This is a
very positive outcome, seeing that in the first survey, only 30% buys secondhand online. !
If so, where?!
We asked those 95 consumers where they buy their online secondhand clothing. !
The majority buys secondhand on Facebook (60%) and Marktplaats (48%). !
50
eBay and Poppintags are not very popular.!
And tell us, why?!
We’ve also asked the sellers why they purchase secondhand clothing frequently. They had the
choice between the following answers:!
“It is cheaper than buying in regular shops”!
“It is more exclusive than buying in regular shops”!
“It is better for the environment than buying in regular shops”!
Figure 4. Why do (online)
sellers buy secondhand?
25%
40%
35%
cheaper
more exclusive
more sustainable
Of the 95 sellers that buy secondhand clothing, the majority (75 votes) claims to do this because
“it is cheaper” than in the regular shops. Closely followed by 67 votes explaining that the
garment pieces are more exclusive than the ones in regular shops, and seeing this as a reason
to rather buy secondhand. The environment clearly loses again with only 47 out of 95 votes
claiming to buy secondhand because it is better for the environment than to buy new clothing all
the time.!
!
Social communities?!
When selling and buying on these online platforms, a lot of them seem to bring attention to the
social aspect of a marketplace. Looking back at the quote in the beginning of this chapter,
where Hermann and Soiffer point out that ‘socializing’ is a grand reason for Americans to
participate in yard sales, this is completely logical. Because at yard sales you meet and talk to
people about the products you sell, whereas online it is much more anonymous and
51
individualistic. Communities are formed on the marketplaces where you can follow the closets of
people who’s style you like, online parties are thrown to shop ‘together’, live chatting and
commenting on garments is all included. Is this indeed what most people want? Keeping the
social aspect prominent when digitizing this secondhand market?!
We’ve asked the participants of the survey if they would like to become part of an online fashion
community within the platform when buying or selling on one.!
The opinions are divided. A majority of 56% would like to be part of a community as described,
while 39% says they rather stay anonymous or do not want to expand on yet another online
social medium. A small 5% says not to be sure about it yet. !
!
More secondhand in the future?!
As a last question the respondents were asked how they feel about the future, just as in the first
survey. Will they buy more secondhand in the future, they think? !
A stunning 86% said “Yes” to buying more secondhand fashion in the future. The majority claims
to be doing this because they will become more aware about the impacts of the fashion industry
on the environment, however they do demand that there need to come more possibilities to do
this.!
Only 1 out of a 100 participants says not to care about sustainability at all. !
!
!
Survey Data Limitations!
This survey had a total of 100 respondents. These are not enough people to be able to make
statements about ‘the consumers’ in the Netherlands. Although the respondents in this survey
have a more diverse residency location map, we cannot let the opinion of three fashionistas
speak for the whole city of Rotterdam for instance.!
97% of the participants in this survey were female, 3% were male. And the average age was
around 25 years old. This is both a result of the recruiting process for this survey which
happened through Facebook marketplaces and United Wardrobe, and confirms most users
being female (see appendices). This can also be of influence on the answers of the
respondents. Since the participants were recruited via Facebook and United Wardrobe, the
survey respondents mostly consists of the target group of those two places. While there are
other seller target groups via other platforms that might have given us different answers.!
The respondents were asked about where they sell and buy the most, but the answers were
limited. There was room to express their own thoughts, however when a respondent is not
reminded, certain platforms might unintentionally have been excluded.!
52
When questioning the respondents about their motivation to sell, and their motivation to buy,
they had the opportunity to check multiple boxes and therefore have multiple answers. If they
had the opportunity to check one box only, the answers might have been more significant.!
!
!
Survey Data Conclusion!
Marktplaats and Facebook are the most used platforms for selling used clothing.!
Tidying up the house is for 75% of the online sellers the motivation to sell their own clothing.
66% says it is also for financial reasons. Only 30% does it out of environmental awareness.
18% does it as a hobby.!
Most of the online sellers also buy secondhand online. Marktplaats and Facebook are again the
most used platforms for this. !
75% says to buy secondhand because it is cheaper than buying regular clothing. 67% says to
buy also because the items are more exclusive than shopping at regular shops. Only 47% says
to buy secondhand because it is better for the environment to buy used clothing than to buy new
clothing.!
The idea of being part of a fashion community to share styles, follow others and communicate
digitally is appreciated, but not for the majority. !
86% agrees that they will purchase more and more secondhand clothing in the future with
sustainability in mind, provided that there will be more possibilities and online platforms to do
this.!
!
5.2.2 Survey Data - Offline sellers!
An offline survey was conducted with a total of 50 respondents at the IJhallen in Amsterdam,
who were selling their own clothing for cash.!
!
!
Results & Discussion!
Who are the respondents?!
The group of 50 respondents is randomly picked at the IJhallen market in Amsterdam, edition on
the 1st of March 2015. Of this group, 90% was female and 5% male. Their age differs between
14 and 54 years old. The average age is 28. Regarding their residency, 34% lives in
Amsterdam, the rest of the 66% is divided over 26 different cities across the Netherlands. The
majority (70%) spends <100 euros a month on clothing. !
53
76% answered to be selling their clothing only 0-1 times a year at the IJhallen. This means the
majority is not a frequent IJhallen seller. But the majority (76%) also claims to sell their clothing
more often than that in a year. Only 2% do this weekly. A greater part (51%) does this 0-4 times
a year.!
!
Why are they selling? !
The motivation of selling their own clothing at a fair such as the IJhallen, was mostly about
cleaning up their houses. The participants had to choose one of the coming answers - in
contrast with the previous survey, they now had to choose one answer that was most suitable:!
“Financial reasons: I could use the cash”!
“Cleaning up: I needed to make space in my closet”!
“Environmentally aware: I believe people should reuse as much as possible”!
“Hobby: I like to share my fashion style with others”!
“Other”; they could add another reason themselves.!
Figure 5. Stimulants of offline sellers
Votes out of 50 offline sellers
70
64
52.5
35
17.5
16
10
0
Cleaning up
Financial
Environment
10
Hobby
!
Comparing Figure 5 with Figure 3 (Stimulants of online sellers) it clarifies that when we let the
participants choose only one statement that suits their stimulants the most, cleaning up
overrules the financial drive. This is an interesting outcome since we can conclude that for
54
instance donating to charity is a serious possibility since only a minority cares about the money
that is earned from these items. Although the offline sellers might be a different crowd than the
online sellers; this could encourage further research.
!
Offline sellers also selling online?!
When asking the participants whether they sell their own clothing more frequently, 76% answer
Yes. Of all offline sellers, the majority (60%) do this online. 26% do this on other markets, 8% do
this at swapping event and only 2% do this at a brick and mortar secondhand store. !
Remarkable is that 78% claim to sell their clothing on Marktplaats, and 22% do this on
Facebook. Only 6% use eBay or United Wardrobe. This is another confirmation that Marktplaats
(and Facebook) are the most frequently used online platforms for people to sell their own
clothing. !
!
Motivation not to sell online!
When asking the 13 participants that do not sell clothing on the internet, why they don’t do this,
10 out of 13 state they find it too much of a hassle and it takes up too much of their time. The
others say they are not comfortable with having people at your house, which is often the case
when selling products through Marktplaats or Facebook. Luckily, the current online fashion
resale platforms have solutions for these issues. We could conclude that this is an awareness
problem, since these participants are probably not familiar with the new online platforms and its
beneficials.!
!
Offline sellers buying secondhand!
The survey data shows that 88% of the offline sellers frequently buy secondhand clothing
themselves. The majority (36%) claim to buy only 0-5 items a year, while 18% do this more
often, and buy around 10-20 items a year.!
Most of the participants (64%) do this on markets such as the IJhallen. But 52% also do this on
the internet. Another 46% buys secondhand in a brick and mortar store.!
!
Buying on the internet!
So a little more than half of the offline sellers buy used fashion online. The majority (44%) of the
participants do this on Marktplaats. Only 18% do this on Facebook, next to 12% that do this on
eBay and a 8% that buy on United Wardrobe. All other mentioned online platforms are
apparently not being used by the respondents.!
55
!
Motivation to buy secondhand!
Figure 6. Why do the (offline) sellers
buy secondhand?
14%
49%
37%
cheaper
more exclusive
more sustainable
Figure 6 shows that also the offline sellers agree that the stimulant to buy secondhand is mostly
the economical aspect. This shows the importance of the association of secondhand clothing
and low prices. Only a small minority does this because it is good for the environment and the
industry to reuse clothing. !
!
Online versus Offline !
80% of the participants prefer to purchase secondhand fashion in physical stores or markets
where they can see and feel the fabric, and try an item on if they want to. Only 16% prefer to
buy secondhand online. This for the reasons that there is a more structural overview, you can
do it whenever and wherever you want and the most important one: you have access to even
more exclusive items from foreign countries.!
!
!
Survey Data Limitations!
This survey was done with 50 respondents. This is a relatively small amount of respondents to
be able to make statements about ‘the consumer’, therefore caution is advised in the
interpretation of the results. However, it is the opinions of 50 people that frequently sell their own
clothing and have experience with this, and therefore have a personal view on the subject. It
would be interesting to see if the results can be replicated with a bigger survey research.!
56
The respondents were recruited at the IJhallen market in Amsterdam. This has a certain price
segment based on the audience that is expecting to buy a lot for very low prices. This means
the group of respondents that chose to sell there, may not be in the same price segment as high
end platforms such as The Next Closet or Designer Vintage, but more in the price segment of
United Wardrobe and Marktplaats. !
This also means that the motivation to sell and buy secondhand of the questioned respondents
might from for instance the target audience of the high end platforms. !
!
!
Survey Data Conclusion!
The offline sellers agree with the online sellers that cleaning out their closet is the main reason
to sell their own clothing. There seems to be more fun in selling your own products offline than
online, which is why 70% prefer to sell at an offline happening instead of online. The group of
offline sellers that do not sell online at all, states that this is because it takes up too much time
and is seen as a hassle. Although the results in general show that many of the respondents still
need to be informed about the possibilities of the existing online platforms nowadays. !
The majority of the offline sellers also frequently buy secondhand themselves, 42% do this
because it is cheaper than new items, 32% do this because the items are more unique and 12%
do this consciously for sustainability reasons. 80% of the respondents prefer to buy secondhand
at a physical store or market over online. !
46% buys secondhand in a brick and mortar secondhand store, while we just saw that only 2%
sells their items to a secondhand store. Is this because secondhand stores seem to have a strict
selection policy? Or take too much commission?!
!
5.3 Conclusion!
The main reason for people to participate in this movement as a seller seems to be that it is
simply an easy way to give your products a meaningful second life, when they are not being
used to the fullest. People acknowledge the fact that they have too much (unused) clothing in
their closets. They want to clean up once in a while, to make room for the new things to come. !
After that, there are two drivers to sell. One is coming from a business perspective: to make
some money off of your former purchases, the other one is coming from an emotional
perspective: to make sure the product gets it’s value and admiration it deserves, or to make
other people happy. Which in the end will generate a feeling of happiness or reassurance for the
person itself.
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Only a small part of the participants claim to have the environment in mind when selling their
clothing. After a realization and a will to clean out their closets, this group tries to think of the
most environmental friendly way to dispose of their clothing, and reusing by somebody else
seems the best option. Some admit it is an attempt to make up for the large amount of fashion
products they consume, since the time span of the usage of a fashion item is so short
nowadays, it is almost the same idea as a clothing library. Instead of borrowing the clothing with
an institution the garments are being bought by themselves and given to another owner by
themselves.!
!
The main reason for people to participate in this movement as a buyer is that the items are
cheaper than the new items regularly cost in stores. This goes for an H&M t-shirt on United
Wardobe as well as for a Louis Vuitton bag on The Next Closet. It also makes it possible for a
target group from a lower price segment to shop the products of a higher price segment, but for
lower costs. This often also means products of a better quality are available for a lower price.!
Another reason to buy secondhand over new clothing is its level of exclusivity. New collections
usually have a large quantity of items per style, while a collection of a secondhand shop often
only has one item per style (which makes them ‘one of a kind’).!
Participants that prefer buying secondhand online over offline, explained this with the
advantages of regular online shopping: doing it in your own time, at your own moments. !
Another position to this is that as a consumer there is a wider range of exclusive products
accessible for you online.!
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CH 6!
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The opportunities in the Netherlands
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Chapter 6. The opportunities in the Netherlands!
This chapter will map out the opportunities for this market in the Netherlands the coming years.
It will analyze the pros and cons of the existing business models and identify the consumers
needs and thoughts from the conducted surveys. !
!
6.1 Analyzing existing business models!
The market of online fashion resale platforms is not fully established yet in the Netherlands, but
definitely growing. There are a few start ups from the last years that are growing in users - and
opportunities - existentially. It is an upcoming market, according to the interviewed fashion
professionals. Looking at bigger foreign markets around us, large platforms such as ‘Vestiaire
Collective’ in Europe with 1.5 million users or ‘The Real Real’ in the Unites States with 3 million
users and $100 million in revenue23 are examples that this market is a worthy business
opportunity. !
All interviewed professionals - including fashion journalist Bregje Lampe - agree that there are
big opportunities for this market to grow. It is showing that there is a demand for possibilities
from people to get rid of their clothing, in a fun and valuable way. People think more sustainable
nowadays and would love to give a purchased item a second life. According to Bregje Lampe
the success of the general online fashion market will also apply on this online resale market.
The future is digital: as long as the online resale platforms are keeping up with the online
webshops, they will grow together. !
!
But HOW can this become a prevailing trend?!
The premium service of The Next Closet, or the Vintywomen (DE) bag service - where your
goods are picked up at your house by the company - seems to be the best and most popular
way. The truth is that the consumer is ‘lazy’ and never has time. The service needs to be as
easy and minimal in time consuming as possible. The ultimate service for consumers would be
that the items are picked up by their house, the company will do the rest, and that they receive
as much profit of the sold items as possible. The items of which the professionals declare not
worthy of resale, would be donated to a charity (again done by the company) so that the
customer can uplift their karma, but does not have to go through any trouble.!
23
Forbes, 2014
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Photography should be done by the company in their studio, to have one recurring style to make
it easier for the buyers.!
Monetary transactions should be done by the company. Transaction models where the
consumers arrange it themselves, with Marktplaats for instance, is not popular anymore. There
is a trust issue. The company needs to take responsibility and position themselves as a
confidant between consumers. !
!
For the buyers, an important factor is the structure of the website. It needs to resemble a regular
online webshop, with search engines and algorithms that focus on the ‘ease of use’ for a
consumer. The algorithm model of United Wardrobe for instance seems to adjust the view of the
webpage to you personally according to your search history, your likes and your sizes. This is a
smart way of enhancing easiness for the user, and makes it feel more personal.!
!
6.2 What does the consumer say about opportunities - Survey results!
The majority of the participants predict to be buying more and more secondhand in the future.
This foresees a growth within the secondhand market in general. Comparing survey results, one
may conclude that the younger generation is nowadays used to doing everything online, while
the older generation prefers physical stores over online stores. In twenty years, this will have
shifted and the younger generation will be the older generation, completely ready to buy
(secondhand) online.!
The participants do ask for more possibilities to buy used fashion online. It needs to become
accessible and easy to find, and grow in popularity. This can be seen as a literal request to
companies in this sector by the respondents. !
