Implication of the Design Thinking of “Unwasted Usage” Applied to
Implication of the Design Thinking of “Unwasted Usage” Applied to
Taiwanese Bamboo Workmanship Culture
Chuko, Cheng*, Yang, Ping-Yu**, Lin, Ying-Kuei***, Lin, Jia-Ying****
*Department of Industrial Design, Chaoyang University of Technology , e-mail address:[email protected]
**Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design, Chaoyang University of Technology, e-mail
***Department of Industrial Design, Chaoyang University of Technology, e-mail address:[email protected]
****Department of Industrial Design Chaoyang University of Technology, e-mail address:[email protected]
Abstract: Bamboo materials and bamboo utensils usually employed in our ancestors’ daily lives
reflected a fact that bamboo workmanship was not disregarded in Taiwanese lives and cultures but
observed in historical records owing to some effects of climate and environment at Taiwan. In
previous bamboo-related studies, the principal investigations concentrated in workmanship, daily
necessity, manufacture process, and technique mostly rather than design thinking with respect to
the workmanship and utensils.In recent years, the green and environment-friendly design thinking,
which helps make many materials reduced in the amount of production, recycled, and reclaimed,
emerges due to eco-awareness and resource recycling.Discovered in the design source and being
one original basic pattern or symbol of the green design concept, the design thinking of “unwasted
usage” has its principal implication and strategic thinking to emphasize collective existence with
the Earth and unreservedly make the best of natural materials given by the Mother Nature. By the
argument of Neo-Confucianism scholars of the Song Dynasty, China, “An object’s noumenon is
referred to as the noumenon of all God’s creations” emphasizes that resources fully utilized are the
objective to fulfill sustainable existence of green environment.With the design thinking of
“unwasted usage” as the central conception in this study, we carried out literature reviews and
textual research to collect and summarize history information, from the aspect of realizing
knowledge of Taiwanese bamboo workmanship, status of the bamboo workmanship industry,
cultural development, and values of bamboo workmanship, and analyzing and investigating: (1)
Implication of “unwasted usage”; (2) Relationship between design and green philosophy; (3)
Potential of bamboo and flexible application of waste bamboo and mixed bamboo; (4) Design
thinking of “unwasted usage” on the basis of these conceptual ideas for the model applicable to
Taiwanese bamboo workmanship and culture.There are two essential opinions summarized from
this study: (1) Effect of “unwasted usage” on the design education: Based on the concept of design
intending for improving human lives, the design background via contacts with utensils, interfaces
and space and the innovative model under influence of some modern social issues are gradually
developed from design education and learning which exist in both our living scenarios and variable
phenomenon or models. In this regard, “unwasted usage” is an objective (or a strategy) induced
from development of the design thinking theory. It is possible for one designer to acquire further
developed theoretical design knowledge with “unwasted usage” deeply observed and analyzed. (2)
Value of “unwasted usage”: The natural recovery of the environment cannot withstand the
environmental destruction caused by human beings exploiting their wealthy material lives for mass
production, consumption and waste. Comparatively, the fundamental basis of the philosophy of
“unwasted usage” is that all types of usable natural materials totally dissolved and returning to soils
will contribute to recycling. With the possibility of an aggressive application of any material
developed from this idea, we can create a new development value for the design field, improve the
ecological effect without serious impact on the natural environment, and fulfill the terminal
objective of green design for mutualism, prosperity and sustainable development with nature.
Key words: Unwasted Usage; Bamboo Workmanship; Craft Culture; Green Design; Design
1. Philosophy of Thorough-and-flexible Utilization of Single Substance
1-1 Basic philosophy of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance
In its broad sense, it indicates that the substance of a single existence is the substance for all being, and the
thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance can be utilized effectively, in multiple aspects, the substance
of everything, i.e. fully applying or maximizing the potential of the material or feature of single substance to its
limit. In its narrow sense, it is to effectively utilize the material or feature of single substance in multiple aspects
while being consistent with environmental concepts like 3R so as to link up the relationship among mankind,
resource and environment, hence the codependent loop as a green supply chain.
