Introduction of H-FAME Technology
(Partially Hydrogenated FAM E) :
New alternative biodiesel superior
in ox idation and therm al stabilities,
and produced after the partial
hydrogenation of the current FAM E.
H-FAM E is m onoene-rich FAM E.
Dr. Yuji YOSHIMURA
Leader/Research Director of Thailand-Japan SATREPS Project,
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Dr. Paritud BHANDHUBANYONG
Project Director of Thailand-Japan SATREPS Project,
Panyapiwat Institute of Management (PIM) -TISTR, Thailand
WS on higher blending of biodiesel (17-18, September 2015 @Bangkok)
H-FAME from Thailand-Japan collaboration
H-FAME technology is developed
Thailand-Japan collaboration SATREPS PJ of
“Innovation on production and automotive utilization
of biofuels from non-food biomass” (FY2010-FY2015)
Science and Technology
Research Partnership for
• National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
• Waseda University
• National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)
•Thailand Institute of Science and Technological Research (TISTR)
•King Mongkut’s University of Technology NB
1. Background and motivation
2. What is H-HAME ? How to produce H-FAME ?
P artially Hydrogenated FAM E (H-FAM E) as a new
3. Properties and advantages of H-FAME
4. Feasibility of H-FAME
5. On-road durability tests by using B20 fuel blended
with Palm H-FAME
6. Future plan for H-FAME technology
1. Background: Importance of quality assurance
FAME as an alternative fuel, and used as a diesel blend stock,
but easy to be oxidized…..
Low er blending Bx can be used safely
in vehicles, if Bx quality is assured.
Bx: X vol %
B100 spec for B5, B7,
etc., e.g., 1,000 ppm
(100-x) vol %
BHT in B100 for B7.
Bx (FAME blended
Antioxidants will retard
oxidative degradation of
Increased cautions for the higher FAME blending
With increasing the FAME blending ratio, …
Fresh B100, and Bx
Will cause several damages
on engine systems.
Minimum level of quality
More degradation of FAME in fuel
station, fuel tank, engine oil pan, etc.
e.g., engine oil sludging
via. expirering of antioxidants, metals
due to biodiesel aging
contaminants assisted oxidation,
in engine oil
inappropriate handling/storage, etc.
Storage time/oxidation severity
1-2. Key compounds for FAME upgrading
<Oxidative degradation issue>
FAME is mixtures of several types of fatty acid
methyl esters, and polyunsaturated FAMEs are key
components to determine the oxidative/thermal
stabilities of FAME.
<Precipitation/filter plugging issues>
Not yet standardized in FAME specifications, but ..
Saturated monoglyceride (SMG) will precipitate
even at higher temperature than cloud point,
mainly after blending of FAME with petrodiesel (Bx).
Sterol glucoside (SG) will
Precipitate during the storage
of FAME, mainly for B100 FAME.
1-3. Properties of unsaturated FAME molecules
Oxidation Peroxide Cold flow Solvency
stability formation property
Methyl ester group
• Ease of oxidation:
E.N. Frankel, Lipid Oxidation, 2005
M onoene (m onounsaturated FAM E) seem s to be reliable com ponent.
2. What is H-FAME ?
H-FAM E (P artially Hydrogenated FAM E) : New alternative biodiesel
superior in ox idation and therm al stabilities, and produced after
the partial hydrogenation of the current FAM E. H-FAM E is m onoene
(m onounsaturated FAM E)-rich FAM E.
FAME + Hydrogen = H-FAME
e.g., C18:n FAME molecule
Degree of hydrogenation
2-1. How to produce the H-FAME ?
Current biodiesel production process
CO2, CO, etc.)
H-FAM E is a friendly
fuel to the current
biodiesel com panies: High-pressure and high-temperature
P <0.5M P a, T<140 ºC
facility (e.g., P>5 MPa, T>280 ºC)
Large plant size to get a scale merit
Very high hydrogen consumption
Comparison between H-FAME and HVO/BHD
Partial hydrogenation : 3H2
More hydrogen for the
Low temperature (80~140ºC)
High pressure (>5MPa)
High temperature (>280ºC)
Oxidation stability of B100 (h)
Production cost for B100
2-2. Positioning of H-FAME in biodiesels
Blending limitation of FAME (B5-B7)
HVO, BHD, etc.