When asking the participants about the future, many mention that the online webshop should be
fully integrated with a postal company, this way as a buyer you can go and get your package at
a Kiala point whenever you weren't home during delivery. If the sending costs are for the buyer,
these are normally very high. The company should pay a percentage or have a deal with a
postal company in order to reduce these costs for their customers.!
Nowadays, consumers spend a big part of their free time (on the road) on their smartphones
more than on laptops or computers. This is why many respondents also noted that the online
platforms should all have apps you can shop on or sell with.!
A remarkable fact is that 52% of the sellers at the IJhallen frequently sells their clothing online.
While from the respondents of the first survey, that do not necessarily have experience selling
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their clothing, only 26% sold their clothing online. This means an awareness campaign towards
non-sellers - the people that have no experience or knowledge on this subject - could be very
effective, since two-third claims to be open to it. Another important campaign would be to
educate the offline sellers, at a place such as the IJhallen, about the possibilities of the online
fashion resale market.!
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6.3 SWOT Analysis of online fashion resale!
To create an overview we have concluded our findings into a SWOT-analysis.!
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Figure 7.!
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Strengths
Weaknesses
• It is a sustainable concept: small ecological
footprint!
• It plays into people their emotions:
consumers want their unused clothing to
have a second life!
• Consumers can earn money with it!
• Consumers are cleaning up: they have too
many things
• It still stimulates a certain need for consumption
and buying!
• Sometimes the products are used too much: You
cannot sell 100% of the supply!
• Customers have to hand in a part of their
proceeds!
• It requires time from a consumer
Opportunities
Threats
• A sustainable company has potential in the
future: consumers are interested in ‘green’
companies!
• Online fashion shopping is growing
extensively!
• The using period of a garment is becoming
shorter and shorter
• Little name recognition!
• High chance of dissatisfaction on product
condition!
• Slow fashion: people will focus on quality and
durable clothing!
6.4 Estimated Market Potential!
Please note this is a rough estimation of a potential market in the Netherlands. The figures of
the market potential are hopes and possibilities, not facts. !
When estimating the potential market for online fashion resale, we start by narrowing down our
group. We are using the most recently published data on the subject from
CBS, which is from 2013.!
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Fig 8.!
The Netherlands had a rough 16.8 million residents on January 2014. !
16.8 million
10.3 million
10.3 million of them shop online.!
60% of them frequently shop online, which equals 6.18 million people.!
6.2 million
69% of those 6.18 million people shopped for clothing online. !
These are 4,264,200 people.!
So around 4 million people of the Netherlands frequently buy !
4.3 million
3.8 million
clothing online.!
When looking at my first survey, with a group of random participants, 11% of them said ‘No’ to
secondhand clothing. They claimed to prefer new clothing so much, that they are not interested
in purchasing used fashion. Theoretically speaking, this would be a group of 469,062 people - of
the 4.26 million people that buy clothing online, who would not be interested in purchasing
secondhand clothing online.!
4,264,200 minus these 469,062 people, creates a group of 3,795,138 people - roughly 3.8
million people - that could be a potential market for online fashion resale in the Netherlands.!
!
6.5 Future threats and recommendations!
The consumer is ‘lazy’ by nature. The services need to be as easy and accessible as possible,
otherwise a consumer might lose interest and find it too time-consuming to participate. This
counts for sellers and for buyers: the buyers need an organized webshop with a magnificent
search engine and algorithm for them to enjoy this form of shopping, the seller needs an easy
service when it comes to transport, photography and monetary transactions.!
However, pick up service for secondhand cheap fast fashion items is almost not profitable, since
the value of a secondhand Zara t-shirt is not more than 5 euros, while a normal pick up service
costs about 6 euros per item. This could be solved by recommending a certain value of goods
before sending, either one designer piece or multiple fast fashion pieces. This can be done for
instance by sending a bag to the customer and recommend to go through their closet and send
a load all at once. !
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A suggestion in order to keep the entire business sustainable is to also focus on ‘green’
transport services. It is important with a business like this where goods are transported from one
place to another all the time, to make sure this also happens in a sustainable way.!
The image of secondhand clothing can still use a little adjustments. A substantial part of the
average consumers still see secondhand clothing as dusty old clothing, while this is almost
never the case anymore. Selections of styles should be made based on the thoughts and
requirements of the different target groups, just as with regular online webshops.!
Awareness about reusing clothing as a sustainable initiative is also lacking. People need to be
motivated to give their unused garments a second life and have to feel mentally rewarded
afterwards in order to believe this. !
!
6.6 Conclusion!
According to the data collected by interviews and surveys, we can conclude that there are
certainly chances for this market to grow in the Netherlands. There is a growing interest in
sustainable initiatives and giving garments a second - third, maybe even fourth - life is a
wonderful example of one. Since the recession there is a growing interest in secondhand
businesses, from a buyer ánd from a sellers perspective. Foreign success portrays the
opportunities of this market may have in the future, with millions of users (Vestiaire Collective,
FR) and millions of dollars in revenue (The Real Real, USA).!
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CH 7!
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Conclusion & Recommendations
Chapter 7. Conclusion & Recommendations!
Combining the experiences of the current business owners within this market and the
requirements of the ‘critical consumer’ gained from the empirical data, this chapter is an
overview of tips and opportunities for future - and recent - online secondhand fashion
businesses, C2C or C2B2C. !
It will give an answer to the main research question of this thesis:!
How can online fashion resale become a prevailing trend in the fashion industry of the
Netherlands?!
!
7.1 Research Conclusions !
This paragraph will conclude the research that is done by answering the sub questions and
examining the hypotheses.!
!
1. What is the current situation of the online consumer to consumer clothing market in the
Netherlands?!
Stated hypothesis: There is only a small group of fashion influencers and followers that are up
to date on the current secondhand market online. !
!
The current situation is that the resale of a consumers own garment is becoming more and
more accepted. The survey data conducted for this thesis concludes that out of 203
respondents already 65% frequently sell their own clothing online24. More than 72% (out of 145
respondents) also regularly purchase secondhand fashion online. Although it is only still in its
infancy, multiple online resale platforms arose in the past three years and established a
prominently emerging market. The numbers show that it is becoming a worthy business
opportunity: anno February 2015, United Wardrobe counts over 55.000 users, The Next Closet
has over 13.000 monthly visitors on their website and Designer-Vintage roughly over 50.000
monthly visitors. And this is only in the Netherlands. French platform Vestiaire Collective has
over 1.5 million users. American platform The Real Real had a 55 million dollar revenue in 2013.
These are examples of growth within this market.!
!
24
Possible bias in the interviewees profiles: see 1.4 for research limitations.
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Nevertheless, the survey data also shows that awareness on the current possibilities of online
fashion resale should rise in the Netherlands. Most respondents only knew Marktplaats as a
fashion resale platform. In the Recommendations paragraph we will provide a few examples on
how this could be done. !
The hypothesis of only a small group of fashion influencers being up to date on the current
secondhand fashion market online is partially wrong, partially right. A big group of Dutch
consumers already buy and sell used fashion on platforms such as Marktplaats. Only a small
group, mostly a younger audience that is comfortable with online shopping, knows about the
current possibilities of the specialized market places in fashion resale. But, this group is growing
by the minute. !
!
2. What is driving people to participate in this movement? !
Stated hypothesis: We would want people to buy and sell secondhand from an environmental
perspective, unfortunately this is probably only driven by a financial stimulus.!
!
The motivation of the sellers is mostly the urge to give a former purchase a second life and
cleaning up their living space. They see the garments as an emotional and financial waste,
while they take up space in their closets. Financial benefits of of this are welcome, but not a
requirement. Although this differs per market segment: the higher the price segment, the more
important the financial aspect is to the seller. For instance, when a consumer owns a 5000
dollar Chanel bag, a profit from the sale is often demanded. But overall, it is more important to
them to get rid of unused items and make room for the new things to come. !
The motivation of secondhand buyers is mostly about finding unique items or quality items for a
lower price. They seem to be excited about the expansion of the offer when switching to online,
making it possible to purchase exclusive items from foreign places.!
!
The environment seems to not be a stimulus for many. Only 24% out of 150 respondents stated
that they sell their clothing from a sustainable perspective; which could (and should) be
enhanced by education and awareness. In Recommendations we give a few examples on how
this could be done.!
The hypothesis was again partially correct and partially incorrect, in the sense that it people are
not buying and selling secondhand solely from an environmental perspective yet, but the
‘cleaning up’ aspect seems to be important also.!
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Next to that, many say the economical crisis was a driver for this movement, and made it a
success. The recession has had a big influence in peoples buying behavior the past years and
created a demand for lower priced, high quality garments. Aside from the regular retailers,
people searched for other ways to obtain new garments, and started looking at what was
already there such as, swapping and altering but mostly resale became popular. !
As a result the question rises: if the recession disappears and people’s financial status become
stable again, will this movement disappear with it?!
With this we arrive at our third subquestion:!
!
3. What are the chances for this movement to grow in the fashion industry of the Netherlands?!
Stated hypothesis: There is an interest towards new sustainable fashion companies and
consumers are willing to participate, as long as the participatory process is user friendly done.!
!
The conducted research shows that there is indeed a growing interest towards sustainable
fashion companies, which includes the reusing of clothing. Nevertheless, sustainability does not
seem to be the main attraction for people to get involved in garment resale, as pointed out in the
last paragraph. The recession has been a big motivation for people to find ways to spend less
and earn a little extra, which resulted in a huge demand for secondhand clothing.!
Now, one can wonder if this demand will decrease again when the recession blows over. !
It is always hard to look into the future, but we can assure that there is not only an economical
crisis going on, but also a serious climate crisis, which will definitely not blow over unless critical
measures are taken. The environment is gaining attention from consumers ánd businesses, and
just as the recycling of plastic has now become an orderly fashion for us as consumers,
hopefully the recycling of textiles will as well. !
Since it is an absolute necessity for our future on this planet to have a focus on durability and
sustainability from now on, it is a smart move to anticipate on this and make it a main factor for
a fashion businesses in the future.!
!
Data of the OIS of Amsterdam shows that the amount of secondhand clothing stores in our
capital city has been increasing since 2010 until now, which already proves there is a growing
market for secondhand fashion. Our empirical data strongly confirms this, with a 75% out of 203
respondents stating that they will be buying more secondhand in the future. Mostly, because
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they believe everyone is becoming more and more aware of the impact of the fashion industry
and will focus more on sustainable alternatives in the future.!
This alone proves a great chance for this movement to grow.!
!
Another chance to grow would be that the majority of the respondents use Marktplaats as the
online platform to sell their clothing (76% out of 131 online sellers). This gets confirmed by
Marktplaats’ own data: it counted as many as 11.3 million ads for Women’s Clothing in 2012. !
But, as our research concludes, most of these consumers do not find it an ideal place to do
business on25. This shows there is a need for a structured, organized marketplace online that
focuses on fashion only. All those users of the 11.3 million postings could be introduced to a
better, more effective platform.!
Looking at the success of the foreign online secondhand market, we can conclude another
chance for this market. As mentioned in question 1, French platform Vestiaire Collective counts
millions of users and United States based platforms such as Vaunte and The Real Real are
building up revenues of millions of dollars. !
!
This hypothesis was correct. Out of the gained empirical data and confirmed by our theoretical
data, we can conclude that there are indeed chances for this movement to grow. The consumer
experience should be as easy as possible, for buyers and for sellers. There is certainly a
growing interest towards sustainable fashion companies and consumers are definitely willing to
participate in this movement.!
!
7.2 Discussion & Recommendations!
The following conclusions include recommendations towards current secondhand business
owners and/or online start ups for the resale of fashion. It is also discussing some of the threats
and possible solutions. But mostly it tries to answer the question: HOW can online fashion
resale become a prevailing trend in the fashion industry of the Netherlands?!
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Explanations of the respondents were: no insurances on monetary transactions; you have to trust the seller/buyer;
difficult to search for specific items; filled with advertisements of web stores or other unrelated offers; images of the
product are often not clear or the product does not match the photos; when buying designer clothing, there is no
insurance or authenticity check; contact between buyer and seller is required, this can get very frustrating when
discussing the price for instance, or sometimes people just don’t show up: also no insurances. !
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!
Offline versus Online!
As said in the previous paragraph, the market for physical secondhand clothing stores in
Amsterdam has been expanding over the past years in the Netherlands.!
Since this statement only includes physical stores, we have asked the respondents if they would
prefer buying and selling online or offline. A majority answered to prefer buying secondhand
offline, because of the experience that comes with it and the possibility to fit and feel a garment.
One could see this as a threat for the succes of the online market. However, this could be !
solved by putting the focus on having a highly modern resale webshop with a strong shopping
experience, good quality photos and videos of the product, and an easy and friendly return
service. !
When asking the respondents about their preference on selling online, as opposed to offline at
markets or secondhand stores, the opinions were divided. Almost 50/50 of the 103, which
means there is still a 50% that perhaps could be convinced into online selling. If everyone would
be informed about the benefits of online selling, it might attract more customers.!
!
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Awareness on current online possibilities!
Awareness should be raised about the current online possibilities of fashion resale. Out of the
survey data we can conclude that the majority still sees Marktplaats as the only option to resell
clothing online. They are not aware of the fashion platforms that are active nowadays. !
A company such as United Wardrobe would for instance greatly benefit from awareness
campaigns on the IJhallen. When asking the respondents in what way reselling their clothing
could become easier and more fun, most of their suggestions were features that already exist
on the platforms. They just aren’t aware yet. If United Wardrobe would for instance give out their
promotional tote bags to all fashion sellers on the IJhallen every edition for a year, and tell them
about United Wardrobe’s possibilities, they would gain an immense amount of new customers. !
!
Awareness campaigns could also come from the government for example. Urging people not to
throw away their old clothing, but to donate, swap or even resell. Making their people aware of
the huge amount of textile waste an average Dutch household produces and the negative
impact of this on the environment. The city council could for instance support an online platform
where people swap instead of sell, underlining the importance to give a garment a second life.
Political parties such as GroenLinks could give attention to the reusing of garments. This party
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already engage themselves in renewable energy, recycling and food wastage. Textile waste can
naturally be adopted in their standpoints and campaign plans.!
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Focus on sustainability!
The link between sustainability and this resale movement should also be enhanced.
Sustainability will gain awareness in the coming years, and seeing that reusing clothing is also a
sustainable initiative, we should make use of this. !
The main driver of sellers seems to be cleaning up their closets and earning a little of of it, not
per se because it is good for the environment. This is okay, the platform should just respond to
this (keep advertising with those two factors) and at the same time reward someone after a
transaction on a sustainable level, to keep raising awareness and encourage sustainability in
peoples mind. American online sustainable webshop The Reformation for instance sends out a
weekly newsletter with new items, and integrates a little sustainable note in there (Fig 6). This is
just an example on how to keep the link with sustainability, but not in an imposing way.!
!
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It would be a wise step to combine a platform like this with other sustainable initiatives, perhaps
a lease system, or an alteration service. Another step would be to take the digital community to
a real life gathering: organizing events and workshops to learn about DIY and altering old
garments, to raise awareness about sustainability and how easily one can make a difference.!
!