1-2 Purpose and Approaches
In a surrounding where environmental awareness arises and proper utilization is emphasized for resources, the
concept of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance was born and has grown into a significant
philosophy concept in green design. Its key implication is the emphasis on coexistence with our planet earth. This
paper on bamboo utilization is an example in which approaches are discussed for a thorough-and-flexible
utilization of bamboo to the extent at which no waste remains, hence the saying: “the substance of a single
existence is the substance for all being”. It is a concern on the emphasis to practice thorough recycling and reuse
of green resources with an ultimate goal to achieve a sustainable existence of green planet earth environment.
This paper conducts analysis mainly based on collection of documents so as to sort out and rearrange historical
research and related information. Major content and procedures of study herein is as the following:
（1）Analysis and discussion on philosophy of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance and its
implications.（2）Discussion on the interactive relationship between design philosophy, green philosophy and the
concept of single substance for all being, based on collecting from documents.（3）Discussion on all parts of
bamboo, relevant crafts and other cases of multi-purpose utilization.（4）Based on study above and the example
of crafts industry in Taiwan, analysis on the model for design philosophy of thorough-and-flexible utilization of
single substance to be achieved and practiced in bamboo craft culture in Taiwan.
1-3 Study of philosophy of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance based on
Concerns on the relevance between substances, environment and human based on performance nature indicates
that（1）the substance of an existence, i.e. the individual substance has multiple capabilities sufficient to provide
usage and utilization potential for single user.（2）The substance and environment, i.e. the substance itself is
capable of provisions in multiple aspects for improvement over defects in environment, space or virtual space
(internet) so as to provide usage and utilization potential for multiple users.
The thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance means that single substance can be used for multiple
purposes. It’s the ultimate concern on maximizing the capabilities of the substance in constrained conditions or
space to its limit.
1-4 Study of philosophy of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance based on reuse
Existing reuse systems can be categorized into:
（1）Recycling and reuse of waste from contaminating substances: to convert waste which is potential threat to
natural ecosystem into materials beneficial to the natural ecosystem, or to obtain reusable material to achieve the
purpose of recycling and reuse.（2）Recycling and reuse of common waste: to recycle and reuse hard-to-dissolve
natural waste, or convert the waste into other products for recycling and reuse.（3）Recycling and reuse of food
and natural material remains: for instance, vegetable and fruit remains contain abundant water content and are too
bulky for burial or incineration – reinforced burial is also needed for incineration ashes, which adds to burial
disposition burden – therefore it is feasible to directly reuse, or extract reusable elements from plant remains and
obtain products. Whilst remains or redundant material may be produced during the process, it is required to find
out capabilities of the material and apply other conversion or utilization approaches.
Thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance is a concept of thorough usage, recycling and reuse of a
single material in the purpose of highly effective usage of limited resources. Its essence goes to the full utilization,
conversion and ceaseless recycling and reuse of the substantial elements in a single existence.
1-5 Study of philosophy of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance in the view of
The implication of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance resembles “…body comes from the
same source and no difference can be distinguished from this level…” from the Preface for Zhouyi Chengshi
Zhuan. “Body” means the substance, the ultimate existence in the universe, and its feature is that it supersedes
experiences and belongs to spirit, and it is a unified or universal essence. Substance cannot be separated from
utilization and cannot individually exist within practice.（Shih-Li Syong,1958）
There is a resemblance among thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance, harmony between man
and nature（Wun-Syong Wang,2004）, and Maslow’s peak experience. The harmony between man and nature
is a concept of relationship between mankind and nature. Rationalistic Confucianists in Song Dynasty believed
that “benevolence” is the name for all good. Benevolence lovers believes all beings are in one existence, so
scholars shall learn to pursuit benevolence and work their will to eliminate personal desires while keeping ethic
beliefs, so that they behave to achieve honesty and correct the defects for the unification between man and nature,
hence the realization of “harmony between man and nature”. On the other hand, peak experience indicates the
quiet, joyful and fulfilled mindset when one forgets himself and merges with the world and the universe. Such
concept model is the conversion from expanded thinking to contracted thinking, i.e. develop and expand the
substance to multiple external aspects and then convert and lead all aspects back to the original starting
2. Dissolve with Green Concepts in Design Philosophy the Thorough-and-flexible Utilization of
Technology has been improving man’s living conditions after Industrial Revolution, but the relationship
between man and nature has been completely changed accordingly. The process in which people try to make a
living has posed influence on nature environment more severe than the nature’s capability to recover, however, to
overcome demerits in traditional design, green design aims to assure the product satisfies basic green requirements,
including the manufacture, utilization of the product and waste recycling, reuse, disposal and concerns on every
phase thereinafter. The concept is a detailed recycling design system that unifies the mass, feature, lifespan and
environment of product and maintains a sustainable development.(Ze-Rui Du,2002).
