walking your fields

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walking your fields
WALKING
YOUR FIELDS
®
www.pioneer.com
From Your DuPont Pioneer Agronomy and Product Specialist
April 2015
PLANTING DEPTH CRUCIAL FOR TOP YIELDS
The main goal of your planting operation should be to place all seeds at a uniform depth and spacing. Technology advancements
from equipment manufacturers have allowed for much improved seed metering accuracy and monitoring in recent years,
however planting depth uniformity remains a factor that must be evaluated manually with changing field conditions. Proper
planting depth is crucial for even stand establishment, which maximizes both your corn and soybean yield potential.
Corn planted too shallow (<1.5-inches):
• Is less able to uptake water and nutrients through the
roots
• May develop a condition called “rootless corn syndrome”
causing the plants to fall over due to the lack of nodal
root development in dry soil
• May expose corn seedlings to herbicide residues,
increasing the potential for herbicide injury
• May slow emergence and root development, especially
in dry conditions (See photo on left)
Photo illustrates potential emergence & development
problems associated with planting too shallow (<1.5”) or
too deep (>2.5”)
Corn Planting Depth Recommendations:
• Planting depth should be 1 ¾ to 2 inches. A deeper depth
may be justified in very dry soil conditions to reach
adequate moisture
• Set planting depth in the field with the planter being
pulled at full operating speed
• Check planting depth across entire width of planter
(center can vary significantly from outside wings due to
weight distribution)
• Check for good seed-soil contact
• Slower planting speeds achieve more uniform planting
depths
• Utilize in-row residue management equipment where
needed
Rootless corn syndrome caused by shallow planting
and dry soil conditions.
In most cases, a soybean planting depth of 1 to 1.5 inches is adequate. However, soybeans must absorb 50% of their
weight in moisture in order to germinate. As such, consider planting into at least ½ inch of moist soil.
It is important for seeds of both crops to imbibe (take up) warmer water for germination success. Consider delaying
planting if cold and wet conditions are predicted within 24 hours. Cold chill injury symptoms in corn often include
“corkscrewing” and “leafing out” prior to seedling emergence.
In less than ideal field conditions, compaction and seed furrow sidewall compaction are two concerns that may also
hinder seedling growth and vigor. The best solution for these issues is to wait for better field conditions.
WALKING YOUR FIELDS® newsletter
is brought to you by your local account manager for DuPont Pioneer. It is sent to customers several times throughout the growing
WALKING YOUR FIELDS® newsletter is brought to you by ®
local account manager for DuPont Pioneer. It is sent to customers several times throughout
season,
courtesy of your Pioneer sales professional. PIONEERyour
brand
products are provided subject to the terms and conditions of purchase which are part of the labeling
the growing season, courtesy
of your Pioneer sales professional. PIONEER® brand products are provided subject to the terms and conditions of purchase
and
purchase documents. ®, TM, SM
Trademarks and service marks of Pioneer. © 2013 PHII.
which are part of the labeling and purchase documents. The DuPont Oval Logo, DuPont™ and Lumivia™ are trademarks or registered trademarks of DuPont
The
DuPont Oval Logo
is a registered trademark of DuPont.
®, TM, SM
or its affiliates.
Trademarks and service marks of Pioneer. © 2015 PHII.
CORN & SOYBEAN SEEDING RATE RECOMMENDATIONS
DuPont Pioneer leads the industry in product knowledge through our intense Pioneer® GrowingPoint® agronomy research
efforts across the nation. All Pioneer sales representatives have this data at their fingertips and can help you maximize
returns on your seed investment. Corn and soybean seeding rate recommendations will vary depending on the product,
placement, and the amount of risk that each grower wants to take on.
Soil
Temperature
Degrees
50
60
70
80
Days to
Emergence
Corn Soybean
20
21
10
12
5
7
4
4
As hard as we try, not every seed will become a viable plant at the end of the
year. Part of the reason for this is that the optimum soil temperature for corn and
soybean germination is near 86° F. However, waiting for this soil temperature is not
possible in our growing environment. Cold soils, along with wet soil conditions, can
cause stand establishment challenges. Both are common issues in an Iowa spring
that can become even more challenging with higher amounts of crop residue from
minimum tillage practices. The chart at the left estimates the number of days to
emergence for both corn and soybeans.