This can also be done by local governments, non profit organizations or even organizations
such as Circle Economy. The Circle economy is a cooperative of companies, universities and
governments that pursue a sustainable economy. And there are many more companies like this.
Think about campaigns to encourage the reuse of clothing, or events where people swap
garments and learn about the current textile industry. Organizing discussions between retailers,
about their responsibility of the products they send into the world, and brainstorming together. !
This could all be a form of enhancing the awareness on sustainability, from a non-sales
perspective, which is also important.!
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As easy as possible!
When thinking about the perfect online fashion resale platform, certain findings should be taken
into account. !
The service for sellers should be as easy and accessible as possible: Product pick up service by
the company is the most popular method, according to our respondents, preferably letting the
company evaluate and photograph the items in a professional manner and the items that are
not worthy for resale would be donated to a charity. This is also done by the company.!
The service for buyers also needs to be as easy as possible: Sending costs need to be paid by
the company, or at least partially. Return services need to be on point, free and quick. The
website should be personalized by size and style. !
The platform needs to have a large network of sellers and (mostly) buyers and form a
community together, based on people’s sizes and styles. Several online resale platforms should
think about fusing into one large platform, with an ultimate search engine and algorithm that
makes it easy and organized for all visitors.!
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Retailer’s responsibility!
This market can also be a business opportunity for an existing retailer: for instance if a store
such as COS would have it’s own online webshop for secondhand COS items, the responsibility
is at the company that produced the clothing in the first place, which would encourage the
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second life of the product they made in the first place. This can be a way of getting rid of your
dead stock as a retailer, but is also a new form of customer retention. For instance, how bol.com
now has an addition to its website with a books marketplace, or asos with asos marketplace,
would be able to become a standard extra platform for all online webshops.!
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Niche markets!
As a last recommendation it is important to include the strength of niche markets. The big
players - United Wardrobe, The Next Closet, Designer Vintage - are already there, all three
targeting the segments of the market: Low, Mid, and High. In order to be successful in the same
branche, it is recommended to have your focus on a niche market, otherwise the competition is
too big. Especially occasional clothing - such as wedding dresses, maternity clothing etc. would work well in this market, since the products are only worn once or a certain period of time,
and is then perfectly suitable for reuse by someone else.!
!
More recommendations can be found in the appendices, where respondents answer the
question: “What could make the online resale of your own clothing easier and more fun,
according to you?”.!
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7.3 Research Limitations!
This research was done on a qualitative and quantitative level. This could be improved in many
ways. The qualitative research had a total of 200 respondents. These are the opinions of a
relatively small group. A research done with e.g. 5000 respondents would give a more accurate
image of the current consumer.!
Questions and answers in the survey (filled in by respondents) are colored by the knowledge of
the survey creator; me. If I would have more time to dive into the subject even more, or if a
company with years of experience in this field would set up the survey, the questions would be
based on more knowledge and experience with the subject and therefore even more useful. For
instance in the first survey, the respondent could choose between a number of platforms - the
ones that I knew - but during the research I got acquainted with other platforms that were not
included in the survey questions. This could have caused a limitation in the answers.!
!
A recommendation for future research on this same subject would be to have even more indepth interviews with professionals of the online c2c fashion market. There is not much data to
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find about the c2c e-commerce players in fashion. This could be a very interesting follow-up
study, what is the annual revenue of these places, who are their users, what are the best sold
products etcetera. The more opinions and experiences, the more reliable the results can be.
This is also a recommendation for the quantitative research, as: the more respondents, the
more reliable the survey results are and the more outcome the research can have.!
Foreign business models such as Vestiaire Collective (FR) have not been researched, although
since it’s a smashing success in Europe this could be a very interesting company to look into.
What are their success factors? What can we learn from them? This would be a
recommendation for further research. !
It can also be interesting to include a research more into the future possibilities of technology.
What is going to be the digital store surface in the future? What can we interpret in the
recommendations for a fashion industry 10 years from now? Technological inventions need to
be included when looking at the future opportunities.!
On top of this, a research completely divided by target group, going even more in-depth into
user profiles and dividing their thoughts and needs, can also result into deeper and more
profound research results.!
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It is an interesting and growing market, therefore further research is definitely recommended.!
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References.!
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Surveys.!
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Questions Survey 1:!
!
Wat is uw geslacht? *!
m/v d!
Wat is uw leeftijd? *!
!
Waar woont u? *!
!
Hoeveel geeft u per maand gemiddeld uit aan kleding (grofweg)? *!
Tussen 0 en 50 euro!
Tussen 50 en 100 euro!
Tussen 100 en 200 euro!
Tussen 200 en 500 euro!
500 euro of meer!
!
Heeft u het afgelopen jaar wel eens tweedehands kleding gekocht? *!
nee, nooit!
ja, 0 - 5 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
ja, 5 - 10 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
ja, 10 - 20 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
ja, meer dan 20 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
!
Zo ja, waar heeft u dit gedaan?!
Bij een tweedehandswinkel!
Op markten (IJhallen bijvoorbeeld)!
Op closet sales!
Via internet!
Other:!
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Zo nee, waarom niet?!
Ik koop liever nieuwe kleding, ik hou niet zo van het dragen van tweedehands kleding!
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Je moet altijd zo zoeken naar iets wat mooi is en jou goed past!
Ik denk er simpelweg niet echt aan, er wordt niet veel voor geadverteerd!
Het is vaak niet meer 'trendy', niet meer 'in de mode' naar mijn standaarden!
Other: !
!
Wat voor online platformen kent u om tweedehands kleding op aan te schaffen? *!
Marktplaats!
eBay!
Asos Marketplace!
Facebook of andere social media kanalen!
United Wardrobe!
Poppintags!
Geen van bovenstaande!
Other:!
!
Via welke online kanalen heeft u ook wel eens iets aangeschaft (een kledingstuk,
schoenen of accessoires)?!
Marktplaats!
eBay!
Asos Marketplace!
Facebook of andere social media kanalen!
United Wardrobe!
Poppintags!
Geen van bovenstaande!
Other:!
!
Heeft u het afgelopen jaar wel eens uw eigen kledingstukken verkocht? *!
nee, nooit!
ja, 0 - 5 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
ja, 5 - 10 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
ja, 10 - 20 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
ja, meer dan 20 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires)!
!
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Zo ja, waar heeft u dit gedaan?!
Bij een tweedehandswinkel!
Op markten (IJhallen bijvoorbeeld)!
Op closet sales!
Via internet!
Other:!
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Indien u dit via internet deed, via wat voor kanalen of websites was dit?!
Marktplaats!
eBay!
Asos Marketplace!
Facebook of andere social media kanalen!
United Wardrobe!
Poppintags!
Other:!
!
Zo nee, zou u er interesse in hebben om de kleding die u niet meer draagt te verkopen?!
Ja!
Nee!
Other:!
!
Denkt u dat u in de toekomst steeds vaker tweedehands kleding zult gaan kopen? *!
Ja, we worden allemaal bewuster van de impact van de kledingindustrie wereldwijd en zullen
ons meer gaan focussen op duurzame alternatieven!
Ja, als er meer mogelijkheden zijn om te kopen wel!
Nee, ik geef niet zo veel om het hergebruiken van kleding in duurzame context!
Nee, ik geef nog te veel om nieuwe kleding en dit zal zo blijven!
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Bij het aanschaffen van tweedehands kleding, zou u dan de voorkeur geven aan… *!
online tweedehands kopen!
offline tweedehands kopen (markten, tweedehandswinkels, etc)!
Other:!
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Bij het verkopen van uw eigen kleding, zou u dan de voorkeur geven aan… *!
online uw kleding verkopen!
offline uw kleding verkopen (markten, tweedehandswinkels, etc)!
Other:!
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90
Questions Survey 2: focussed on people selling and buying secondhand fashion online!
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Wat is je geslacht? *!
m!
v!
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Wat is je leeftijd? *!
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Waar woon je? *!
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Verkoop je wel eens kledingstukken online? *!
Ja !
Nee!
!
Zo ja, waar doe je dit?!
United Wardrobe!
Marktplaats!
eBay!
Poppintags!
Facebook groepen!
Other:!
!
Indien je wel eens kleding verkoopt online, wat waren dan jouw redenen om te verkopen?!
Financiële redenen: ik kon de opbrengst goed gebruiken!
Milieuvriendelijkheid: ik vind dat men kleding zoveel mogelijk moet hergebruiken!
Huis opruimen: ik had meer ruimte in mijn kledingkast nodig!
Hobby: ik vind het leuk om mijn kledingstijl te delen met anderen!
Other:!
!
Koop je zelf ook wel eens tweedehands kleding? *!
Ja, maar niet online!
Ja, ook online!
Nee!
91
!
Indien je wel eens online tweedehands kleding koopt, waar doe je dit dan?!
United Wardrobe!
Marktplaats!
eBay!
Poppintags!
Facebook groepen!
Other:!
!
Wat is jouw motivatie om tweedehands kleding aan te schaffen?!
Het is goedkoper dan in de reguliere winkels waar ik normaal shop!
Het is exclusiever dan in de reguliere winkels waar ik normaal shop!
Het is beter voor het milieu dan wanneer ik steeds nieuwe kledingstukken koop!
Other:!
!
Heb je de behoefte om via dit soort online platformen ook deel uit te maken van een
fashion community; zodat je bepaalde personen kan volgen om kleding van te kopen en
stijlen te delen, of inspiratie op te doen? *!
Ja, dat lijkt me wel wat!
Nee, ik blijf liever anoniem!
Other:!
!
Denk je dat je in de toekomst steeds vaker tweedehands zal gaan kopen?!
Ja, we worden allemaal bewuster van de wereld om ons heen en zullen meer focussen op
duurzaamheid!
Ja, als er meer mogelijkheden om te kopen zijn wel!
Nee, ik geef niet om duurzaamheid!
Nee, ik geef nog te veel om nieuwe kleding, dit zal zo blijven!
Other:!
!
Wat zou het online verkopen van je eigen kleding nóg makkelijker of leuker kunnen
maken volgens jou?!
!
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Questions survey 3: focussed on people selling clothing at the IJhallen!
!
Wat is je geslacht? *!
m!
v!
!
Wat is je leeftijd? *!
!
Waar woon je? *!
!
Hoeveel geef je per maand gemiddeld uit aan kleding (grofweg)? *!
Tussen 0 en 50 euro!
Tussen 50 en 100 euro!
Tussen 100 en 200 euro!
Tussen 200 en 500 euro!
500 euro of meer!
!
Hoe vaak sta jij gemiddeld per jaar op de IJhallen?!
0 - 1 keer!
2 - 4 keer!
5 - 9 keer!
10 - 12 keer!
!
Wat is jouw motivatie om je kleding te verkopen?!
Financiële redenen: ik kan de opbrengst goed gebruiken!
Milieuvriendelijkheid: ik vind dat men kleding zoveel mogelijk moet hergebruiken!
Huis opruimen: ik had meer ruimte in mijn kledingkast nodig!
Hobby: ik vind het leuk om mijn kledingstijl te delen met anderen!
Anders, namelijk:!
!
Verkoop je naast de IJhallen wel eens vaker ergens je eigen kledingstukken? *!
nee, nooit!
ja, 0-1 keer per jaar!
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ja, 2-4 keer per jaar!
ja, 5-9 keer per jaar!
ja, maandelijks!
ja, wekelijks!
!
Zo ja, waar doe je dit?!
Closet sales!
Kledingruilen!
Markten!
Via via!
Op internet!
Anders, namelijk:!
!
Indien je wel eens je eigen kledingstukken via internet verkoopt, waar doe je dit dan?!
Marktplaats!
eBay!
Speurders!
Facebook groepen!
United Wardrobe!
The Next Closet!
Vinty Women!
De kast van amsterdam!
Trash to Treasure!
Designer Vintage!
Poppintags!
Anders, namelijk:!
!
Indien je geen kledingstukken via het internet verkoopt; waarom niet?!
Ik wist niet dat dat kon!
Het is zoveel gedoe, zo tijdrovend!
Ik verkoop liever face to face!
Anders, namelijk: !
!
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Hoe zou het verkopen via internet volgens jou makkelijker (en leuker) gemaakt kunnen
worden?!
Of, indien je niet verkoopt online: hoe zou jij overgehaald kunnen worden om het wel te gaan
doen?!
!
Koop je zelf ook wel eens tweedehands kleding? *!
nee, nooit!
ja, 0 - 5 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires) per jaar!
ja, 5 - 10 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires) per jaar!
ja, 10 - 20 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires) per jaar!
ja, meer dan 20 kledingstukken (incl schoenen & accessoires) per jaar!
!
Zo ja, waar koop je dit dan vaak?!
Bij een tweedehands winkel!
Op markten (zoals de IJhallen)!
Op closet sales!
Via via!
Op internet!
Anders, namelijk: !
!
Indien je wel eens tweedehands kleding via internet koopt, waar doe je dit dan?!
Marktplaats!
eBay!
Speurders!
Facebook groepen!
United Wardrobe!
The Next Closet!
VintyWomen!
Trash to Treasure!
Designer Vintage!
Poppintags!
Anders, namelijk:!
!
95
Wat is jouw motivatie om tweedehands kleding aan te schaffen?!
Het is goedkoper dan in de reguliere winkels waar ik normaal shop!
Het is exclusiever dan in de reguliere winkels waar ik normaal shop!
Het is beter voor het milieu dan wanneer ik steeds nieuwe kledingstukken koop!
Anders, namelijk:!
!
!
Geef je de voorkeur aan het kopen van tweedehands offline (IJhallen, markten etc) of
online?!
Offline, omdat…!
Online, omdat…!
!
En bij het verkopen van je eigen kleding, waar geef je dan de voorkeur aan?!
Offline, omdat…!
Online, omdat…!
!
Denk je dat je in de toekomst steeds vaker tweedehands zal gaan kopen?!
Ja, we worden allemaal bewuster van de wereld om ons heen en zullen meer focussen op
duurzaamheid!
Ja, als er meer mogelijkheden om te kopen zijn wel!
Nee, ik geef niet om duurzaamheid!
Anders, namelijk:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
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Interviews.!
!
!
List of interviewees:!
in-depth interviews - to be found on the next pages.!
Lieke Pijpers, Founder & COO of ‘The Next Closet’!
Thijs Verheul, Founder & PR manager of ‘United Wardrobe’!
Sophie van Oirschot, Founder & CEO of ‘De Kast van Amsterdam’!
Kim van der Knaap, Sales & Marketing manager of ‘Designer-Vintage’!
Bregje Lampe, Fashion Editor for ‘de Volkskrant’ and ‘ELLE’!
!
short telephone interviews - summary available upon request.!
Rens Tap, Market development consultant at ‘Modint’!
Prof. Jesse Weltevreden, Researcher and Lector online entrepreneurship at ‘HvA’!
Pauline Wout, Master student at TU Delft & Graduate at ‘Circle Economy’!
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Interview The Next Closet: Lieke Pijpers - Founder TNC!
23-02-2015!
summary/important questions:!
!
!
TNC opgericht in aug 2013. Tot en met aug 2013 was er alleen de premium service. In mei
2014 is dit uitgebreid naar de DIY service.!
!
Waar kwam de inspiratie voor dit platform vandaan? ‘Waarom’ is het opgericht?!