Applying thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance in product design procedure, it is feasible to
distinguish the difference between the directions of material and feature. As for material, it is to fully utilize the
material of single substance. The concern is how to achieve the maximum usage of the material to its ultimate
capability limit through the thinking of utilization of single material or combination with other composite
materials on various products based on the inspiration of the substance material. Said achievement may lead to
multiple changes in the substance appearance, development in multiple operation or usage modes, or the
capability to satisfy multiple purposes, hence the maximum scope in which the single substance’s features is fully
Thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance is not a trendy new concept, while it may look like a
modernized green design philosophy, it is in fact a revamp of existing, traditional wisdom. In order to maximize
the utilization of single object to its limit, repeated reconfiguration and reuse are needed to reduce resource
squandering. The ultimate goal is to minimize hazard to natural environment.
3.Demonstration and Practice of Thorough-and-flexible Utilization of Single Substance in
Bamboo Craft Culture in Taiwan
Examples of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance can be found everywhere, but due to limited
space in this paper, only the example of bamboo will be taken into discussion as the proof in practice of thoroughand-flexible utilization of single substance. Bamboo is a product of nature and coexists with the environment.
Bamboo features simple structure and is highly flexible for manufacturing and utilization. It is also very possible
to completely recover damaged bamboo product which provides durable service. Upon disposal, bamboo product
can be recycled, but if recycling is not an option, it can be burnt down to ashes that return harmlessly to nature.
Such are the basic concept in minimizing hazard against nature.
3-1 Basic multi-purpose features of bamboo
Bamboo features unlimited potentials. For example, bamboo fruit can be made into dishes or Chinese medicine;
apart from dishes, bamboo shoot can also be seen, though rare, made into sculpture and other handcrafts. As for
bamboo trunk, bamboo bark and other bamboo parts, they can be seen in many traditional handcrafts or cultural
products, e.g. bamboo bark can be used for renovation, wrappings, containers, bamboo split and other bamboo
handcrafts; bamboo leaves can be used for renovation, wrapping, bamboo split hat or wrapping for zongzi;
bamboo roots can be used in sculpture, bag handle or decoration; bamboo trunk is more widely used, such as
piling material, bamboo furniture, construction material, dining tools, bamboo weavings, or it can be cut and
shaped into bamboo chips, cylinder workbench, rotating cutter plate, sculpture, toys or used in various
transportation means; bamboo branches can be used for bamboo strip, weavings, dining tools and brooms;
composite bamboo material and bamboo remains can be made into bamboo paper, etc. （ Wun-Syong
3-2 Bamboo in multi-purpose practice
Bamboo is of a significant role in traditional Taiwan society, in which bamboo products can be found in dining,
clothing, living and transportation. In this section bamboo parts will be listed as examples, including bamboo
shoot, bamboo root, bamboo bark, bamboo leaf, bamboo rib, bamboo branch and bamboo fruit. Added into the
categories are bamboo derivatives like bamboo fiber, bamboo charco and bamboo juice, followed by study on
flexible utilization of bamboo remains and composite bamboo materials.（Figure 1）
Figure 1 Use the flow chart of bamboo diversity
（1） Flexible utilization of bamboo root and bamboo shoot
Aside from food and medicine, bamboo root and bamboo shoot are potential material for handcrafts.
For instance, bamboo root can be used for sculpture（Figure 2）, bag handle（Figure 4）or decoration
（Figure 3）, and a few also use bamboo shoot in these manners. In addition, natural bacteriostatic agent
extracted from bamboo shoot could be a replacement for chemical preservative agent. In other aspects,
there is even preliminary study on replacement energy made with fiber materials from shells of bamboo
shoot and bamboo remains.（Wun-Syong Wang,2004）
Figure 2 Bamboo root carving
Figure 3 Zhugen use as decorations
Figure 4 Handle handbags
（2）Flexible utilization of bamboo bark and bamboo rib
In earlier times people used bamboo bark for wrapping, renovation, bamboo split and other bamboo
handcrafts like matchmaker basket, tiers basket, appreciation basket, etc. （ Figure 5 ） Native
Taiwanese also used bamboo bark for container. In mid 1970s Taiwan had seen a robust export volume of
bamboo blinds which are made with bamboo barks. In addition, bamboo bark contains many beneficial
nutrients so it also can be used for fertilizer.