(Hydrocarbons and not FAME)
Very reliable fuel,
Hydrogen ~0.10.2 wt%/FAME
P alm M E
R apeseed M E
Jatropha M E
Soybean M E
Thai standard of 10 h
Biodiesel blended with petroleum diesel (Bx*)
*X vol% of biodiesel and (100-X) vol% of petroleum diesel
2-3. Palm H-FAME from TISTR’s pilot plant
80 ºC〜140 ºC
< 0.5 MPa
3. Properties of palm H-FAME (Pilot Plant @TISTR)
monoglyceride in MG
EAS-ERIA BDF Std
10.0 min. (**)
EAS: East Asia Summit ; ERIA: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia；
WWFC: World Wide Fuel Charter
3-1. Advantages of H-FAME and H-FAME process
1. Meets with all of
11. No need of high
pressure facilities and
9. Make ease of
2. High oxidation stability
(>>10h） (less acids/
3. Less peroxides formation
(more elastomer tolerance)
8. Make ease of sterol
glyceride (SG) removal
4. Decrease in heavier
fraction (less polymerization/ deposits)
5. Increase in
7. Make ease of removal 6. Less sludge formation during
of saturated fatty acid oxidative/thermal degradation
3-2. Less sludge formation via. H-FAME
H-FAM E is very effective to m inim ize
After ox idation,
the sludge form ation !
Depth of Hydrogenation
B20 H-FAME B20 H-FAME
EURO V diesel) (Thai Palm FAME)
Accelerated oxidation condition:
Bx=20g, T=135 ºC (>115 ºC*),
O2 Flow=100 ml/min,
Oxidation period=16 h.
*Testing condition for oxidation stability in Japanese quality
assurance law for B5 (former method). Now PetroOXY method is used.
4. Feasibility of H-FAME (affordability)
Production cost of several
BDF 100,000 t/y
Plant size of 100,000 t/y
Diesel price in Thailand
Market price of Palm oil（USCIF)： 800 US$/ton （2010.Apr).
Environmental Research Institute,
Waseda University (2011)
Small cost up for H-FAME compared with 1st gen. FAME, but
much less than HVO (BHD), even after newly installation of an
on-site H2 package unit.
High proportion of variable costs for FAME, H-FAME and HVO. i.e.,
more than 80 % of the total production cost , so reduction of raw
materials costs will be the key to increase its feasibility.
5. On-road test by using B20 (Palm H-FAME)
Verification of automotive compatibility of H-FAME, with the
collaboration of Isuzu Thailand group and petroleum company .
Testing fuel of B20: 20 vol % of Palm H-FAME blended with 80 vol %
of Thai petro-diesel.
Testing periods: Jan.5, 2015 〜 Mar. 2015 (50.000 km).
Testing vehicle: ISUZU pick up truck, D-MAX Super Daylight (EUROIV)
B100, Blending &
Fuel: B20 of
P alm H-FAM E
6. Future proposal of demonstration PJ
To confirm the
process m aturity
of H-FAM E
Plant capacity :
１0-30 tons of H-FAME
/day (1/10-1/30 in size
of the commercial
H-FAME plant package
WHSV> 20 h-1
I f w e w ill apply for Japanese NEDO’s I nternational Collaboration Project
Japanese private sectors,
collaborating with AIST, etc.
Thai private sectors,
NSTDA/MTEC, TISTR, etc.
1. Partially hydrogenated FAME (H-FAME) is a
new alternative biodiesel, and can be produced
from any kinds of FAME , e.g., Palm FAME,
Jatropha FAME and Waste cooking oil FAME, etc.
2. H-FAME is a reliable and affordable biodiesel,
and can be used as a nation-wide high-speed
biodiesel blend stock even at the higher
blending use, e.g., up to B20 for Palm H-FAME.
3. H-FAME will support the Thai Alternative
Energy Development Action Plan (AEDP) as one of
the new alternative biodiesels.
We deeply appreciate JST and JICA for their financial supports.
We also deeply thank all of the research participants of NSTDA/MTEC,
TISTR. KMUTNB, WASEDA U. and AIST for their contributions to this Project.
We also deeply thank the ISUZU Thailand group for their kind supports on
the on-road tests, and PTT, Bangchak and Thai oil for supplying the
FAME(B100) and petro diesel (B0) and for measuring the fuel quality.
Thank you for your kind attention