Vanuit duurzaamheid, om mensen aan te sporen tweedehands te kopen of hun garderobe een
tweede leven te geven. Investeer in kwaliteit.!
vanuit Amerika threadflip, verstiaire uit frankrijk, !
buitenland voorbeelden hoe het anders kan. duurzame angel heeft ons gemotiveerd.!
wij geven zicht in mensen hun kasten.!
Wij zijn eigenlijk een kruising tussen Net a Porter (overzichtelijk en makkelijk shoppen,
exclusieve items) en ebay (community vibe).!
!
Wie zijn jullie directe concurrenten in NL?!
Marktplaats, offline boutiekjes, Designer Vintage platform.!
United wardrobe is meer een andere doelgroep. Zij groeien wel enorm maar hebben ook een
ander business model. De kans dat iets verkocht word op united wardrobe is veel kleiner. duurt
bij ons ook wel weer langer om iets online te zetten dus we hebben ook minder.!
wij zijn heel selectief over onze verkopers, united wardrobe niet.!
UW’s leden zijn ook minder betrokken. wij hebben een hoog percentage returning customers.
veel meer relatie building dan bij united wardrobe.!
!
Wat onderscheidt jullie van andere platformen?!
we hebben woe - zondag een offline winkel. wij focussen op tijdloze klassiekers, niet zo
trendgevoelige items. wij zijn selectief in de verkopers. en de producten. wij hebben meer een
magazine achtig editorial content. wij werken samen met Circle Economy; focus op
duurzaamheid. !
!
Is er een verschil per land, kijkend naar deze online C2C fashion markt?!
Designer kleding in Nederland in de kinderschoenen, mensen dragen wat minder designer, nl is
een kleiner land, mensen vinden het leuk om zelf dingen te doen. geld verdienen en zelf doen
groot, e commerce goed ontwikkeld, diy service in NL wel goed aanslaat. nl geven over het
algemeen wat minder uitgeven in dit land. !
onze prijzen zijn bijvoorbeeld wat scherper dan bijv frankrijk. !
en nl is klein, je kan mensen veel service geven, vandaar dat we een store offline, men woont
redelijk in de buurt, dus je kan makkelijk een combinatie zoeken tussen offline en online.!
!
Waarom denk je dat het belangrijk is om een offline punt te houden?!
zeker in het begin belangrijk is voor je naamsbekendheid en service. zeker met dure spullen,
ook een gezicht !
opsturen toch liever niet, ze willen zeker weten dat het goed word afgeleverd!
plus, je kunt ook dingen passen in een offline winkel. !
!
Leuk dat jullie drijfveer vanuit duurzaamheid komt.!
We werken samen sympany (kici en humanitas) en dress for succes (in nl)!
98
alles wat wij niet verkopen of aannemen, kunnen mensen voor kiezen om hun spullen aan te
doneren. zo proberen we altijd een oplossing te kiezen voor je gehele kast. je kan met je hele
kast bij ons terecht, en wij nemen dan een stukje van je kast, en de rest doneren wij dan aan
goede doelen die hiermee werken.!
Echter denken we wel dat dit iets moet zijn wat in je bedrijfs DNA zit. Niet iets om mee te
adverteren.!
!
Hoeveel dagelijkse gebruikers heeft TNC?!
13.000 in de maand, dus ongeveer 433 per dag.!
!
En hoeveel leden?!
2000 members, kopers en verkopers, groeit snel per maand!
we keuren wel wie er verkoopt bij ons!
!
Wie zijn jullie gebruikers?!
voornamelijk vrouwen rond de 30 jaar, nog niet gericht op mannen. gaan we wel doen maar nu
nog niet. animo blijft kleiner dan dat voor vrouwen maar zal wel groeien. de markt moet nog rijp
worden. Zelfde voor de kinder markt. bewust gekozen om eerst te focussen op vrouwen. 100%. !
!
Zijn de kopers hetzelfde als de verkopers?!
in theorie wel, maar in de praktijk niet echt. de verkopers kopen niet echt. die willen eerst geld
verdienen. !
!
Verschil in leeftijd of type vrouw?!
de DIY verkopers is ook een beetje het type koper. Vaak eind 20, begin 30.!
maar de Premium mensen die kopen niet gauw bij ons. zij kopen de high end dingen graag
nieuw. Die hebben zoveel spullen, die hebben ons nog niet nodig. En zijn ook wat ouder, en
shoppen nog niet zo vaak online. Vaak 40 - 65 jaar.!
!
Wat is volgens jullie de motivatie van jullie verkopers?!
kast opruimen, een ander ermee blij maken, emotionele aspect, zonde om weg te goien,
kwalitatief goede dingen nog voor een tweede leven. !
verdienen. vaak wel stukken met waarde waar ze dan nog wel iets van terug willen zien.!
!
Wat is volgens jullie de motivatie van jullie kopers?!
exclusiviteit. unieke designer pieces scoren. voor een goeie deal dingen die niet meer in de
winkel te krijgen zijn. onze doelgroep heeft wel een duurzame component, maar is niet de
intrinsieke motivatie nog. men denkt nog niet na over duurzaamheid, maar wij als bedrijf kunnen
dit wel pushen.!
!
Wat zijn jullie verwachtingen voor de toekomst?!
ik denk dat TNC de grootste wordt. we zijn heel hard aan het groeien. er is heel veel vraag.
meer klanten uit het buitenland. uitbreiden naar buitenland, mannen, kinderen, boutiques.!
tweedehands kopen word steeds normaler. wij zien dat mensen dit heel normaal vinden en ook
gaan doen.!
de technologie is er nu. je kan vraag en aanbod beter bijelkaar brengen nu. je brengt de
producten via internet makkelijker bij de juiste mensen.!
Zelf zullen we focussen op meer editorial content. focus op magazine en blog. dat je inspiratie
haalt uit onze site in magazine stijl en dat je dat item dan ook meteen kan kopen.!
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en we merken dat er veel behoefte is aan het sociale aspect. We gaan zorgen dat je als DIY
gebruiker verkopers kunt reviewen en aangeven of je blij bent met een aankoop of niet.!
En er komt natuurlijk een app aan.!
wij geloven niet in dat trendgevoelige. focus op tijdloze klassiekers, die vaak weer doorverkocht
kunnen worden.!
!
!
Nog dromen voor de toekomst? Hoe ziet het eruit over tien jaar?!
nieuwe boutiques met overjarige collecties en dead stock die bij ons zullen aansluiten. die ook
op zolder blijven hangen en in het kleine winkeltje te weinig bezoekers krijgen. !
uiteindelijke droom om de ‘far fetched’ te zijn voor de tweedehands kledingmarkt. farfetched is
een online portal voor kleine winkeltjes. dat wij dat gaan zijn voor tweedehands kledingmarkt en
zo alle kleine vintage boetiekjes ook bijelkaar brengen.!
!
Denk je dat uiteindelijk de markt zal groeien in de vorm van sustainability?!
steeds meer vraag gaat komen naar kwalitatieve kleding. daar sourcen wij ook heel erg op.!
we nemen geen H&M aan, want na 3 keer wassen is het op bij wijze van spreken.!
er is wel steeds meer een beweging op zoek naar kwalitatief goede kleding die zn waarde lang
behoud!
wij willen mensen hierop inspireren. want dat kun je uiteindelijk beter doorverkopen,
kledingstukken van goede kwaliteit.!
mensen willen unieke mooie dingen kopen en door dit soort initiatieven krijg je hier toegang tot.
de manier om unieke items te scoren. als reactie op de modeketens die allemaal het zelfde
verkopen.!
plus het zijn designer stukken die een groep vaak niet kan veroorloven, en nu wel.!
mensen zullen gaan shoppen van elkaar. !
We kijken ook samen met Circle Economy hoe we sustainability nog meer kunnnen integreren
met TNC, sustainable designers bijvoorbeeld die oude stukken hebben, dat wij die ook
verkopen. Of we willen een landelijke campagne doen om kleding in te zamelen.Samen sta je
sterk. Of een benefiet diner met BNers die hun kleding stukken laten veilen en de opbrengst
gaat dan naar onze goede doelen.!
!
Hoe kunnen we uiteindelijk de mensen die nog niet kopen, wel laten aansluiten hierbij?!
awareness. hoe meer items we hebben, hoe meer mensen ons zullen vinden. we zijn nog klein.!
alles is uniek, dus als we nieuwe dingen hebben is er natuurlijk maar een klein percentage in
jouw maat misschien. op die manier wel meer mensen bereiken in de toekomst.!
focus op sociale aspect.!
specifieke nieuwsbrieven.!
search optimalisatie; kan nog veel meer uitgebreid worden. we hebben wel filter dat je kan
filteren op maat en seizoenen. en je kan mensen volgen waarvan je de maat ebt. sale alerts kan
je instellen. nu nog te duur maar als ie in verkoop komt dan wil ik het weten.!
moet hier nog optimaliseren. uiteindelijk wel de page view op jouw lievelingen merken en jouw
maten aan te passen.!
!
Wat zou in de weg kunnen staan hiervan?!
je moet wel groot genoeg zijn. dat zie je in duitsland nu ook, rebel en .. samenvoegen. moet
voor de koper niet te veel hassle zijn. dat willen wij allemaal wegnemen.!
!
!
100
Interview United Wardrobe Thijs Verheul - Founder !
24-11-2014!
summary/important questions:!
!
Wanneer is United Wardrobe opgericht?!
15 jan 2013.!
!
En waarom/wat was de aanleiding? Had het milieu er iets mee te maken?!
vanuit sjuul zn zus: problemen met dingen op marktplaats en Facebook verkopen. nee niet per
se vanuit een duurzame component.!
!
Was het een afstudeer opdracht of iets dergelijks? !
nee puur uit onszelf, de uni heeft ons wel geholpen. en alle prijzen voor het idee van de
onderneming hebben geholpen. Accenture Innovation Awards Publieksprijs gewonnen, 20.000
euro. En Startlife steunt UW onder naam van het Jonge Helden Fonds. Verder ook ons eigen
spaargeld erin gestopt.!
!
Kwam UW vanuit een facebook groep?!
Nee, die groep is van Milou en wij adverteren op haar groep. dat is onze concurrent ook. maar
we mogen producten in die groep delen en er staat een vastgesteld bericht van ons. dus veel
mensen komen ook naar UW op die manier. ze waren eerst super kritisch. 10% commissie was
te veel en hoezo wil je geld verdienen aan ons!? maar uiteindelijk is het precies deze groep die
geïnteresseerd is in een platform als wij en dus ook UW leden zijn geworden.!
!
Wat heeft zij eraan?!
zij krijgt een maandelijks bedrag van ons om te laten adverteren. het is de grootste Facebook
groep voor kleding en dat is voor ons belangrijk om daarin aanwezig te zijn.!
!
Waarom is het zo succesvol!
de tweedehands winkels zijn eigenlijk ouderwets geworden. ze vragen veel commissie en het is
moeite. op platformen zoals bij ons vragen we maar 10% commissie en je krijgt het gelijk op je
rekening gestort als er iets verkocht is. bij tweedehands winkels is dat allemaal ingewikkelder.!
het is zo laagdrempelig. gratis account aanmaken, je kan zoveel mogelijk uploaden. no cure no
pay concepten. net als air bnb of uber of bol.com. je krijgt geld als je iets verkoopt.!
marktplaats is te onoverzichtelijk. te groot. je kan niemand volgen of iets dergelijks. Mode is iets
wat je samen doet. Je zit in een sociaal vacuum met vrienden en kennissen om je heen
waarmee je dingen aanschaft en waardoor je geïnspireerd word. Dit is bij ons als online
platform ook aanwezig, en op plekken als marktplaats niet. je kunt mensen volgen als je merkt
dat dat jouw stijl is of jouw maat. en je kunt reageren op producten. mensen kunnen je
adviseren. het is heel open. maar wel veilig. !
de veiligheid, daar zit ons verdien model in. wij verdienen geld aan de transacties. !
het is veel makkelijker dan de ouderwetse winkels, en leuker en handiger dan op marktplaats.
het heen en weer gemail, het geregel en dergelijke. het gemak dat wij bieden, daar betaal je
eigenlijk zo weinig voor.!
!
Wie is jullie target group/ wie zijn jullie gebruikers?!
voornamelijk jonge vrouwen. iedereen van 16 - 50 jaar kan ons gebruiken. maar wat er nu op de
site zit zijn voornamelijk jonge vrouwen 15 - 45 jaar. eigenlijk wil iedereen er leuk uitzien maar
niet de hoofdprijs voor betalen. en dat kan bij ons.!
101
we hebben een paar topsellers. ze maken goede en duidelijke leuke foto's, niet al te hoge
prijzen, snel contact opnemen na een verkoop, ook bij een vraag snel reageren. maar
voornamelijk de leukste foto's maken. daar draait het echt om.!
!
Hoeveel informatie hebben jullie van de gebruikers?!
telefoon, adres en bankrekening nummer. als er traag word gereageerd bij een verkoop oid dan
nemen wij contact met ze op.!
!
maar het blijft dus heel anoniem?!
ja voor gebruikers zeker, je ziet alleen de voornaam. geen telefoon nummer of email adres. aan
de contact kant is het anoniem, maar ze kunnen hun wel uitdrukken creatief. je kan je profiel
personaliseren. en aan de hand van hun foto's van de producten kun je zien wie ze zijn!
!
Ben je geïnteresseerd om te weten wie het zijn?!
het is leuk om te zien hoe enthousiast ze zijn, leuke jonge vrouwen die van mode houden en
veel hippe kleding in hun kast hebben.!
!
Is er verschil tussen de kopers en de verkopers?!
we merken dat de verkopers ook veel kopen op ons netwerk. deze groep is best wel hetzelfde.!
!
Wat is de motivatie van de verkopers denk je?!
we merken dat de verkopers ook veel kopen op ons netwerk. deze groep is best wel hetzelfde.
het idee van iets aanschaffen, een paar keer dragen en dan weer doorverkopen is heel
gangbaar geworden. 80 van je tijd gebruik je 20 procent van je kleding. dat is wel waar nu. merk
ik bij mezelf ook, een periode dat je bepaalde kledingstukken heel chill vind en andere weer
niet.!
!
Hebben jullie ook mannelijke verkopers?!
ja zeker. maar in verhouding is maar 5 procent man, en 95 procent vrouw. we zien wel veel
mannen die exclusieve sneakers verkopen. we richten ons voornamelijk op vrouwen nu.!
Hoe doe je dit dan?!
via Facebook advertisement bijvoorbeeld. dan kun je aanvinken dat alleen vrouwen deze
advertentie te zien krijgen. en dan pak ik er wat merken erbij, adidas, louis vuitton, vintage,
primark etc, en alle mensen die die merken geliked hebben krijgen ook onze advertenties te
zien op hun pages.!
!
En hoe zoek je dan uit welke merken je gaat schaduwen?!
eigenlijk heel random, elke keer weer iets niewus. nike en adidas zijn giga veel mensen dus dat
werkt altijd wel. !
!