Additionally, DuPont Pioneer has stress and field emergence scores and suitabilities
available for all of our products to help with placing the right product on the right
acre. The key with all seeding rates is attaining a final plant population capable
of maximizing the amount of bushels gained from the seed expense. Certainly lower corn and soybean seeding rates can
achieve respectable yields, but this must be weighed against the risk of stand loss and the possibility of replant. Contact
your local Pioneer sales representative to review your seeding rate plans this spring.
IMPORTANCE OF SEED TREATMENTS IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH CENTRAL IA
Years of research have shown that soybean yields are highly sensitive to planting date. Maximum soybean yields are
reached by late April planting in Iowa if conditions allow. In order to achieve optimal stands in early planting situations,
seed treatments are a must. Fungicide components in seed treatments protect
seeds/seedlings from early season soybean diseases that often occur in cold/
damp soils associated with early plantings. Insecticides provide protection
from soil insects such
as wireworm and
white grubs while also
protecting against first
generation bean leaf
beetles, which tend
to be more severe in
early planted fields.
Not only do seed
treatments protect
yield in early season planting, this protection and profitable yield
advantage over untreated soybeans runs all the way through
June planting dates. Be sure to talk to your local Pioneer Sales
Representative about Pioneer Premium Seed Treatment (PPST).
Product performance is variable and subject to any number of environmental, disease and pest pressures. Individual results may vary. *ClarivaTM nematicide and Cruiser® insecticide are trademarks or registered
trademarks of a Syngenta Group Company. Pioneer Premium Seed Treatment for soybeans is applied at a DuPont Pioneer production facility or by an independent sales representative of Pioneer. Not all
sales representatives offer treatment services, and costs and other charges may vary. See your Pioneer sales representative for details. Seed treatment offering exclusive to DuPont Pioneer and its affiliates.
NEW CORN SEED TREATMENT ON NEW CORN PRODUCTS IN 2015
This spring DuPont Pioneer is introducing a new corn insecticide seed treatment with a novel mode of action. The new
Pioneer Premium Seed Treatment (PPST) 250 offering with DuPont™ Lumivia™ insecticide seed treatment is available
exclusively on select new Pioneer® brand corn hybrids for 2015. This new product provides growers with several new
advantages including:
•Improved yield advantage
*Across all locations, PPST 250 plus DuPont™ Lumivia™ insecticide showed an average yield advantage of 2.6 bu/acre^
vs. PPST 250 alone.
•Uniform, healthy stands
*Broad spectrum pest protection
for consistent emergence and vigor
under early-season stress.
•New mode of action
*Novel insecticide technology
provides rapid feeding cessation for
immediate protection of seed.
PPST 250 is the Pioneer Premium Seed Treatment offering that includes a fungicide, insecticide, and biological.Supporting Pioneer® GrowingPoint® Agronomy Research Update on PPST 250 plus Lumivia™
can be referenced on Pioneer.com website at: www.pioneer.com/home/site/us/pioneer_growingpoint_agronomy. ^Products treated with PPST 250 plus Lumivia™ have shown a 2.6 bushel/acre yield
advantage on average over products treated with PPST 250. Data is based on average of all 2013-2014 comparisonsthrough Nov. 26, 2014 made in 160 on-farm and Pioneer® GrowingPoint® agronomy
research trials with a positive yield response in 59.4% of trials. Product responses are variable and subject to a varietyof environmental, disease, and pest pressures. Individual results may vary.
CORN ROOTWORM MANAGEMENT UPDATE
Corn rootworm (CRW) management has become complex. The two rootworm species—western
(L)
corn rootworm and northern corn rootworm—have the inherent ability to evolve and adapt to Western
Northern (R)
changes in rootworm management. For instance, some western corn rootworm populations have
changed their behavior and now lay eggs in soybean fields. Some northern corn rootworm eggs
remain viable in the soil for two years before hatching. Both of these behaviors diminish the impact
of crop rotation, which has been a historical management strategy.
Corn rootworm Bt technology is another valuable tool for managing these pests. However, DuPont
Corn Rootworm
Pioneer and University research suggests that continuous, uninterrupted use of corn rootworm Bt
technology can lead to decreased corn rootworm susceptibility, and may result in reduced product efficacy against
this insect. As a result, it is essential to develop a multi-faceted rootworm control management plan.
Your local Pioneer sales professional can assist you in developing best management practices for your farming
operation.