Figure 5 Gift baskets
Nowadays green-conservation and painting application for bamboo bark have been developed so that the painted
product can be manufactured without removing the bark. Bamboo splits or chips, according to purpose of
utilization, can also be cut out after the bamboo material is laid open with its bark. Laying open bamboo material
is an utilization approach which improves the utilization ratio and product quality as well as expanding the
Bamboo ribs is more widely used for piling material, bamboo piped furniture, construction material, dining tool
（Figure 6,7）, musical instrument, threaded bamboo ribs, square-shape bamboo chip, cut and shaped grinded
chip piece, cylinder workbench, rotating cutter plate, sculpture, toy or various transportation means, with the
addition of, after splitting process, materials for curtain and other derivations like bamboo strips.
Figure 6 Steamer
Figure 7 Bamboo Rice
Bamboo is more commonly used in transportation means, categorized into four types like bamboo raft, bamboo
sedan, bamboo bridge and bamboo carriage.
Bamboo rafts （Figure 8） are mostly made with ma bamboo trunks which are bonded into rows with bamboo
strips or canes. Based on different manufacturing process, bamboo rafts can be categorized into two types: bartype and pulley-type.
Figure 8 Bamboo raft
Bamboo bridges （Figure 9） include arch-type and T-shaped bridges. Arch-type is also known as arch bending
bridge which is mostly made with Mengzong bamboo or Gui bamboo; T-shaped bridge is also called bamboo-pipe
bridge which is commonly seen over trenches, creeks, streams and between edges with drop height; it is also
common to build a bridge by putting over bamboo trunks.
Figure 9 Bamboo bridge
Bamboo sedan is weaved with Gui bamboo, Bai bamboo or Mengzong bamboo and is mostly for transportation.
There are four major types: common sedan, bride sedan, matchmaker sedan and Buddha sedan. Weddings before
1960s were commonly proceeded with bamboo bride sedans and matchmaker sedans.（As shown in Figure 10）
Figure 10 Bamboo sedan chair
Bamboo carriage is a mean of transportation over rivers. Bamboo pipes and bamboo canes are weaved into
rectangle cages which is mostly set up at banks of river or valley onto pulley and cables to provide ride and
delivery for people and goods.
Bamboo ribs was also widely used in living surroundings in earlier times. Bamboo fence, （Figure 11） for
example, is built with thorn bamboo stick up on the ground in rows surrounding buildings and hence the area
perimeter. Bamboo forest is for shelter from wind and shade from sunshine by planting bamboo in home grounds.
Figure 11 Jhuwei
Bamboo house （Figure 12）construction originated among native Taiwanese who used bamboo for pillars,
beams or in storage house. The residence house it built manly with stone tiles and wooden pillar and beams, whilst
storage house is built entirely with bamboo. Before 1960s, bamboo house was quite common among civilians. The
house needed to be renovated every two to three years, during process of which bamboo fence could be added
after the completion of entire bamboo house structure to consist a bamboo wall. Door leaves were weaved with
thorn bamboo and Gui bamboo. With bamboo bars as window lattice, bamboo windows could be added from
outside the house and consisted of thinner Gui bamboo ribs for protection against theft. Bamboo fence was used to
establish perimeter between residences, garden and fields and between roads.
Figure 12 Bamboo House
Bamboo furniture varies in categories, such as bamboo cradle, bamboo sedan chair, pregnancy chair, bamboo
chair, bamboo side table, bamboo screen, bamboo bed, bamboo mat, bamboo desk and chair（Figure 14）,
bamboo box, rolling blinds, flower stand, bamboo closet, bamboo cupboard, etc.
Figure 13 Bamboo bed
Figure 14 Bamboo furniture
Bamboo scaffold （Figure 15） is a bamboo pipe frame suitable only for small to medium scale projects lower
than 5 floors and can be divided into two types: scaffold bonded and built from floor 1 and above, and clamping
frame built overhead.