Dus jullie doen voornamelijk jullie marketing via Facebook?!
ja zeker. het is nog een beetje een ongeslepen diamant die Facebook marketing. heel veel
bedrijven weten nog niet hoe je effectief via Facebook kan adverteren, maar wij zien zoveel
opbrengst ervan. veel webshops gebruiken nog google adworks, dat is eigenlijk ouderwets en te
duur. Facebook is zo effectief, dat zien wel. Facebook vraagt bijvoorbeeld 3 cent per klik naar
de website. en google adworks is vaak 2,50 per klik naar de website. groot verschil.!
!
Hoe merkte je dat Facebook een effectief marketing tool was?!
102
Het begon met gesponsorde likes. dat mensen je pagina gaan liken voor je. was best wel
effectief. en toen merkte ik dat je ook voor 50eu per dag clicks naar je website kan laten doen.
en de dag dat we dat deden ging het helemaal los. 3 keer zoveel aanmeldingen, 3 keer zoveel
orders. normaal zaten er 18 mensen op UW en die dag zaten er meer dan 50 op de site. en nu
150. tis giga aan het groeien, mede door die goedkope marketing.!
!
En jullie willen ook uitbreiden naar het buitenland?!
ja klopt. we zijn nu de website in het Frans aan het vertalen. plan 1 is dus uitbreiden naar
België. we zien steeds meer Belgen die zich aan melden. dan eerst kijken hoe loopt het in
België, hoe gaan de transacties over de grens, wat voor vragen krijgen we van ze. en daarna
Frankrijk.!
en uiteindelijk het doel dat het een internationaal platform word. ook met Amerika en Azië
samenwerken. dus als jij op zoek bent naar een exclusieve jaren 50 Prada tas en iemand in LA
heeft die, dat je toegang krijgt hiertoe.!
!
En dan stuurt ook iedereen het zelf op?!
ja het blijft altijd consumer-to-consumer.!
!
Hoe zorg je dat de site niet vol komt met troep?!
wij doen een selectie van de producten die op de site komen. als er producten op komen waar
wij het niet mee eens zijn, dan blokkeren wij dat product. geen goede foto's gemaakt of geen
goede producten. daarmee voorkomen we dat de website vol met troep staat. het komt er wel
eerst op. maar wij zijn de hele tijd aan het controleren. dit doen wij nu nog zelf. maar er is wel
een algoritme voor waar we mee bezig zijn, eigenlijk het zelfde als het Facebook of twitter
algoritme, de dingen die geliked worden of geretweet, die blijven bovenaan staan. en de
onpopulaire dingen gaan naar onderen. en na een tijdje worden de producten vanzelf verwijderd
van de site. !
!
je merkt waneer stufi word gestort, twee weken heel veel orders dan een dip. dan komt
zorgtoeslag. dan weer omhoog.!
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Dus toch wel voornamelijk studenten als gebruikers?!
ja toch wel de grootste groep. 60 procent wel 16-25 jaar.!
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Hoe zien jullie de toekomst, hoe gaan jullie jezelf nog verbeteren?!
lange termijn doel wel het gedrag van de gebruikers achterhalen. nu nog niet omdat de tijd en
de middelen er nog niet voor zijn. kijken hoe we de bounce percentage lager kunnen brengen.
het is nu 75 procent. !
we maken veel gebruik van google analytics. als we zien dat het bounce percentage na een
verandering opeens omhoog gaat, kijken we nog eens naar wat er mis is gegaan. bijvoorbeeld
een knop die op een onduidelijke plek staat ofzo iets. of andere onlogische dingen. en dat
mensen dan te snel wegklikken. !
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Fulltime baan voor jullie?!
ja nog wel aan het studeren, maar we zitten hier wel 7 dagen per week aan. !
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Wat voor andere marketing hebben jullie gedaan?!
filmpjes, de UW tasjes, posters, stickers, flyers, universiteit, kranten contacten, meest effectief is
toch wel internet. online marketing. Facebook. met prijzen meedoen is ook hele goeie PR.
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daarmee op Nu. nl gekomen. nu ook op volkskrant gekomen, Bregje Lampe gestalked. Daarna
zie je gelijk verschil. veel groei. sinds de app ook 2000 extra bezoekers dagelijks erbij.!
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Wat is de motivatie van jullie verkopers denk je?!
Je hebt de groep die het functioneel doet, de groep die het uitprobeert, de groep die het voor
het milieu doet.!
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Wat is de motivatie van jullie kopers denk je?!
tweedehands kleding wel nog steeds in trek. de groep die er net even wat anders wil bijlopen,
die vintage jas scoren die je nergens anders hebt!
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Heeft het te maken met een milieu bewustzijn?!
de trend van duurzaamheid en deeleconomie is wel aan de gang en daar sluit het ook bij aan,
maar denk niet dat de mensen echt kopen voor de duurzaamheid. 5 of 6 procent misschien.
koopjes zijn belangrijker. !
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Hoe merk je dat?!
via Facebook en benaderen van mensen wel geprobeerd om het op de duurzaamheid trend te
gooien, omdat we dat vanuit onze studie ook heel erg gewend zijn. maar we zien dat daar niet
zoveel animo voor is. omdat je er dood mee gegooid word laatste tijd.!
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Ja voel je dat zo? ja zeker, groene energie bla bla. wij zijn natuurlijk wel een groen bedrijf omdat
het gaat om het hergebruiken van kleding maar dat is eigenlijk een bijkomstigheid. we trekken
meer mensen met de leuke fashion items. daarmee komen veel sneller mensen binnen.
mensen weten toch wel dat ze groen bezig zijn als ze tweedehands kleding kopen. dat is ook
niet iets waarmee je ze over de streep haalt. lage prijzen is eerder iets wat dat doet. !
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Wat zijn de regeltjes/wat is modieuze kleding?!
goeie foto. product centraal effen achtergrond. product moet er verzorgd uitzien, gestreken en
niet vies. geen neppe producten. troep trekt ook andere troep aan; je moet een goede basis
hebben.!
elke dag 2000 nieuwe producten op de site, die gecheckt worden. !
40.000 actieve producten nu.!
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Hoe zien jullie de toekomst? Denk je dat er meer platforms zullen ontstaan?!
wij hopen voor kleding te kunnen domineren. ticketswap doet het met tickets. bol.com doet het
met boeken. er zal vast een electronica marktplaats ook komen.!
ik denk dat er 1 marktplaats wereldwijd zal komen. binnen nu en tien jaar, per netwerk 1
platform. al het vraag en aanbod op 1 netwerk. voor kleding 1 voor huizen 1. met slimme
algoritmes kun je overal en heel specifiek zoeken. op zich kan 1 netwerk dit nu bieden. dus
waarom zou er meerdere netwerken zijn. !
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Waarom denk je dat er animo zal zijn in de toekomst om 1 groot wereldwijd platform te hebben?!
sinds de romeinse tijd willen mensen iets van verre oorden. exclusieve dingen. dus dat zal altijd
wel blijven bestaan. unieke dingen uit verre landen.!
!
Wat verwacht je voor de toekomst? Is het gericht op ruilen? denk je dat het ook het retail
landschap kan gaan veranderen?!
104
de ruil economie, is nu iets ontastbaars, we moeten wel steeds meer dingen van elkaar gaan
gebruiken. verpakkingloze supermarkten, air bnb, uber etcetera.!
gebruiken producten van elkaar maar wel op commerciële basis. !
ruilen werkt niet echt. het is te moeilijk. wanneer heeft iets nou dezelfde waarde. op
commerciele basis is altijd beter. geld is niet voor niets een betaalmiddel. !
niet zoveel verstand van het e retail landschap.!
!
Jullie zijn niet heel bewust bezig met duurzaamheid dus?!
vind het wel heel erg belangrijk. ik probeer zelf duurzaam te leven. krijgen we via de studie mee.
UW is niet opgericht vanuit duurzaamheid. Maar ik weet wel dat dit ethisch verantwoord is en
daarom gaan we er mee door.!
!
Zou je dat willen verbeteren? Transport regelen vanuit UW met een groen bedrijf?!
hebben met post nl om de tafel gezeten maar die leven allemaal nog in de jaren 90 zijn zo
oubollig met contracten en regeltjes en niet haalbaar voor ons. !
Hoezo niet?!
wij willen internationaal gaan. en dan zouden we met elk postbedrijf van elk land contracten
moeten sluiten.!
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Hoe kijken jullie aan naar het textiel afval probleem/ ligt de verantwoordelijkheid bij de
consument?/ligt het bij de winkels?!
het is een vrije markt. de consument wil de hoogste kwaliteit voor de laagste prijs. en dan krijg
je onethische praktijken. dan zou je naar het communisme terug moeten. of nog meer
organisaties die zich er in verdiepen. maar de fast fashion ketens gaan toch altijd mazen in de
wet vinden om ergens onderuit te komen en op deze manier te blijven produceren. totdat we tot
een punt komen dat het niet meer langer kan. en dat mensen alleen dit soort platformen gaan
gebruiken. maar er moet eerst echt iets gebeuren voordat daar verandering in gaat komen.!
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Interview De Kast van Amsterdam - Sophie van Oirschot - Founder & CEO !
13-02-2015!
summary/important questions:!
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Wanneer is de Kast van Amsterdam opgericht? !
Januari 2014.!
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Waar kwam toen de inspiratie voor dit platform vandaan? ‘Waarom’ is het opgericht?!
Ik zag de vraag bij m’n vriendinnen en bij mezelf, te veel kleren, en wel kwijt willen maar niet
zomaar weggeven of gooien. En Marktplaats is gewoon te groot. het moet kleiner, ergens waar
het kaf van het koren al is gescheiden, en het moet heel goedkoop gehouden worden. en
kwalitatief goede items. maar voornamelijk omdat mensen hun kast willen uitruimen.!
!
Hoe groot is de Kast ongeveer?!
40 kasten. meer dan 9000 Facebook likes. instagram iets minder. zou meer uitgehaald kunnen
worden, maar de instagram volgers zijn vaak buitenlands, en die kunnen nu toch nog niet kopen
bij de kast.!
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Wie zien jullie als concurrenten in Nederland? !
United wardrobe wel. En Trash to Treasure. hadden ook een pop up shop. dat werkte goed.!
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Wie zien jullie als concurrenten in het buitenland?!
de Kats is alleen nog maar gericht op NL. dus het buitenland heeft geen effect op ons.!
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Wat onderscheid De Kast van andere platformen (die steeds meer worden opgericht)? !
heel intiem en persoonlijk, sophie doet alles, dit is haar stijl die overruled. dat is de USP. je
houdt er van of niet. het komt vanuit 1 persoon. Plus het is echt goedkoop. !
!
Over jullie doelgroep:!
Wie zijn jullie gebruikers? Hebben jullie statistieken die aangeven dat de meerderheid
bijvoorbeeld vrouw is? Of wat voor leeftijd heeft jullie gemiddelde gebruiker denkt u? Wat voor
type vrouw is het?!
Kopers en verkopers zijn een beetje dezelfde groep, modebewuste meisjes van rond de 20 jaar,
die wel erg op koopjes gericht zijn. Heb geprobeerd om iets duurder te gaan, een paar euros
per product, maar dat werkte totaal niet. Verloor veel traffic. Exclusieve items van duurdere
merken, slaat ook niet echt aan. !
De Kast is bedoeld voor een jonge doelgroep. die heeft nou eenmaal niet t veel budget. en daar
blijven we ook bij. !
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Hoe kan het dat de oudere vrouwen niet echt op de Kast shoppen?!
De gebruikers zijn vrij jong. Dat zie je gelijk op de website, met ieders foto erop. Plus de groep
van ouderen zijn nu eenmaal een groep die niet gewend zijn om online te zijn. ze verkiezen
fysieke winkels boven online webshops. !
Echter, over 20 jaar is onze generatie, een generatie die wel heel bekend is met online alles, die
zullen veel sneller kopen en verkopen online. !
!
Hoe zien jullie de toekomst? Wat zijn jullie verwachtingen van de online tweedehands kleding
markt?!
106
Zoals net gezegd, de toekomst heeft erg veel perspectief. Als onze online generatie ook de
oude generatie betreft. !
Er zit zeker toekomst in deze markt, er is heel veel vraag naar, zowel het verkopen willen er iets
leuks voor krijgen, zo weinig mogelijk doen, dat het wel verkocht word en dat ze de helft krijgen
is prima. en mensen willen gewoon goedkoop shoppen. dat is iets wat zal blijven bestaan. een
soort online boutique, en geselecteerd al. niet te veel uitgeven, wel bij een bepaalde stijl
selectie, ingrediënten die zullen groeien, die behoeftes zullen blijven. men heeft te veel spullen.
ze willen er vanaf op een leuke manier. We hebben een economische crisis gehad, de
economie gaat nu wel weer beter, mensen geven meer geld uit, maar deze groep zal altijd
blijven. koopjesjagers blijven wel. Mensen hebben nu geleerd om om te gaan met weinig geld.
en gemerkt dat dit eigenlijk heel prima werkt. !
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Wat zijn de voordelen voor consumenten om op deze manier tweedehands aan te schaffen?!
het is online, je hoeft de deur niet uit, het kan op alle tijden van de dag, alle voordelen van
online shoppen eigenlijk. terugzendingen wel heel belangrijk, verzendkosten en alles
terugkrijgen. !
!
En wat is denkt u de voornaamste reden dat een groot deel nog niet op platformen zoals De
Kast koopt en verkoopt?!
tweedehands heeft nog een muffig imago. Of het is niet hun stijl, ze kopen alleen maar nieuw. te
oud, te simpel, te eenvoudig. te goedkoop. !
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Wat denkt u dat de motieven zijn van de verkoopsters om hun kleding te verkopen vandaag de
dag?!
twee aanvragen per kasten per dag. ze willen verkopen. ergens bij willen horen. leuke stijlvolle
meisjes. Er staat niet op de site hoe je een kast kunt krijgen. Je krijgt het gevoel dat je bij een
community hoort als je een kast hebt. Het gaat niet alleen maar om het geld. Want Sophie krijgt
50 procent. dat is best veel commissie.!
Het is een tegenbeweging op het individualisme van vroeger, er komen veel groepjes op in de
maatschappij nu; eetclubjes, boekenclubjes, kleding verkopen groepjes. daar hoor je dan bij.
individualisme is er niet in terug te zien. !
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Wat denkt u dat de motieven zijn voor de tweedehands kopers?!
Het is goedkoop. De Kast heeft veel vaste klanten, dit komt vooral doordat sophie alles heel hip
inpakt met kraft papier, en bij elke bestelling een briefje met een persoonlijke note van wie het is
geweest en een bedankje. vb: “heb dit gedragen op een eerste date. hoop dat het jou net
zoveel geluk brengt als mij”. !
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Hoe zouden we kunnen zorgen dat een sustainable alternatief als De Kast in de toekomst nóg
meer gebruikers zal krijgen en dat uiteindelijk iedereen voor een groot deel kleding zal
hergebruiken?!
binnen het organiseren ervan een community te hebben, als organisaties samenkomen en een
soort gigantisch front vormen. en met zn allen de klant informeren.!
Volgens mij heeft United Wardrobe bijvoorbeeld al die Facebook groepen (amsterdam yard
sale, vintage marketplace, en andere groepen) opgekocht, en op die manier een gigantisch
bereik. Wat als we alle marktplaats gebruikers samenvoegen?!
Ook denk ik dat je altijd de foto's zelf moet doen in bedrijf, zodat je 1 stijl heb. !
