Legacy of Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte rose through the ranks of
Legacy of Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte rose through the ranks of the French army and
became a general at the age of 24. Though his military fame, he became
a political leader. In 1799, he helped overthrow the French government
and crowned himself emperor by 1804. From 1804 to 1812, he used the
military to create a French Empire. The Netherlands, Belgium, and parts
of Italy and Germany were added to the territory of France. In 1812,
Napoleon decided to invade Russia. This led to Napoleon’s defeat in
Russia. Again, Napoleon was defeated in Waterloo in Belgium.
Napoleon was defeated and the final phase of the French Revolution had
come to an end.
The French Revolution left a powerful legacy for world history: Secular society, nationalism,
and democratic ideas. Napoleon’s attempt to unify Europe under French domination was
Legacy of Napoleon:
- Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination.
- Napoleonic Code. Napoleonic Code is an organization of old French feudal and royal laws
into a unified system.
Napoleonic code included
Enlightenment ideas such as
equality and religious
- Awakened feelings of
national pride and growth of
nationalism. Nationalism is the
desire of independence from
outside rule and pride in one’s
- More secular government.
- Spread of democratic ideas
From 1814 to 1815, the Congress of Vienna attempted to restore Europe as it had been before
the French Revolution and Napoleonic conquests.
Legacy of Congress in Vienna:
- “Balance of Power” doctrine. Balance of power is when nations keep peace by maintaining
power equal to or in
balance with other
- Restoration of monarchies (old
- New political map of
- New political
wanted to ensure order and preserve
tradition. Liberals want changes in
The United States
Between 1776 and 1900, the
United States went through a period of major territorial expansion to
extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The
Industrial Revolution led to economic
prosperity, which facilitated the entrance of the
United States into global politics.
American Expansion, 1776-1900:
- The United States expanded from the original
13 colonies to include land all the way to the
- The United States expanded through economic,
political, and military means.
- The largest piece of territory was acquired through the Louisiana Purchase from France.
Changing Role of the United States:
- The Industrial Revolution made the United States a leading world economic power
beginning in the 19th century.
- This new status encouraged the United States to become increasingly involved in global
politics from that point forward.
Growth of Nationalism and the Formation of Germany and Italy
The rise of nationalism was a powerful force behind European politics during the nineteenth
century. Widespread demands for political rights led to revolutions and legislative actions in
Growth of Nationalism:
- National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of
- The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe, especially in
Italy and the German states. Unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 increased nationalistic tensions.
- Alliances began to form to prevent the spread of democracy. The Quadruple Alliance was
made up of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia after the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to
prevent democratic revolutions. The Holy Alliance was all monarchs, except for Great
Britain, that were invited to the Congress of Vienna and joined to stop democratic revolutions.
- Klemons, prince von Metternich, Austria’s minister, used the alliance system meetings,
known as the Concert of Europe, to oppose nationalism.
- In contrast to continental Europe, Great Britain expanded political rights through legislative
means and made slavery illegal in the British Empire.
Italy and Germany became nation-states long after the rest of Europe. In the early 1800’s,
northern Italy was controlled by Austria. Revolts were led against Austria, but they were
The national unification of Italy and Germany altered the balance of power in Europe and
touched off new rivalries with other European Nations.
Unification of Italy:
- Count Cavour unified Northern Italy. In 1852, Count Cavour became prime minister. He
formed a secret alliance with France and provoked war with Austria (with French support).
This led to northern Italy gaining independence and support with other city-states and Italy.
- Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.
- The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy. Finally, by 1870, Italy was
In the 1800’s, German-speaking people lived in several small states as well as Prussia and the
Austrian Empire. This was a confederation, or weak alliance of states.
Unification of Germany:
- Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war
and by appealing to nationalist feelings. Otto von Bismarck became prime
minister of King William I of Prussia in 1861 and Chancellor/chief
minister of the German Empire in 1861.
- Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which
justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
- The Franco-Prussian War led to the
creation of the German state. Due to
Prussian advances and aggression and a
rivalry with France, the French
declared war with Prussia in 1870.
This was known as the Franco-Prussian
War. Because of the victory over
France, the German Empire was united
under William I; William I took the
title of Kaiser (emperor).
Latin America Colonial Independence
Latin American revolutions of the nineteenth century were influenced by the clash of
European cultures in the development of governments and ruling
Spanish conquests in Latin America saw the rapid decline of native
populations and introduction of slaves from Africa. Conquistadors
were given governmental authority by the crown, becoming known
as viceroys. Viceroys are conquistadors that were given
governmental authority by the crown.
Characteristics of the Colonial System:
- Colonial governments mirrored the home governments.
- Catholicism had a strong influence on the development of the colonies. The church assisted
in helping the natives adopt Spanish culture.
- A major element of the economy was the mining of precious metals for export.
- Established major cities as outposts of colonial authority:
Havana – Capital of Cuban colony.
Mexico City – Capital of New Spain (Mexico).
Lima – Capital of Peru.
Sao Paulo – City in Brazil.
Buenos Aires – Capital of La Plata (Argentina).
A rigid class structure emerged in the Spanish colonies based on race and place of birth.
Rigid Class Structure:
- Peninsulares: Viceroys/colonial officers: Officials who govern a country, province, or
- Creoles: People of European descent born in Spanish America.
- Mestizo: A person mixed with European and Native American ancestry
- Mulattoes: People of mixed African and European descent.
- Native Americans and Africans.
Causes of the Revolutions in Latin America:
- Rigid social class system established by colonial powers
- Centralized rule by colonial powers.
- Increased nationalism in Latin American countries.
- Increasingly educated creole middle class.
- Influence of the Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions.
Latin American Revolutions:
The American and French Revolutions took place in the late 1700’s. Within twenty years, the
ideas and examples of these revolutions influenced the people of Latin America to establish
independent nations, most notably in Haiti and Mexico.
- Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won
- Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence
- Independence came to French, Spanish, and Portuguese
Locations of Selected Countries that Gained
Independence during the 1800’s:
Mexico - 1810
Haiti – 1804
Columbia - 1819
Venezuela – 1830
Brazil – 1822
The contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simon Bolivar led to the development of
independent states in Latin America in the nineteenth century.
Contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture:
- Former slave who led the Haitian rebellion against the French.
- Defeated the armies of three foreign powers; Spain, France, and Britain.
Contributions of Simon Bolivar:
- Liberated the northern areas of Latin America.
- Native-born resident who led revolutionary efforts.
After the American Revolution, the United States wished to prevent foreign
interference in America. The Monroe Doctrine was issued in 1823, alerting
European powers that the American continents should not be considered for
any further colonization. With the Monroe Doctrine, now, any European
interference would be considered aggression.
Monroe Doctrine was issued by American President James Monroe in 1823:
- Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent of their mother country.
- United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European
powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.
- Newly independent Latin American nations had to assimilate European, African, and Native
American cultures into one cohesive society.