“Exploring World Music through Sight-reading Duets in

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“Exploring World Music through Sight-reading Duets in
“Exploring World Music through Sight-reading Duets in Violin Lessons”
Dr. Penny Thompson Kruse, violin
[email protected]; www.pennythompsonkruse.com
Caroline Eva Chin, violin
[email protected]; http://www.carolineevachin.com/
Bowling Green State University Violin Faculty
2016 Ohio Music Educator Association Conference
Cincinnati, OH
Thursday, January 28, 2016; 5 p.m., CC 262
I. Introduction
A. Byron Williams – Play International
“Hava Nagila” – Israel
B. Robert Gerle – The Art of Practising the Violin, London, England: Stainer & Bell, 1983.
Sight-reading Techniques & Benefits
II. Elementary Level
A. Nico Dezaire and Martine Mussies – English and Irish Duets for Violin
“Blue Bells of Scotland” – Scotland
- D Major, slur two eighth-notes, high third-finger on “D” string, introduces the up-beat, optional fourthfinger, one or two notes on the “G” string in bottom part
ASTACAP Foundation & Level 1, Evelyn Avsharian Folksongs of America and Little Players, Essential
Elements 2000 Book 1-2, Strictly Strings Book 1
B. William Harvey, arr. – Afghanistan Violin Method
Ghulam Hassam, “Yaran” - Afghanistan
-low second finger, introduces modes other than major and minor, 2nd part includes challenging
pizzicato double stops, six-bar phrases
ASTACAP Foundation & Level 1, Suzuki Book I introduces low 2 in “Etude”, Dotted quarter followed
by an eighth note appears in “May Song,” other pieces in Evelyn Avsharian Famous Songs and Folk
Songs of America, Essential Elements 2000 Book 1-2, Strictly Strings Book 1
C. Nico Dezaire and Martine Mussies – English and Irish Duets for Violin
1. “Early in the Morning” – England
1
- C Major, cut-time, slurred quarter-note patterns, low second-finger in upper part, second
part uses high third-finger, low first-finger, slurred four-note-patterns, various string crossings,
open-string double-stops, accents and staccato articulation
ASTACAP Foundation & Level 1, Essential Elements 2000 Book 1-2, Strictly Strings Book 1,
Suzuki Book 1 & 2
2. “Irish Washerwoman” – Ireland
- G Major, 6/8 meter, repeated note patterns, fourth finger on the “E” string, low second finger,
accents
ASTACAP Level 3 Repertoire, Evelyn Avsharian Songs for Little Players Book II, 6/8 meter
introduced in Suzuki Book 4 (3rd mvt. of Seitz Concerto No. 2), Essential Elements 2000 Book
2, Strictly Strings Book 2
D. Lu-Yan Guo, arr. – Duets for Two Violins, Volume One
Anton Wallerstein, “Jenny Lind Polka” – Poland
- F Major, Second violin part uses low first and second fingers, counting (play, rest, play), two lines of
melody without slurs, teacher can play first part which is more difficult
ASTACAP Repertoire Level 2 and Sight-reading Exam in Level 3, Suzuki Book 2 “Two Grenadiers,”
“Minuet” in Herfurth Classical Album of Early Grade Pieces by Famous Composers, Essential Elements
2000 Book 2, Strictly Strings Book 2
E. William Harvey, arr. – Afghanistan Violin Method
Muhammed Gul, “Mina” – Afghanistan
-down-beat rests, ties across the bar line, independent dynamics, soft dynamic, could be played on the
string or spiccato, low 1st and 2nd finger, six-bar phrases, 2nd part is col legno battuto
F Major appears in ASTACAP Level 3 sight-reading exam, ties across the bar line is a new skill that
students may not have encountered in their music, the rest of the piece is on an easier level/same level as
the previous piece, Cohen Super Studies Book 1 (Etude #6 and onward)