Ook slim om intiem te blijven, kleine groepjes/communities per stad. De Kast van Utrecht. De
Kast van Rotterdam. etc.!
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Interview Designer Vintage Managing Partner Kim van der Knaap!
01-03-2015!
— dit is een samenvatting van het interview, dat op 6 maart telefonisch is gepleegd —!
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Designer Vintage is live gegaan in 2008, klopt dat? Ja!
Waar kwam toen de inspiratie voor dit platform vandaan? ‘Waarom’ is het opgericht? Karin
barnhoorn, de oprichtster, wilde een designer tas verkopen, kon wel op marktplaats maar vond
het zo’n vreselijke plek, dus bedacht om dit platform op te zetten.!
Waarom vond ze marktplaats een vreselijke plek?!
Je ziet door de bomen het bos niet meer, er is te veel, en niet geselecteerd. Moeilijk om
verkopers en kopers te vertrouwen, zeker als het gaat om designer spullen, je kunt niet vast
stellen of het nep of echt is. Ook voor grote betalingen. Je krijgt vaak hele lage biedingen op
artikelen die een hoge aankoop prijs hadden. !
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Hoe zien jullie de bestaansmissie van DV? Waarom is het noodzakelijk dat jullie er zijn?!
Bij ons weet je zeker dat de spullen authentiek zijn, er kan vertrouwd worden. mensen die
verkopen, kunnen meer geld vragen voor hun spullen.het is een geselecteerde doelgroep al bij
elkaar, die de waarde erkennen van bepaalde designerspullen. Je hoeft niet te onderhandelen
als je dat niet wilt.!
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Om even de grootte in kaart te brengen, jullie hebben zo’n 23.400 Facebook likes en bijna 9000
Instagram followers. Hoeveel dagelijkse bezoekers heeft jullie website?!
We hebben er zo’n 50.000 per maand, dus ongeveer 1666 per dag.!
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En hoeveel members hebben jullie op dit moment?!
20.000 geregistreerde members, sellers en kopers bijelkaar.!
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Wie zien jullie als concurrenten in Nederland?!
United wardrobe meer concurrent van marktplaats. The next closet is zeker een concurrent in
NL.!
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Wie zien jullie als concurrenten in het buitenland?!
Vestiaire Collective, Rebel in Duitsland en Instantluxe in Frankrijk. ebay ook maar minder.!
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Wat onderscheid DV van andere platformen (die steeds meer worden opgericht)? !
Ander business model dan bijvoorbeeld vestiaire. zij zijn de tussenpersoon, goederen worden
naar hen gestuurd, geupload en verkocht. Op deze manier worden verkopers ook gedwongen
hun prijzen omlaag te gooien, zodat het beter verkoopt en Vestiaire meer verdient.!
Bij DV betaal je om te uploaden, een flat fee, en betaal je geen comissie over je producten. USP
is dan toch wel ons business model dat we geen commissie vragen, zo hou je als verkoper altijd
veel meer geld over.!
Wat is de flat fee ongeveer dan?!
Dat is afhankelijk van de vraagprijs, bijvoorbeeld is je product onder de 150 euro betaal je
eenmalig 14euro, is je product meer rond de 3000euro dan betaal je 86 euro.!
!
Over jullie doelgroep:!
Wie zijn jullie gebruikers? Hebben jullie statistieken die aangeven dat de meerderheid
bijvoorbeeld vrouw is? Of wat voor leeftijd heeft jullie gemiddelde gebruiker denkt u? Wat voor
type vrouw is het?!
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Onze gebruikers zijn inderdaad voornamelijk vrouwen. We hebben een paar mannelijke leden,
maar die zitten vaak professioneel in de verkoop van dit soort producten. De kopers zijn ook
voornamelijk vrouwen, maar vaak wat jonger.!
Zie je het verschil tussen de mensen die verkopen en de mensen die kopen? Of is dit dezelfde
doelgroep?!
Hier is duidelijk verschil in te zien bij ons. De kopers zijn vaak jongere vrouwen tussen de
18-25jaar en de verkopers de wat oudere dames met wat meer kapitaal die vaak designer
stukken nieuw in de winkel kopen, zo tussen de 25-36 jaar.!
!
Hoe zien jullie de toekomst? Wat zijn jullie verwachtingen van de online tweedehands kleding
markt?!
Er is heel veel gaande op de markt van online fashion c2c, heel veel nieuwe initiatieven op dit
vlak, en dat geeft aan dat er een grote markt is. Maar we maken ons geen zorgen. !
Zijn er nog interessante initiatieven gevormd de laatste tijd?!
De Duitse Glamloop en Rebel zijn gefuseerd, hebben samen een vuist gevormd. Dit is wel een
interessante ontwikkeling. (sluit ook aan bij wat TNC zei, over dat er maar 1 groot netwerk moet
zijn, dat werkt het beste - red). Vestiaire breid uit en gaat nu ook live in de US. In Azië zie je ook
heel veel initiatieven oppoppen de laatste jaren. !
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Wat zijn de voordelen voor consumenten om op deze manier tweedehands aan te schaffen?!
Voor onze doelgroep is het bijvoorbeeld vaak zo dat ze op een wachtlijst komen voor bepaalde
designer tassen ed. Bij ons is er geen wachtlijst, je kunt gemakkelijk een Chanel tas
aanschaffen. En natuurlijk de zachtere prijs voor de designer stukken. Het word toegankelijker,
ook voor een doelgroep uit een lagere prijsklasse. Dat zie je heel erg, dat de jongeren kopen
van de ouderen. En deze items zijn vaak kwalitatief goed gemaakt en behouden hun waarde
langer dan H&M en Zara spullen. !
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En wat is denkt u de voornaamste reden dat een groot deel nog niet op platformen zoals DV
koopt en verkoopt?!
De awareness mist. Veel mensen kennen ons simpelweg nog niet, of weten niet dat het
mogelijk is om dit online te doen. En velen hebben ook geen zin om zelf de moeite te doen. Om
fotos te maken en uploaden. Daarom is het belangrijk dat we ook een side - dienst hebben voor
die mensen, waar wij dan voor een zachte prijs al het werkt voor doen.!
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Wat denkt u dat de motieven zijn van de verkoopsters om hun kleding te verkopen vandaag de
dag? En van de kopers? Heeft dit te maken met duurzaamheid? Of is het alleen gedreven
vanuit financieel aspect?!
Voor de kopers is duurzaamheid niet de motivatie, en eigenlijk voor de verkopers ook niet. Voor
de kopers gaat het meer om het feit dat het goedkoper is dan nieuw in de winkel. En voor de
verkopers gaat het meer om het feit dat het zonde is om weg te doen of ongebruikt in de kast te
laten liggen. En een tweede leven te geven. Zowel financieel als emotioneel. Er zijn
bijvoorbeeld ook verkoopsters die hun tas niet wilden verkopen als het geen leuke buyer is. Dit
duidt op een duidelijke emotionele waarde.!
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Hoe belangrijk is duurzaamheid voor DV?!
Op zich niet op nummer 1, zeker niet bij Designer Vintage. Bij Fashion Vintage al wat meer,
omdat dat gericht is op items die snel weggegooid worden, en dat die nog een tweede leven
krijgen. Echter de producten op DV worden bijna nooit weggegooid, daar zijn ze te waardevol
voor. 109
Verder zullen we in de toekomst wel steeds meer hier mee doen. We zijn nu bijvoorbeeld bezig
met een veiling te organiseren en vragen of mensen hun spullen willen doneren, waarvan de
opbrengst naar goede doelen gaat. Goede doelen als Orange babies, of het Epilepsie Fonds.!
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Interview Bregje Lampe - Fashion Editor de Volkskrant & ELLE!
15/04/2015!
summary/important questions:!
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Hoe groot is de tweedehands kledingmarkt online nu volgens jou?!
De markt is er, maar is op het moment nogal versnipperd. United wardrobe zie ik wel als een
slim initiatief, werkt goed, maar krijgen niet iedereen natuurlijk. Er zijn verschillende groepen. !
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Is het een groeiende markt?!
De markt word steeds groter. Je ziet steeds nieuwe ondernemingen. Online kledingmarkt word
groter dus dit ook. !
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Denk je dat dit iets blijvends is?!
Zeker. De drempel van online shoppen is inmiddels weg. De markt die er nu is, gaat niet nu
minder worden.!
Het stoffige imago van tweedehands is weg. !
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Als de recessie een stimulant voor deze markt was, is het dan in twijfel te trekken of het wel zal
blijven bestaan als de recessie weg ebt?!
Nee, de online kledingmarkt word groter, dus deze markt ook. Als de economische crisis minder
zou worden, dan nog zitten we met het probleem dat er gewoon te veel geproduceerd word nu.!
Jonge mensen worden zich in toenemende mate bewust dat de industrie zoals die nu is niet vol
te houden is. !
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Dus je ziet dit als een ‘sustainable’ initiatief? Want je blijft wel een soort consumerism
stimuleren.!
Ja, ik zie het wel als een groen initiatief. Je koopt het in ieder geval niet nieuw. Dat is al goed.!
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Wie zijn de grote spelers volgens jou nu?!
United Wardrobe, The Next Closet niet zo heel groot maar wel groeiend, Designer Vintage,
Marktplaats niet alleen op kleding, maar zeker mentionable.!
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Is het een kans voor ondernemers? Denk je dat het beter is als er maar één groot platform zou
zijn? !
Één groot platform is niet meer haalbaar. Er zijn nu al zoveel losse platformen. Bovendien zijn
er verschillende segmenten die aangesproken moeten worden, en misschien is het helemaal
niet slecht als er meerdere kleine bedrijfjes zijn. Kijk naar The corner, Net a porter, My theresa,
die kunnen allemaal naast elkaar bestaan. En ook naast naast Asos, Goggles, etc. Als je maar
een niche markt vind om aan te spreken.!
Het past ook wel bij online dat het niet 1 plek is. Het kost jou echt geen tijd om op je mobieltje
naar verschillende apps te gaan en zo door meerdere winkels gaan. Dat is de toekomst.!
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Hoe kijk jij er zelf tegen aan? Verkoop je wel eens wat online? !
Zo nee, waarom niet?!
Nee, ik geef het vaak weg aan vriendinnen. Ik heb geen tijd of zin in het gedoe van foto's maken
en dergelijke. En als ik er iemand die ik ken blij mee kan maken, dan doe ik dat graag. !
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Waarom denk jij dat deze beweging is ontstaan? !
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Ik denk dat als mensen erachter komen dat ze nog ergens geld mee kunnen verdienen, dan
doen ze dat. Net als bijvoorbeeld air bnb is, als mensen geld kunnen verdienen met hun kamer
verhuren dan doen ze dat ook. Zeker bij designer spullen is dat duidelijk, daar kun je nog best
wat mee verdienen. Maar ook voor de gewone spullen geldt dat.!
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En waarom is dat voor jou dan geen incentive?!
Tja, dat is heel persoonlijk. Ik heb geen zin in het gedoe, en ik ben er best wel een beetje aan
gehecht. Ik denk dan als ik dit jurkje aan mijn vriendin kan geven en zij wordt daar heel blij van,
dan zie ik dat graag.!
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Ik heb het idee dat deze beweging is aangewakkerd door alle succesvolle platformen in de US.
Zou dit kunnen? Nemen wij vaker dingen over van Amerika?!
Ja zeker, dat denk ik ook. Als er iets in Amerika gebeurt dan gebeurt dat vaak 5 jaar later bij ons
zeg maar. Er is zeker groeipotentie.!
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Hoe kijk jij er tegen aan als retailers zelf een online platform for resale zouden hebben? Zou dit
werken?!
Hmm, ik zou niet weten of dat wel werkt. Want dan ga je uit van hele merkgetrouwe
consumenten. Die zoeken op merk, in plaats van bijvoorbeeld een blauw overhemd. Zijn ze wel
merktrouw? Bij grote merken heeft het misschien wel potentie, omdat ze dan een zekerheid
hebt over de authenticiteit van de spullen bijvoorbeeld. !
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Hoe ziet de toekomst er uit? Zal dit groter worden?!
Ja zeker. Deze markt zit in de lift. Zoals eerder gezegd, het stoffige imago van tweedehands is
weg en de online kledingmarkt is aan het groeien dus zal dit ook gaan groeien.!
!
Wat zijn de kansen? Wat zijn bedreigingen volgens jou?!
De bestaande platforms zijn de bedreigingen. Je kan dit alleen maar doen als je zelf een slimme
niche weet te vormen. De bestaande platformen hebben allemaal al een bestaande markt. Dus
als je dan eenzelfde platform gaat oprichten dan heb je te maken met hun concurrentie, dat
word moeilijk. Je moet je op een niche focussen. Specialiseren in iets. Al heb je alleen maar
blauwe overhemden.!
Of alleen maar jurken. Of alleen maar grote maten. Die niches zijn wel te vinden denk ik.!
!
Zijn er initiatieven rondom de tweedehands kledingmarkt online die iets nieuws of innovatiefs
brengen naar jouw weten?!
Ja de kledingbibliotheken hebben bij mij wel iets getriggerd. Ik vind dat een heel leuk en
innovatief concept, geheel in lijn met de current ontwikkelingen. LENA en die in Utrecht. !
En United Wardrobe op zich ook wel, het is een slimme onderneming. Ze kunnen de nieuwe
marktplaats worden.!
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112
Interview Prof. Jesse Weltevreden - Lector Online Entrepeneurship at HvA & CAREM &
Weltevreden Research and Consultancy.!
13/04/2015!
summary/important questions of interview by phone:!
!
• Marktplaats is nog steeds by far het grootste C2C Ecommerce platform voor de tweedehands
markt in Nederland.!
• eBay staat op tweede plek (zelfde eigenaar ook). Speurders niet echt meer. bol.com is rising,
met z’n tweedehands marktplaats. eBay is meer internationaal gericht, voornamelijk dingen
die je in je eigen land niet kan krijgen (verzamelobjecten, munten, singeltjes, electronica etc)!
• Marktplaats en eBay representeren ruim genomen meer dan 50% van de c2c ecommerce
markt.!
• Fashion resale platformen waar het product eerst naar het bedrijf gaat en daarna pas door
naar een andere consument is geen c2c maar b2c.!
• C2c ecommerce markt online meer sales volume dan de b2c ecommerce markt online; lastig
te zeggen. de vraag is dan wat je meeneemt in je statistieken; als je de reisbranche ook mee
telt dan is het anders.!
• De omzet bepalen van een platform zoals Marktplaats is heel lastig omdat er niet aan de site
gemeld word voor hoeveel een product uiteindelijk verkocht wordt. Voorzichtig zijn met dit
soort uitspraken dus.!
• Omvang van c2c ecommerce markt is gigantisch aan het groeien en zal ook wel zo doorgaan.
Voordat er internet was werd er weinig tussen mensen verhandelt, omdat er bijna geen
mogelijkheden waren. Nu is het ZO gemakkelijk gemaakt, dat iedereen er wel aan mee zal
gaan doen.!
• Motivatie is dus vaak: toch wel de crisis, dat mensen hun best gaan doen om op bepaalde
manieren meer inkomsten te krijgen; het verkopen van je spullen die je niet meer gebruikt. En
het gemak. !