Figure 15 Bamboo scaffolding
Snake-like cage （Figure 16） is a bamboo snake-shaped cage, vertical cage or long fence mostly used in
hydraulic projects. It is made by cutting and tiling thorn bamboo into thick strips and the length may vary upon
requirement. Filled with stones and rocks, the cages are piled up crosswise at river banks to protect against
flooded river and keep soil from being washed away; snake-like cages could also be used as irrigation lead for
farming fields for water to run into irrigation trenches, but such approach is not commonly seen nowadays.
Figure 16 Bamboo snake cage
During Japanese rule and early years of KMT Government, civilians made mobile pig houses with bamboo, and, if
the residence was in vicinity, fixed animal houses （Figure 17） were also made with bamboo, such as cattle
house, chicken house, duck house, goose house, etc.
Figure 17 Mobile Animal House
Bamboo Lady （Figure 18）, also known as Miss Bamboo, Bamboo Servant or Green Servant, is a cooling
gadget for summer days. Bamboo fan（Figure 19）, ceiling fan and folded fan are all bamboo weave products for
cooling winds, while fire lantern （Figure 20） is a bamboo hand basket for heating, which is weaved with
bamboo strips with charcoal fire placed in the gallipot inside.
Figure 18 Bamboo Lady
Figure 19 Zhu Shan
Figure 20 Fire cage
Storage structures like bamboo weave garner （Figure 21） were for food storage. Tools for harvest and
processing like bamboo weave ribs were for paddy shelling. Bamboo baskets and other relevant tools include two
types: wide basket and fine basket; the former could be used for keeping melons, fruits and vegetables and the
latter for paddy, etc. （Figure 22）
Figure 21 Barn
Figure 22 Farm tools
With diversified species and surrounded by the ocean, fishing industry is quite developed in Taiwan. Fishing
nets with bamboo weave include hand operating dip net, four-angle dip net, cross-line net, etc. Other fishing
gears include fishing pole, fishing trap and fish cages. As for hunting, bows and arrows are major roles, and
bamboo knife and bamboo thorn trap are secondary choices. （Figure 23）（Wun-Syong Wang,2004）
Figure 23 Bamboo Tools
It is obvious in above paragraphs that bamboo rib features diversified utilizations which involve various
aspects in dining, clothing, housing, transportation, entertainment, which are also closer to people’s traditional
（3）Flexible utilization of bamboo leaf
From ancient time bamboo leaves were used for renovation material （Figure 24）, toy （Figure 25）,
split hat （Figure 26）or wrapping material （Figure 27） like wrapping for Zongzi and various foods. In
addition, bamboo leaf slows down decay process and removes bad smell.（Wun-Syong Wang,2004）
Figure 24 Repair materials Source：http://www.flickr.com
Figure 25 Toys Source：http://www.flickr.com
Figure 26 Hats
Figure 27 Bamboo packaging
（4）Flexible utilization of bamboo branch, bamboo fruit, bamboo juice, bamboo fiber and
Bamboo branch can be used for bamboo fence（Figure 28）, split hat, weave product, dining tool, broom
（Figure 29）, bamboo brushes（Figure 30）, etc. Bamboo fruit and bamboo juice can be made into dishes or
Chinese medicine or other healthy food.（Wun-Syong Wang,2004）
Figure 28 Bamboo fence
Figure 29 Bamboo Broom Source：http://www.flickr.com
Figure 30 Bamboo brush Source：http://www.flickr.com
Bamboo fiber is fiber extracted from bamboo and can be widely applied in weaving industry, such as home
decoration weave, clothing weave, medical weave, etc.
Apart from fuel, bamboo charco can also be used for everyday dining, clothing, living and transportation, as well
as industry, agriculture, electronics, medical care and sanitary service, food processing, environmental protection,
weaving and other industries. It is a multi-feature material. In addition, the light yellow liquid collected from
bamboo during charcoal making process is bamboo essence that features disinfection and can be applied to
activate human skin, disinfect, and dispels bugs.
（5）Flexible utilization of remains and composite bamboo material
Conventional bamboo remains can be combined with other materials to produce hand-made bamboo paper.
Said production mostly uses young bamboo, which is to be soaked and bleached first, and then processed with
hammered washing and high-temperature boiling, followed by grinding the bamboo with heavy stone mill; later it
shall be soaked in lime water till it dissolves into paper pulp which is to be taken out by paper net（Figure 31）.