SPRING APPLIED NITROGEN FERTILIZERS
An extended 2014 harvest season and some November rains left many Central and South Central IA growers with acres
un-fertilized and un-tilled for the 2015 crop. Concerns for finding the time and labor to deliver pre-planting nitrogen (N)
sources, as well as full width tillage, are valid concerns this spring. In some cases, fertilization programs may need to be
adjusted depending on how much time we have to prepare our fields for planting. The benefit to these applications is
that in-season N sources can be available closer to when the plants will actually use the N and will often entail no yield
loss compared to fall N applications. Here are some basic options to get you thinking about your N fertility program for
2015, should you need to change your source of N fertilizer.
The most common forms of N fertilizer include anhydrous ammonia (NH3), urea, and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN)
solutions. These types make up over 80% of all commercial N needed to produce crops in North America. While the N
fertilizers exist in various forms, the basics of N availability still apply. The reactions that take place in the soil gradually
break down stable NH4+ (Ammonium) forms into highly mobile NO3- (Nitrate) that readily leaches out of the soil
profile. The table below contains additional information for the three most common N fertilizers used.
Nitrogen fertilizers most commonly used for field crop production in North America
Fertilizer
Form
%N
Notes
Anhydrous Ammonia
Gas, applied as liquid from a
pressurized tank
82%
Relatively stable in the soil as it reacts with water to form NH4+. The most widely
used source of N for corn in North America.
Urea
Solid
46%
Manufactured by reacting CO2 with NH3. Very easy to handle, apply and blend.
Should be incorporated by tillage, irrigation or rainfall to reduce N loss. Polymer
or Sulfur coated Urea are “delayed release” forms and are intended to release N
when the plant needs the nutrient.
Urea-ammonium nitrate
solutions
Liquid
28% - 32%
UAN-28 and UAN-32 are very common, ½ of the total N in UAN solutions is amide
N (NH2-) derived from urea; ¼ is ammonium N (NH4+) ¼ is nitrate N (NO3-)
Spring Anhydrous Applications
Given that anhydrous ammonia is one of the cheapest and most stable forms of N, it is often the preferred N form in
Iowa. However, there is potential for seedling injury when anhydrous is applied just ahead of planting.
When anhydrous ammonia leaves the knives of the toolbar, it expands from the point of injection in all directions 2 ½
to 3 inches, leaving a 5- to 6-inch cylinder of N (expansion can be greater in dry or coarse soils). Free ammonia in this
band can damage or "burn" seeds and/or roots by removing water from the plant tissue. Separating the ammonia from
the seed/seedling by either time or distance reduces this risk of injury. Accurate GPS guidance systems may allow for
NH3 to be applied to the middle of future or recently planted corn rows. If the all of the seed can be placed ~15 inches
away from the point of NH3 injection, there would be no need to wait to plant.
In cases where NH3 and seed placement cannot be accurately controlled, a good rule of thumb is to wait to plant at
least 3 to 5 days after an ammonia application.
An additional waiting period may be beneficial if the following conditions occur:
•If NH3 applications are made when the soil is wet because the knife creates sidewall compaction. This forms a
channel for the NH3 to move up to the seed zone before getting absorbed by the soil.
•In dry/sandy soils, ammonia (in search of water) can diffuse further into what will become the seed zone.
•Shallow NH3 applications of 6 inches or less can increase injury because the placement is closer to the seed.
In any of the above circumstances, consider increasing the number of days from NH3 application to planting to help
reduce the potential for injury. Also consider planting at a slight angle from the NH3 application direction when
possible. This will help reduce the number of plants that may be affected if ammonia burn would occur.
From your DuPont Pioneer Agronomy and Product Specialists
South Central
Iowa
Lee Lira
Product Agronomist
Brian Renze
Account Manager
515-520-7127
[email protected]
Ryan Clayton
Field Agronomist
Ryan Van Roekel
Field Agronomist
Jason Kolln
Account Manager
515-238-3511
[email protected]
Wayne Larsen
Steve Henderson
Account Manager
641-328-9078
[email protected]
Account Manager
515-661-8198
[email protected]
Matt Vandehaar
Liz Boeckman
Account Manager
712-830-1517
[email protected]
Account Manager
515-393-1259
[email protected]
Jason Batterson
To be announced
Account Manager
Account Manager
641-664-2907
[email protected]
15-1521 MH

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