• De meerderheid koos in mijn enquete voor het kopen van tweedehands offline in plaats van
online. zouden we hierover kunnen zeggen dat dat per jaar afneemt? elk jaar worden mensen
meer op hun gemak bij het aanschaffen van producten online? Verbaast hierover. Heb het
idee dat de meeste kopers toch liever online kopen. Wat voor soort consumenten heb je
gesproken? Kinderkleding wordt bijvoorbeeld veel liever online gekocht dan helemaal naar
een winkel gaan, omdat de maten toch altijd het zelfde vallen.!
• Toekomst: zeker potentie om te groeien. Denk dat het ook voornamelijk bij retailers zichtbaar
gaat zijn: dat de grote retailers ook een online marketplace hebben, net als bol.com. dat is
toch een stukje extra service dat je je klant aan kan bieden, als die bijvoorbeeld iets zoekt dat
jij niet meer op voorraad heb, maar een andere klant biedt het tweedehands aan voor deze
prijs, dat werkt heel goed. Zalando bijvoorbeeld, zal me niet verbazen als dat er aan zit te
komen.!
• Er zal denk ik niet 1 groot platform globaal ontstaan, eerder een spreiding van marktplaatsen.!
• Goede investering: niet echt. mensen zijn marktplaats gewend. Het is juist zo handig voor de
‘gewone mens’ om al je spullen op 1 plek te kunnen verkopen, en al je advertenties kunnen
beheren op 1 plek. Plus het heeft al een gigantisch netwerk. En groot aanbod voor kopers.!
• Echter lastig verdien model voor dit soort marktplaatsen die geen commissie vragen.
oppassen met bedrijfsadvertenties, voor klanten super irritant en gaat tegen je werken.!
• Probleem is dat je voor de meeste tweedehands kleding niet zo veel terug krijgt. Unieke Gucci
jasjes ofzo natuurlijk wel, maar de average tweedehands kleding is niet meer zoveel waard.
Als er dan ook nog commissie vanaf gaat dan word het wel een heel klein extraatje voor de
moeite die je er voor moet doen.!
113
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• Stel iemand zou nu een online platform opzetten voor mensen om hun kleding te kopen en
verkopen, wat voor advies zou je diegene dan meegeven?
Ik zou zon platform niet opzetten in landen die al een gevestigde marktplaats hebben.
Misschien wel in ontwikkelingslanden bijvoorbeeld, plekken waar mensen wel toegang
hebben tot internet, die goedkoop tweedehands kleding uit Nederland kunnen krijgen. (Hoe
goedkoop is dat dan vraag je je af….)!
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114
Popularity of Dutch online platforms:!
Ranked by Facebook likes:!
!
6 feb 2015:!
• United Wardrobe (founded 2013): 91.787 likes!
• Designer Vintage (founded 2008): 23.405 likes!
• De Kast van Amsterdam (founded 2013): 9034 likes!
• Trash to Treasure (founded 2013): 4842 likes!
• The Next Closet (founded 2013): 4816 likes!
• Luxury Vintage (founded 2013): 3103 likes!
• Vinty Women (founded 2014): 1783 likes!
• Poppintags (founded 2014): 1308 likes!
—————!
! •!
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2ndHandBrand (founded 2014): 949 likes!
Ranked by Instagram followers:!
!
9 feb 2015:!
• Designer Vintage (founded 2008): 8886 followers!
• Luxury Vintage (founded 2013): 3138 followers!
• United Wardrobe (founded 2013): 1636 followers!
• The Next Closet (founded 2013): 1533 followers!
• Trash to Treasure (founded 2013): 555 followers!
• De Kast van Amsterdam (founded 2013): 346 followers!
• Vinty Women (founded 2014): 83 followers!
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• Poppintags (founded 2014): 27 followers!
115
Dutch Facebook groups focussed on the resale of clothing - organized by number of
members 06-12-2014: !
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Kleding Aangeboden/Gezocht (21.521 members)!
Te Koop 2e hands kleding tassen en schoenen (6967 members)!
FILOU kleding (4473 members)!
Kleding Marktkraam Enschede (3273 members)!
Kleding Gezocht/Aangeboden (2144 members)!
Kleding-koopjeshoek-ede (2217 members)!
Kleding verkoop hoek (1966 members)!
Kleding verkopen/ruilen (1789 members)!
Kleding Lansingerland, nieuw en tweedehands (815 members)!
Kleding maat 92 t/m 164 alphen aan den rijn (809 members)!
KLEDING EN SCHOENEN AANGEBODEN/GEZOCHT (752 members)!
Amsterdamse kleding verkoop (725 members)!
Verkoopgroep kleding Lansingerland (655 members)!
Kleding- en schoenensale 0187 (599 members)!
Maat 40+ kleding aangeboden/gezocht (537 members)!
Kleding weggeefhoek en meer Tiel (484 members)!
Gratis kleding en schoenen aangeboden (342 members)!
Kleding Enzo voor Kids Reimerswaal (328 members)!
kleding ruil/verkoop Leiden (: (270 members)!
Kledingbank snekerhoek (265 members)!
Kleding weggeefhoek Hengelo ov (246 members)!
Amsterdamse kleding (193 members)!
116
User profiles United Wardrobe (nov 2014):!
!
**!
figuur 1: shows that the majority of the users of platform United Wardrobe are female (source:
United Wardrobe, Google Analytics)!
!
!
figuur 2: shows that the majority of the users of platform United Wardrobe are between 18 and
24 years old (source: United Wardrobe, Google Analytics)!
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117
118
2013
2008
2014
2013
2013
2014
2013
Designer-Vintage
The Next Closet
De Kast van
Amsterdam
Luxury Vintage
Poppintags
Trash to Treasure
Founded
United Wardrobe
Company
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
Origin
NL
NL, Belgie
NL, world wide?
Amsterdam
NL
NL, world wide?
NL, Belgie
Reach
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL
NL, ENG,
GER
NL
Website
language
current
stop on
members
40 kasten
2000
55.000
Users/
Members
150
500
1700
2500
Average
Daily
Visitors
4842
1308
3103
9034
4816
23.405
91.787
Facebook
likes
6/2/2015
555
27
3138
346
1533
8886
1636
Instagram
followers
9/2/2015
Low
Low
Premium
Low
Mid
Mid
Low
Price
Segment
in consignment
self service
in consignment
in consignment
in consignment
both
self service
self service/in
consignment
95-5
average
90-10 :percenta
ge depends on
selling price per
item
50-50
60-40
average
90-10 :percenta
ge depends on
selling price per
item
90-10
percentage
seller /
company
focus on stories
behind garments,
sustainable
perspective. also
new clothing.
a part of the 5%
consignment costs
goes to charity
daughter of
designer-vintage;
big reach
focus on stories
behind garments
strong editorial
content
authenticity check,
one of the first
resale platforms
the new marktplaats
for fashion only
USP
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Case Overview Dutch platforms
Case Overview Dutch platforms, 6 Feb 2015:!
Analysis Facebook sellers - Stimulants to sell [25 Feb. 2015]:!
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119
Vragenlijst focusgroep vrouwelijke Nederlandse consument 20-30 jaar!
!
kopen jullie wel eens tweedehands kleding?!
kopen jullie wel eens tweedehands kleding online?!
verkopen jullie wel eens je eigen kleding?!
verkopen jullie wel eens je eigen kleding online?!
!
wat is je motivatie om je eigen kleding te verkopen vaak?!
wat gebruik je dan liever? offline markten en closet sales en dergelijke, of online platforms op
facebook of websites en dergelijke?!
!
wat is je motivatie om tweedehands kleding te kopen?!
!
in hoeverre ben je op de hoogte van wat de kledingindustrie voor negatieve invloed heeft op
deze wereld?!
!
vinden jullie dat de maatschappelijke verantwoordelijkheid van een kledingstuk ligt bij de
retailer? als in, zij die het kledingstuk maken zijn in the end ook verantwoordelijk voor wat er
mee gebeurd als laatste stap?!
hoe zouden ze dit kunnen doen?!
!
of ligt het bij de consument, het moment dat je iets hebt aangeschaft? !
gooi je ook wel eens kleding weg? zo ja, scheid je dan textiel afval van je gewone afval? net
zoals je plastic, papier en glas scheidt?!
!
wat vind je van het verkopen van je eigen kleding online? vind je het makkelijk? zou je dit blijven
doen denk je? !
zie je toekomst in platformen als United Wardrobe, vergelijkend met de deel economie en de ruil
handel.!
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Hoe denk je dat deze hype van het verkopen van je eigen kleding over 10 jaar geëvolueerd is?!
!
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120
96 opinions on improving online fashion resale:!
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Wat zou het verkopen via internet volgens jou makkelijker en leuker kunnen maken?
Als je ermee zou kunnen adverteren. Bijv jouw kledingstuk van de maand.
Of 1 hot item, delen onder een kopje verkopers hot item.
Als nog meer mensen hun kleding gaan verkopen is er nog meer keuze; dus kun je
makkelijker een hele outfit shoppen. Wat je zoekt is dan misschien makkelijker te vinden. En
shoppen via 1 tweedehands winkel lijkt me makkelijker dan losse verkopers, omdat de
verzending bij meerdere kledingstukken dan in 1x gebeurd. En handig als er een ophaalpunt
in de buurt is voor t pakje, ivm drukke baan.
Kledingruil; zelfde kwaliteit, dichter bij huis, ipv met iemand helemaal afspreken om op te
laten halen, opsturen, betalen via iDeal ofzo (aangezien ik t altijd via marktplaats doe contant
etc) verzendkosten zijn vaak duur en houdt mensen tegen om iets aan te schaffen
Zo simpel mogelijk kleding kunnen verkopen. Misschien via een app oid. Vaak vind ik
platformen als Marktplaats te veel moeite kosten en ben ik snel gedemotiveerd. Maar
misschien ben ik gewoon heel lui.
Dat sommige informatie verplicht gegeven moet worden, zoals een foto of de maat - die
dingen zijn wel echt essentieel.
Als je bijvoorbeeld een keldingstuk van H&M wilt verkopen, dat je dan online makkelijk aan de
foto van H&M kunt komen. Zodat je bij het model het kledingstuk 'in actie' kunt zien en de
prijs enz.
Creatieve verzend en betaalopties?
Zekerheid aan beide kanten, vertrouwen. Maar dit kan natuurlijk niet afgedwongen worden.
als de post er ook bij inbegrepen zit, dat het bedrijf ook de pakketjes ophaalt en brengt naar
jouw koper.
als je goeie filters hebt in het zoekproces
als je het op een virtuele versie van jou zou kunnen passen, en kunt zien hoe het valt
als de fotos beter gemaakt worden, strenger selectie proces
dat het gemakkelijk is om het juiste publiek te trekken misschien
Zoeken naar aanleiding van bijvoorbeeld jou verkochte items zodat je meer op stijl zoekt?
Minder bewerkelijk maken, er wordt veel over en weer gechat over maten, lengte, "aanfoto's". Vrouwen blijven twijfelaars.
Iets exclusievere Facebookpagina's bijvoorbeeld.
Nu verzuip je in alle advertenties
Meer overzicht in facebookgroepen
Niet steeds om maat of afmetingen te hoeven vragen. "One size fits all" is grote onzin,
iedereen is anders.
En kwaliteitsaanbod, dus geen H&M ofzo. H&M koop ik zelf wel bij de H&M ;-)
als het ook wat meer op andere leeftijdsgroepen en grotere maten was gericht
Goeie foto's doen het hem altijd.
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Wat ik erg snel merk is dat er op Kleding aangeboden/gezocht alleen maar maat S enzo
wordt verkocht. Ik heb zelf maat L/XL en slaag bijna nooit op facebook. Er is wel een L/XL
facebook maar die is veel minder druk. Dit vind ik jammer en ik zou een online
verkoopplatform voor plussize meiden dan ook erg leuk vinden.
Een eigen fotograaf ;)
En bij marktplaats kun je bv. de bedrijven-advertenies niet wegfilteren als je zelf zoekt.
Rating systeem, zoals bij Ebay, dat je weet wie betrouwbaar is of niet. Over het algemeen let
ik wel goed op, maar alsnog toch een paar keer vieze kleding ontvangen met gele vlekken,
ongesteldheids vlekken (IEWWW!!!), versleten en gaten...
Ik weet niet precies hoe het beter kan, ik verwonderde me een beetje over hoe handig ze 't
geregeld hebben bij United Wardrobe. Tof! Op die manier lijkt 't me erg handig om kleding te
kopen en verkopen. Misschien is het ook iets om een deal te sluiten met een pakketbezorger.
Het zal niet kunnen, maar het is maar een gedachte :) Misschien kan er op die manier voor
gezorgd worden dat het leuk blíjft om tweedehandskleding te kopen. Ik vind het namelijk heel
jammer als ik een trui van €6 koop waar ik dan ook nog 'es dat bedrag aan verzendkosten
moet betalen.
Nu is het moeilijk om nieuwe mensen met mijn verkoopsgroepje te laten kennismaken. Veel
mensen hebben hun vaste personen waar ze kleding voor hun kindjes bij kopen. Ikzelf
verkoop de te kleine kleertjes van mijn dochter via facebook (mijn eigen kleren niet omdat ik
die meestal wel draag tot ze versleten zijn).
Een afspraak maken waarbij als er interesse getoond word in bepaalde artikelen mensen niet
voor onbepaalde tijd je product kunnen reserveren om vervolgens zonder reden of überhaupt
contact op een behoorlijke manier afzien waardoor en waarna animo bij anderen ook weg is.
Als er meer animo voor zou zijn
Als er een site bestaan die selecteert op jouw stijl
De reden waarom ik uiteindelijk toch besluit om het niet te kopen is vanwege het passen. De
rompslomp als iets niet past.
Groot bereik creeeren.
!Leuker: daadwerkelijk dingen verkopen.
Ik zou een betere camera moeten aanschaffen, ook heb ik te weinig daglicht in huis voor
goeie foto's.
Meer info over het kledingstuk zelf, de vorige eigenaar etc.
Persoonlijker, en handiger bijv via een app waar je jouw maten etc kunt aangeven.
EEN CONNECTIE MET DE KLEDING. DUS ONLINE GROEPJES TOT EEN WINKEL
BRENGEN.
Duidelijke omschrijving producten en niet alleen jurkje maat s
Het makkelijk bijhouden van biedingen, en de mensen die afspraken niet nakomen of niet
eens reageren bannen.
-Als websites zoals united wardrobe uitgebreider zou zijn (bijvoorbeeld soort lookbook erbij).
-Iets er op verzinnen dat het maken van foto's en beschrijven van kleding sneller laat gaan/
vergemakkelijkt.
Geen idee
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Ik denk als je er een bepaalde stijl aan kunt geven en er een sfeer aan toe kan voegen. Wat
ik bijvoorbeeld doe is een eigen facebook pagina maken en het ook als een soort merk
brengen waarin ik de stijl doorvoer in bijvoorbeeld in de productfotografie en inspiratie
'content'. (op facebook: The Garbage Club)
!Het trekt mij meer aan als er een soort identiteit omheen wordt gecreëerd dan alleen foto's
van kleren op een hangertje of een meisje voor de spiegel.