F. Mary Ann Harbar – Eastern European Music for Violin Duet
“Dermish/Shaking Dance” – Croatia
- Changing keys in the middle of piece, introduce syncopated rhythm off of a rest, first and second
endings, easy to read pitches and rhythms
Key signature changes and first and second endings in Suzuki Book 2
G. Byron Williams – Play International
“Cielito Lindo” – Mexico
- C Major, 3/4 meter, hemiolas, ties across the bar lines, accents, all can be played in first position, but
printed fingerings in second and third positions, different slurred note-patterns
ASTACAP Exam Level 3 (scales), accents are introduced in Suzuki Book 1, tied notes and the C Major
in Essential Elements 2000 Book 1
2
H. Lu-Yan Guo – Duets for Two Violins, Volume One
“Habanera” from Bizet’s Carmen – Cuba
- A minor, dotted-quarter rhythm, chromatic scales, cut-time meter, triplet eighth-notes, ostinato
rhythms in bottom part, melodic skip and leaps, dynamic contrasts, low second-finger in bottom part
ASTACAP Level 4 Exam requires G chromatic scale, chromatic scales in first position in Whistler
Elementary & Intermediate Scales and Bowings (Chromatic scales not taught early enough)
I. Byron Williams – Play American
1. “Nobody Knows de Trouble I’ve Seen” – American Spiritual
- First position, double stops with open strings only, syncopated rhythm, dotted rhythm,
descending chromatic lines, D.C. al Coda
Syncopated rhythm in solo repertoire is not introduced early enough. Joe Venuti Violin Rhythm, Ann
Witt A Rhythm A Day, Da Capo introduced in Suzuki Book 1 (Gossec “Gavotte”) and Suzuki Book 2
2. “Turkey in the Straw” – Traditional American Folk Tune
- Vivace (new Italian tempo marking), sixteenth-note rhythms, syncopations, chromaticism
ASTACAP Level 4 Exam Sight-reading, sixteenth-note rhythm in Essential Elements 2000 Book 2,
Strictly Strings Book 2, Suzuki Book 2 “Hunter’s Chorus”
J. Nico Dezaire and Martine Mussies - English and Irish Duets for Violin
“The Ghost of Tom” – America
- D minor, rapping on the back of the instrument with your knuckles, natural harmonics, left-hand
pizzicato chord, tremelo, “close to the bridge” (sul ponticello), glissando up the “G” string, dynamics,
right-hand pizzicato, strengthening the fourth finger
Fun piece that introduces easy extended techniques and not technically challenging.
III. Elementary to Intermediate Level
A. Byron Williams – Play International
1. “Alouette, Gentille Alouette” – French/Canadian
- Fermatas, shifting to third position in bottom part, repeat signs, top part can be played in either
first or third position depending on technique of student
ASTACAP Exam sight-reading Level 2 and 3, great piece for teaching and practicing third position,
shifting introduced in Strictly Strings Book 3, Essential Elements Book 3, and Whistler Introducing the
Positions, Vol.1
2. “Oh, My Darling Clementine” – America
- Dotted eighth and sixteenth rhythm, first, second and third positions, string crossing & slurred
eighth-note patterns, hooked & legato bowing (dotted-eighth rhythm), tri-tone fingering
ASTACAP Exam Level 4 (playing in third position), can be played in first and third positions only,
dotted rhythms have already been introduced in Suzuki Book 2, Essential Elements 2000 Book 3,
Strictly Strings Book 1-2, Sheila Nelson Moving Up and Moving Up Again, Whistler Introducing the
Positions, Vol. 1
3
B. Mary Ann Harbar – Eastern European Music for Violin Duet
1. “Hora Muntilor” – Romanian Circle Dance of the Mountains
- G minor, trills and grace notes, faster moving notes, note patterns, bowing articulation, long
sustained notes (for counting and tone development)
