The capital of the Roman Empire moves South East because of invaders
from the North West. The new capital is in Constantinople (now
Istanbul) named for the Emperor Constantine in what is today Turkey.
The Empire shifts East spanning from South Eastern Europe to Central
Asia. Byzantium is the first Christian kingdom.
Early Jewish Art
Jewish people trace their origin to the land of Canaan known from 2
CE -1948 CE by its Roman name Palestine now Israel. Jewish settlement
of this area probably began around 2,000 BCE. In the Torah, the first
five books of Hebrew scriptures, God promised this land to Abraham.
In the exodus from Egypt the prophet Moses led them to this promised
land and was given the 10 commandments that were put in a box
called the Ark of the Covenant.
The Finding of Baby Moses, wall
painting from a housesynagogue, Dura-Europas, Syria.
Mosaic synagogue floor, Moan 520
CE. The menorah candelabra may
come from the Tree of Life
symbolizing the body, the end of
exile, and paradise to come.
The Four Evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
The Christian Tau Cross, named for the Greek letter it looks like, one of the oldest letters
known, was a symbol of the Roman God Mithras, the Greek God Attis, and before them
Tammuz, the Sumerian solar God, the consort of the Goddess Ishtar. Tammuz, like Christ, was
associated with fishing and shepherding. Like the sun, the death and resurrection of Tammuz
was celebrated every spring like Jesus’ at Easter. Marking the forehead with a cross of ashes
dates back to these rituals. Also called St. Anthony's Cross, the Old Testament Cross, Egyptian
Cross, and the Advent Cross. St. Anthony and St. Matthew are said to have died on a Tau cross,
and is sometimes used to identify these martyrs. It is possible that Christ died on a Tau cross.
The Transfiguration of Christ
with Saint Apollinaris, mosaic in
the apse of the Church of Saint
Apollinare in Classe, Italy, 550
Archangel Michael, icon, 10th
century AD, silver gilt (gold
covered) with enamel (heated
paint 19 x14” in Venice Italy
Church of Saint Apollinare in, Italy,
Church of Hagia Sofia, 6th Century A.D.,
built in Constantinople, modern day
Istanbul, Turkey, became a mosque, now
is a museum. luxury = holiness
Draw the basic shape of a traditional Byzantine
church and label it with at least 5 terms (overhead
view from notes).
List 4 types of crosses and draw an example of each.
List 4 symbols for the 4 evangelists.
Tell me 2 things about the Tao cross.