Sites zoals UW rekenen nog 'service' kosten bij de aankoopprijs. Dit vind ik erg vervelend. Op
deze manier komt een ketting of shirtje op dezelfde prijs uit als je het nieuw koopt.
!Het zou het makkelijker maken als je wordt geholpen bij online verkopen. Dat je kleding kan
sturen naar een online webshop en zij je kleren voor je gaan verkopen en dat jullie beiden
een deel van de opbrengst krijgen.
Online kopen zou leuker zijn als je er zeker van bent dat dat wat je koopt mooi en goed is. Op
die manier weet je zeker dat het een goeie deal is, want online kopen heeft vind ik nog een
bepaalde risico factor wat ervoor zorgt dat ik het toch meestal niet aandurf en liever in een
winkel of tweedehandswinkel shop.
als er 1 heel goede website was waar iedereen lid van was en die hele goede mogelijkheden
zou hebben (nog beter dan UW) om te categoriseren op heel veel filters (prijs, kleur, merk,
etc), zodat je heel makkelijk kan vinden wat je zoekt.
- Als mensen zich houden aan de gemaakte afspraken. Ik stoor me vaak aan het feit dat
mensen op het aller laatste moment hun verkoop afzeggen. Dan heb ik al een pakje gemaakt,
moeite gedaan om het in te pakken, en dan blijkt dit voor niks te zijn geweest.
!- En op facebook iets meer overzicht. Dat de zoekfunctie het beter gaat doen. En als ik me
bijv kan abboneren op items die ik interessant vind, zodat ik niet door alle 'troep' hoef te
scrollen.
Een platform waarbij je een foto of video kan uploaden. Mensen hun reactie kunnen geven/
kunnen bieden. Als een item verkocht is, wordt de foto/het filmpje automatisch verwijdert. Dat
je door alle foto's kunt scrollen maar ook dat je kan zoeken op soort. Zoals tops/broeken/
accesoires etc.
Als er meer mogelijkheden zijn in het verkopen van de kleding
Een wereld zonder oplichters zou te gek zijn.
Dat alle kleding ingedeeld is,. zodat je goed kan zoeken naar speficieke items of maten.
De ander te zien in de kleding die ze kopen van mij. Soort van terugkoppeling
Misschien een soort app, maar verder vind ik het concept van United Wardrobe echt heel
goed. De website mag nog wel iets soepeler en de kosten voor IDeal betalingen zijn vrij hoog
voor deze tijd, maar verder is het een fantastisch concept.
Wel denk ik dat er op een website veel minder gelegenheid is voor community. Op een
Facebookgroup als Vintage Marketplace is veel meer communicatie mogelijk op een
vrijblijvende manier.
Ik vind het idee achter United Wardrobe goed (ik hou niet van al dat gepraat op marktplaats),
maar ik vind dat servicekosten er ook meteen bij moeten staan en bepaalde 'straffen',
wanneer iemand iets niet betaald (irritant). Ik mis op Nederlandse site een ratingsysteem,
zoals op eBay het geval is. Ik denk dat dat veel helpt bij verkopers, maar ook bij kopers.
Minder mensen etc. die op het laatste moment afhaken en betrouwbare verkopers. Succes
met je onderzoek
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niet zulke hoge verzendkosten bij post nl enz. :)
Het niet zelf hoeven verzenden van de kleding naar de andere consument maar dit ook via
een bedrijf laten verlopen. Als verkoper stuur je dus iets op naar een hypothetisch bedrijf, zeg
United Wardrobe, en deze sturen het vervolgens naar de koper op. Zo is er altijd een
tussencontrole.
De juiste doelgroep kunnen benaderen boor mijn kleding.
organisatie die opsturen en klachten verder afhandelt
Veiliger. (vooral bij marktplaats)
Meer structuur in zoektermen (met name bij united wardrobe en vooral op fb platform).
Mensen proberen gewoon ook echt zoveel troep te verkopen die niemand meer wil. Als dat
eruit geselecteerd kan worden.
Als er toch op de een of andere manier meer garantie kan worden geboden, dus bijv. meer
mogelijkheden om het item weer terug te brengen.
Meer garantie op een goede koop. Betere ruil mogelijkheden. Een betrouwbaar platform dat
je sowieso kan vertrouwen.
Een soort van automatische photoshop die jouw snapshot van je kleding er een stuk beter uit
laat zien.
De website moet mijn kleding op komen halen, ookal betaal ik dan ietsje meer. Ik zal
waarschijnlijk alleen dingen verkopen die een waarde hebben boven de 50euro. de rest zal ik
doneren aan charity. En de website moet geen commissie rekenen van boven de 10%.
Als ik er als consument zo min mogelijk moeite voor hoef te doen. Bij wijze van dat het bedrijf
bij mij een tas met kleding en dergelijke op haalt, en dit gaat verkopen en hier zo min mogelijk
commissie op maakt.
Via Eigen Paypall
door prysvragen
rembours garantie gratis
eigenlijk geen idee het vervelende vind ik, is dat je niet kan passen
uploaden van de fotos. Het duurd vrij lang voordad iets op internet stad.
Er staan op marktplaats teveel advertenties en handelaren met nieuwe spullen, wat het weker
irritant maakt.
Het is al vrij simpel via Martplaats maar toch kost 't veel tijd
gratis advertentie omhoog plaatsen.
maximaal aantal adevertentie niet meteen naar pag 100 verdwijnt!
Meer subgroepen en leeftijds geborden sites/ groepen
betere sites marktplaats voor kleren bvb
ervoor zorgen dat de verzendkosten niet zo duur zijn aangezien die hoog op kunnen lopen
Meer ruilgroepen
groepen pen stad ivm verzend kosten
marktplaat spcifiek voor kleding
Makkelijker online zetten kost nu teveel moeite wat het misschien niet eens is
voor adverteren toch goedkoper te maken
is al goed
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Vaker afterpay constructie dan kan ik ook aan kopen doen zonder mijn identifier en ik denk
dat je dan meer koopt, want je kan ook dingen kopen als je op dat moment geen minder geld
hebt
Online direct afrekenen
website die het makkelijk maakt om kleding toe te voegen, en het ook op een georganiseerde
manier weergeft
using a simple app or so would make selling online a lot easier
meer zekerheid van verkoop meer betrouwbaarheid van koper
Als het echt met profiel is en dat de mensen als het ware een kijke in je kledingkast kunt doen
makkelijker en handiger
als mensen niet heel lang tijd verspillen als ze uiteindelijk iets willen kopen
een app als je fotos van je items maakt meteen op je pagina komen
daar het heel simpel te maken
als er meer staan va sites
als het veiliger is
nee, het is goed genoeg
het gaat al gemakkelijk
leukere webshops met goedkoper breder aanbad
ik vind het al makkelijk zoals het nu is
geval van thriftshopping online versturen
met een app klik upload verkoop
Door het makkelijker en bekender te maken
via marktplaats verloopt de verkoop makkelijk het is ok
gaat wel goed
misschien iets van een paspop online zookit kopers het kleding stuk op een paspop kunnen
zien de foto kledingstuk makkelijk ergens op te schriven
Mobiel app upload foto verkoop
!
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125
Recommendations for a new online resale platform:!
!
• combine with the remake of old clothing!
• combine with dry cleaners and tailor!
• focus on DIY !
• combine with leasing system!
• have an app!
• focus on niche market (occasional wear? wedding collections, maternity clothing, etc.)!
• have a strong editorial content: magazine, photoshoots, inspirational photos, how to wear
(with a product, combine with other products) !
• make it look like a regular online webshop!
• have a model for all sizes (one for 34, 36, 38, 40, 42) and show the clothing on her, instead of
a doll!
• make a video of a model wearing the product, just like asos: it works fantastically!
• combine with resale of retailers: late collections for sale!
• have the service of picking up 1 big bag with clothing at someones doorstep!
• donate the garments you will not sell to a charity, and be transparent in this: where is the
clothing now; collaborate with charity on tracking the clothing and showing the previous
owners!
• have a focus on classical items and silhouettes: they will not go out of style quickly!
• perhaps have your app as Tinder: who is in your neighborhood and you can look in her closet/
pick up right away!
• focus on technology: a consumer can have its own virtual user profile, like an avatar, on which
she can try on the clothes and see how it fits on her body!
• Shop-Hers f.i. has a patent pending ‘Style Soul Mates algorithm’ which gives the consumer a
personalized style feed based on favorite designers and their sizes!
• include menswear, kidswear and home goods?!
• focus on fast and free delivery, worldwide!
• have a strong and easy return service (no costs, no hassle)!
!
!
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126
127
40
120
285
kleding
overig
totaal
0.4
5.6
2.4
270
111
41
118
1.5
9.8
266
106
45
115
2013
81
187
462
kleding
overig
totaal
3.7
bron: OIS
14.8
totaal
479
192
93
194
2011
kleding
ontwikkeling
194
antiek
2010
7.1
5.4
445
166
98
181
2012
20.0
10.2
534
252
108
174
2013
werkzame personen bij detailhandel in tweedehands goederen
5.0
totaal
286
118
42
126
2011
tweede hands kleding
ontwikkeling
125
antiek
2010
2012
8.8
8.3
487
212
117
158
2014
2.6
8.9
259
106
49
104
2014
0.6
3.4
484
220
113
151
2015
6.9
14.3
241
101
42
98
2015
100
98
105
101
2011
100
100
100
100
2010
104
103
115
100
2011
index 2010 == 100
100
100
100
100
2010
index 2010 == 100
96
89
121
93
2012
95
93
103
94
2012
116
135
133
90
2013
93
88
113
92
2013
105
113
144
81
2014
91
88
123
83
2014
105
118
140
78
2015
85
84
105
78
2015
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aantal winkels in tweedehands goederen
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Onderzoek, Informatie en Statistiek bureau Amsterdam, ontvangen 31 maart 2015:!
128
2009 USA
2011 USA
2011 USA
2012 USA
2012 USA
2012 USA
2012 USA
2013 USA
Closet Rich
The Real Real
Bib+Tuck
Shop Hers
Threadflip
Vaunte
Walk in My Closet
Mid
Premium
Low
Premium
Mid
Premium
Mid
Low
Lowest priced
item for sale
Diane von
Furstenberg
romper, $35.
Zara blue
loafers, 35$
Glamorous
peach pant,
$44.
Hot Pink Hello
Kitty Vans,
$10.
Cynthia Steffe
dress, $35.
Users can literally take a peek into
Cheap Monday
each other's closets. Photograph
dark grey
yours and upload images (even if you jeans, $50.
aren't selling and it's just for
bragging rights), or create a virtual
dream closet.
Strong editorial content and design
gives the site a different spin on the
usual marketplace feel. It also has a
menswear and home goods section.
There's a strong emphasis placed on
the social aspect of the site. Users
can gain followers with a similar
sense of style who are notified every
time a seller drops a price or adds a
new item. Threadflip also absorbs
the cost of any purchase over $100
found to be falsely advertised in any
way.
Shop Hers has a patent-pending
"Style Soul Mates" algorithm that
places buyers and sellers into sub
communities based on style
similarities.
Closely curated to feel like the
Vintage gold
ultimate downtown-mid-twentiesearrings, 1$
girl's closet. It operates with a unique
site currency and gives new users a
starting balance to hit the ground
running.
It's a hybrid luxury designer
consignment and flash sale site.
Simple, easy-to-browse site that
combines a highly-curated online
selection with a sporadic brick-andmortar presence in the form of popup shops.
Tradesy functions as a marketplace
Charter Club
that is open to all brands, plus there's summer Ta specialized wedding shop. Users
shirt, $3.50.
can also curate a personalized style
feed based on favorite designers and
clothing sizes to cut down on
browsing time.
Founded Origin Price Segment What makes it different
Tradesy
Company
Michael Kors,
Thakoon, Jil
Sander, Band
of Outsiders.
Hermès brown Alaïa, Hermès,
crocodile Kelly, Chanel, Oscar
$6,600.
de la Renta.
Hermès matte
crocodile
Birkin,
$54,999.
Upload pictures (helpful guide to
taking selfies included) and set
suggested pricing for submission to
the site's editors.
Submit items to The RealReal for
consideration either by shipping
them in or by using their free
pickup service, available in major
US cities. Inspection, photography
and pricing is controlled by The
RealReal.
Sellers are chosen on a referral
basis only.
Sellers upload images and set
price based on a suggested amount
given. Tradesy professionally
cleans the main image and when
the item sells, the site sends the
seller a pre-paid shipping kit. If the
item is returned, the seller is not
responsible for refunding the buyer
unless the item has been
misrepresented.
Photograph and submit your
luxury designer item for
consideration (images will be
professionally cleaned for actual
sale) or utilize the concierge
service for a 35% commission.
Upload photographs and
descriptions of items for
submission. If accepted, Vaunte
sets the price, professionally
photographs the item, and ships it
to the buyer upon purchase.
Upload pictures and set your own
price via the web uploader or
Threadflip app. The "White Glove"
pre-paid shipping and listing
service is offered for a 40%
commission.
Dior, Marc
Sellers upload images and set a
Jacobs, Lanvin, price, or send the item to Shop
Givenchy.
Hers and have them do the listing
and shipping for a steeper 35%
transaction fee.
Rachel Comey,
Dolce Vita,
Nasty Gal,
bygone
designer and
fast fashion
collabs.
Balenciaga,
Fendi, Jason
Wu, J Brand.
Alexander
Wang, Loeffler
Randall, Mink
Pink,
Reformation.
Old Navy,
Opening
Ceremony,
Cartier and
everything in
between.
Brands you can How the selling process works
expect to find
Hermès Birkin, Everything
$18,000.
from Wet Seal
and Chinese
Laundry to
Yves Saint
Laurent and
Dior.
Van Cleef &
Arpels
necklace,
$19,800.
Versace
handbag,
3999$
Takat Gems
emerald and
diamond ring,
$5,025.
Burberry
Prorsum
original
studded
leather Knight
satchel, $900.
Ladies' Rolex,
$61,995.
Highest priced
item for sale
If buying, this site is
best for..
Up to 40%
25% Getting to shop the
closets of selected
"influencers,"
including Charlotte
Ronson, Elettra
Wiedemann and
Julia Restoin
Roitfeld.
Satisfying picky
shoppers.
20% Unique vintage/
handmade finds
alongside staple
goods from the likes
of Forever 21, Gap,
and J.Crew.
18% Finding real luxury
designer steals (like
these $65 Prada
kitten heels) with
minimal scrolling.
0% A sharply curated,
budget friendly
selection of high and
low designers.
40% Widest selection of
luxury designer
merchandise.
Undisclosed, as Sharply-discounted
the selling
indie designer
process is
goods.
private and
based on
referral.
9% The trendster whose
closet is constantly
refreshing itself.
Percentage of
sale charged as
commission
Knowing your items
will be well presented.
Accepting a wide
variety of designer
merchandise.
Accepting the parts of
your closet that got hit
hard during your DIY
phase.
Getting excess designer
goods off your hands
quickly and cheaply.
Making sure your
items don't get lost in
an overwhelming sea of
products.
Those looking for an
easy, "hands-off"
consignment process.
Excellent networkers.
Those looking for a
place that accepts any
brand (in good
condition).
If selling, this site is
best for..
Case Overview Fashion Resale Platforms in the United States!
Original Newsletter from The Reformation, April 13 2015:!
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