Trills, grace notes found in Suzuki Book 2, G minor in Suzuki Book 3, 2nd and 3rd position and trill
exercises at the end of Suzuki Book 4
2. “Oberek” – Poland
- D Major, triplet eighth-notes, high third-finger, easy to read
3. “Sailor’s Dance/Apple” – Russia
- A minor, syncopation
C. Arr. Michael Rennie – Favourite Folk Tunes for Two Violins
“Charlie Is My Darling” – Scotland
- B Minor, 6/8 meter, hooked bowing, two-against-three rhythm, three-against-four rhythm, third
position
ASTACAP Level Exam 5 requires B minor scale, Dancla Airs Varies, No. 6, Op. 89, Seitz Pupil’s
Concerto No. 2
D. Byron Williams – Play International
1. “Annie Laurie” – Scotland
- Second and fifth positions, octave and triadic melodic leaps, phrasing, syncopation
ASTACAP Level 5 Exam expectations, Whistler Introducing the Positions Vol. 1 (Third & fifth
positions) and Vol. 2 (Second, fourth, sixth & seventh positions),Vivaldi Concerto in G minor (shifts to
fifth position), Rieding Concertinos, Dancla Six Air Varies, Op. 89
2. “Santa Lucia” – Italy
- 3/8 meter, second, fourth and sixth positions, string-crossing patterns under slurs, sequential
note-patterns in the second part
ASTACAP Exam Level 6 Sight-reading in 3/8, Dittersdorf “German Dance” in Suzuki Book 5,
Whistler Introducing the Positions Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 (Second, fourth, sixth & seventh positions), top
part is easier than bottom part
3. “Japanese Hymn” – Japan
- Modal harmony, fourth position, melody is the Japanese National Anthem
Top part is easier than bottom part, William H. Somach ACCIDENTALS HAPPEN!: Scale Book for
VIOLIN (includes scales from classical, jazz, blues, ethnic, eastern & world music)
IV. Intermediate Level: Developing New or Independent Rhythmic Skills
A. Pál Járdányi – Hegedüduók Violin Duos
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1. Allegro – Hungary
-notes are easy, parts alternate rhythm, open-string double-stops
ASTACAP Level 5 Exam expectations (repertoire), Suzuki Book 3 “Loure”, Suzuki Book 4 Seitz
Concerto No. 5, Rondo mvt. & Bach Double Concerto for Two Violins for independent rhythm,
Josephine Trott Melodious Double Stops, Book 1
B. Mary Ann Harbar – Eastern European Music for Violin Duet
“Beautiful Sano, Open Your Door” – Serbia
- 7/8 rhythm, changes key in the middle of the piece, trills, augmented seconds, two parts homorhythmic
7/8 rhythm is a new concept not typically found in the solo repertoire, but perhaps encountered in school
orchestra music by 20th & 21st Century composers
C. Polly Waterfield – More Polytekniks: Intermediate Violin Duets for Musical and Technical
Accomplishments
“Kalamatianos” – Greek Dance
- 7/8 meter, key changes, rhythmic pattern changes from 3 + 2 + 2 to 2 + 2 + 3, slurred string-crossing
patterns
ASTACAP Level 6 Exam expectations
D. Deborah Greenblatt – Ragtime Fiddling Tunes for Two Violins
George Botsford, “Black and White Rag” – America
- Syncopations, tied notes, uneven bowing patterns, key changes, unusual accidentals and chromaticism,
tricky rhythms, first position
E. Polly Waterfield – More Polytekniks: Intermediate Violin Duets for Musical and Technical
Accomplishments
“Bulgarian Dance” – Bulgaria
- Augmented-second intervals, syncopated rhythms, introducing mordents, natural harmonics, key
signature of four sharps
Mordents introduced in Fiocco “Allegro”, ASTACAP Level 7 Exam Scale; William H. Somach –
ACCIDENTALS HAPPEN!: Scale Book for VIOLIN (includes scales from classical, jazz, blues, ethnic,
eastern & world music)
F. Grażyna Bacewicz – Easy Duets on Folk Themes for Two Violins