Such product is commonly known as coarse paper.（Wun-Syong Wang,2004）
Figure 31 Bamboo paper
3-3 Sum up
The limited resources on planet earth shall be thoroughly and effectively utilized in each phase of production,
exchange, consumption and disposal so that pollution therein shall be reduced, hence reduced burden on planet
earth. In terms of material, bamboo proves to be the best example. Every part of bamboo – bamboo shoot, root,
bark, leaf, branch, rib, fruit, fiber, charco and even bamboo remains – can be fully used, and, with combination of
remains from different bamboo, it can be recycled and reused so that a single bamboo could be utilized thoroughly,
in the process of which various approaches would derivate for bamboo to be used in people’s life.
4-1 Conceptual influence on design education from thorough-and-flexible utilization of single
The interaction between design and people’s life starts from tiers of human desires. Therefore the goal of
designing is to improve people’s life, to satisfy or help the user to fulfill his own needs and desires, and to contact
with the space through tools and interface, so as to gradually build a structural ground for the design. In this
process it may be influenced by some contemporary concerns, hence the innovative utilization and growth that
integrates with the entire surrounding.
While true is the above, it is required at this actual phase that contemporary designing still takes premises
from economically effective production and manufacturing instead of the influence on overall surrounding. Its
current development level may not impose significant influence upon society, but in the long run there is possibly
a chain of challenges from its butterfly effect. For example, in 20th century the modernization concept had led to
the culture of mass production and bulk consumption for which manmade designs and commodities from plastic
material kept rushing into market and gradually generated the utilization and designing perception to use and
throw away, which speeded up the cycle of needs, hence the complete change of people’s way of living and the
The goal of designing is to improve human life. The education and study on design not only exist in living
scenarios; it also involves many phenomenon and inference models. Thorough-and-flexible utilization of single
substance is a model of phenomenon derived from the development of contemporary design philosophy theories.
Should there be further and deeper observation and analysis, designers may obtain from this philosophy more
inspirations and possibilities for knowledge expansion.
The major purpose of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance is to maximize the utilization of
individual existence. More or even unlimited development possibilities in product from design may be found if the
designing takes said goal into practice, to set premise with the concept of thorough-and-flexible utilization of
single substance, take the designing field to set objective in environment-friendly resource recycling and
stimulating sustainable living conditions, as well as facing the entire nature ecosystem instead of simply following
the trend. By such the extent of hazard to planet earth could be relatively minimized and an overall balance could
4-2 Value of thorough-and-flexible utilization of single substance
Upon rapid growth in human society and economy stimulated by technology development since industrial
revolution, the way people live, with abundance in material life, has shifted towards massive production, waste
and bulky disposal, hence a damage to the environment more severe than the nature’s existing capacity to recover.
However, since ancient times human had already mastered approaches to utilize natural materials in living and
production, such as bamboo, wood, straw, plant fiber, mineral, soil, silk and water. Bamboo, for instance, provides
usable materials in bamboo shoot, root, bark, branch, rib, fruit, remains and composite bamboo material – literally
every part can be used effectively in production; in addition, because bamboo is a natural material, it dissolves
naturally and completely into soil which can be recycled and reused. Such are the philosophy of thorough-andflexible utilization of single substance, which boosts benefit for ecosystem, reduces manmade damages and
soothes the impact to nature environment, so that the ultimate goal for people to coexist with nature and find
sustainable growth could be achieved.
 Wun-Syong Wang, (2004) Is to utilize all of Taiwan's bamboo Survey - Take bamboo as the main "cultural
industry. industrial culture "of the direction of expansion, Faculty of Engineering, Chiba University doctoral
 Siou-Hu Wang & Shun-Jhao Wu, (1976) The structure of bamboo in Taiwan..
 Chang-Ruei Ruan, Bamboo and Culture, Nantou County：Nantou County Cultural Center.
 Ruei-Ze Du, (2002) Products, green design sustainable design theory and practice, Taipei, Asia-Pacific Books.
 Wun-Yin Chen, (1998) Design Interpretation, Taipei ,Pacific Book Publishing.
 Chuko Cheng, (2003) Traditional crafts, green design, appropriate design and design education.
 Shih-Li Syong, (1958) Use of body, Zhonghua Book Company.