Lithospheric Heat Flow and Dynamics

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Lithospheric Heat Flow and Dynamics
Lithospheric Heat Flow and Dynamics!
!
•  obvious signals!
- heat flow, depth, and geoid height versus age!
- does hydrothermal circulation really transport 10 TW?!
•  inferred signals!
-  lithospheric thickness and strength versus age!
-  swell-push force and global stress from the geoid!
•  mysterious signals!
- details of 3-D plate shrinkage!
- are gravity lineaments and volcanic ridges due to lithospheric shrinkage?!
- are transform faults thermal contraction cracks?!
global heat budget!
qs
qb
c
ction
ondu
44 T
lithosph
mantle
ction
e
v
n
o
c
ction
conve
e re
7.5 T
25-1
core 3
-13 T
W
5 TW
W
W
oceanic lithosphere dominates mantle convection
!largest surface area
!greatest temperature drop across TBL = largest density contrast
!> 1/2 of heat escapes in young oceanic lithosphere
!
qs
qb
c
ction
ondu
44 T
lithosp
here
mantle
ction
e
v
n
o
c
ction
conve
25-1
core 3
-13 T
W
7.5 T
5 TW
W
W
thermal expansion!
volumetric expansion
!V
= " !T
V
or
!#
= $" !T
#
" - the rm al expa ns ion c oeffi cient ~ 3x10 -5 ˚ C$ 1
linear expansion
!l
= " l !T
l
"
"l #
3
thermal stress !
develops when!
!
!("
T
)
#
0
obvious signals!
-  depth versus age!
-  heat flow versus age!
- geoid height versus age!
depth vs age!
!"# m
d (t ) =
#m ! #w
L
$ Tdz
0
d ( t ) ! 2500 + 350 t 1 / 2
heat flow vs age!
!T
q( t ) = k
!z
q( t ) ! 480 t "1 / 2
data = 10 TW
model = 20 TW
What is the global heat output of the Earth?!
!
!How do we interpret this discrepancy?!
!
!A) The other 10 TW is transferred by hydrothermal circulation [Lister,
1972; Williams et al., 1974; Sleep and Wolery, 1978, Anderson and Hobart,
1976; Stein, 1995]!
!
!B) The other 10 TW does not exist and the total heat output from the
Earth is < 34 TW [Hofmeister and Criss, 2005]. !
!
!
!
!!
conservation of
energy
! m CP v • " T = " • q
(qb ! qu ) =
( " m ! " w )C p
#
(v • $d )
scalar
heat = constant X subsidence
flow
rate
thermal isostasy
!"# m
d (t ) =
#m ! #w
L
$ Tdz
0
heat flow related to
subsidence rate
( " m ! " w )C p $ A • $ d
(qb ! qu ) =
#
$ A •$ A
Mueller, personal communication 2006
Mueller, personal communication 2006
Loyd, Becker, Conrad, Litho-Bertelloni and Corsetti, PNAS, 2007
obvious signals - summary!
heat flow versus age!
!T
qs ( t ) = k
!z
•  surface temperature gradient!
•  noisy, observations << model!
depth versus age!
! "m
d (t ) =
"m ! "w
L
$ #Tdz
0
•  integrated temperature!
•  observations = model!
geoid height versus age!
!2 "G#m
N (t) =
g
•  first moment of temperature!
•  dominated by mantle geoid, observations ~ model!
L
% $Tzdz
0
Inferred signals!
-  lithospheric strength versus age (see Watts, 2001)!
-  swell-push force and global stress from the geoid!
!
Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain
Plate
kinematics
Kauai
Plate
Mechanics
(flexure)
Oahu
Molokai
Maui
Hawaii
Sandwell & Smith 1997 (offshore) +Woollard et al 1966 (onshore)
Gravity anomalies and crustal structure at Oahu/Molokai
Watts & ten Brink (1989)
Estimating Te
Oceanic Crust
Te can be estimated by comparing the
amplitude and wavelength of the observed
gravity anomaly to the predicted anomaly
based on an elastic plate model.
The minimum in the RMS difference between
observed and calculated gravity anomaly
indicate a best fit Te ~ 30 km.
Topography seaward of the Kuril Trench
Distance to bulge ~ 120-140 km
Te ~ 30 km
Relationship between oceanic Te and plate and load age
Watts & Zhong (2000)
Lithospheric Heat Flow and Dynamics!
!
•  obvious signals!
- heat flow, depth, and geoid height versus age!
- does hydrothermal circulation really transport 10 TW?!
•  inferred signals!
-  lithospheric thickness and strength versus age!
-  swell-push force and global stress from the geoid!
•  mysterious signals!
- details of 3-D plate shrinkage!
- are gravity lineaments and volcanic ridges due to lithospheric shrinkage?!
- are transform faults thermal contraction cracks?!

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