“Grotesque March” – Polish Dance
- Independent rhythm, spiccato, sudden dynamic changes, double stops in thirds and sixths, parallel-fifth
double-stops, melody against constant pedal note
ASTACAP Level Exam 4 requires spiccato bowing and double stops, Josephine Trott Melodious
Double Stops, Book 1 & 2
5
V. Intermediate to Advanced Level
A. Jeremy Cohen – Stylistic Duets for Two Violins
“Funky Hippo” – Funk
-4/4 meter, double stops, slow glissandi, ala Quincy Jones, funky groove, best played at the frog, dry
sound from short notes
B. Ernst-Thilo Kalke – Gospel, Blues et cetera: 15 swingende Duos für Zwei Violinen
“Fiddling the Blues” – Blues
- 12/8 meter, double stops, unusual melodic patterns, melodic intervallic skips
V. Advanced Level
A. Aleksey Igudesman, arr. – Asia and More Violin Duets
“Los Dos Phillipinos” – The Philippines
- 3 + 3 + 2 rhythm, foot stomping while playing, ricochet, battuto bowing, double stops, pizzicato
B. Hollis Taylor – Unsquare Dances
“Albanian Dance” – Albania
- 4/4 meter, mordents, syncopated rhythms, trills, glissandi, meter changes
C. Mark O’Connor – Limerock – Hoedown
- extremely fast, bowings that feel backwards for a classically trained player, on-the-string,
bowing in the upper half
D. Aleksey Igudesman, arr. – Klezmer and More Violin Duets
“Klezmer’s Freilach” – Klezmer
Grace notes, sliding into, off of, and between notes, accelerandos, highly chromatic, challenging double
stops and chords, pizzicato
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Bibliography
8notes.com. Violin Duet Sheet Music, Lessons, Chord Charts, Resources. Three Free Audio Plays. Subscribe
for $20 a year. Unlimited download of hundreds of pieces and playalong tracks. High quality PDF files
for printing. Free transposition of pieces on request. Separate instrumental parts available. Includes
longer & more advanced works. Instant access. An advert-free site.
http://www.8notes.com/violin_duet/all/. Accessed on 1/7/2016.
Bacewicz, Grażyna. Easy Duets on Folk Themes for 2 Violins. Krakow, Poland: PWM Edition, 1946.
Cohen, Jeremy. Stylistic Duets for Two Violins for Intermediate to Advanced Players. Oakland, CA: Violinjazz
Publishing, 2010. CD included with tracks in tempo and slower. Can be heard on Youtube at
www.youtube.comviolinjazz.com
Dezaire, Nico and Mussies, Martine. English & Irish Duets for Violin with optional second part for viola.
Heerenveen, Holland: De Haske Publications BV, 2002. Available in U.S. through Hal Leonard.
Gerle, Robert. The Art of Practising the Violin. London, England: Stainer & Bell, 1983.
Greenblatt, Deborah. Ragtime Fiddling Tunes for Two Violins. Greenblatt & Seay, 2009. Also available are
Russian, Hungarian, Irish, Klezmer, Barn Dance, Danish, Singing Cowboy, and more. Complete list at
www.greenblattandseay.com
Guo, Lu-Yan. Duets for Two Violins, Volumes 1-3. Davina Music Publications, 1997.
Harbar, Mary Ann. Eastern European Music for Violin Duet. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay Publications, Inc., 2002.
Includes CD for style.
Harvey, William. Afghanistan Violin Method. Available from William Harvey at [email protected]
Igudesman, Aleksey. Asia & More Violin Duets. Preface by Joshua Bell. Vienna, Austria: Universal Edition,
2011.
Igudesman, Aleksey. Celtic & More Violin Duets. Preface by Janine Jansen. Vienna, Austria: Universal
Edition, 2007.
Igudesman, Aleksey. Klezmer & More Violin Duets. Preface by Julian Rachlin. Vienna, Austria: Universal
Edition, 2007.
Igudesman, Aleksey. Latin & More: Violin Duets. Preface by Gidon Kremer. Vienna, Austria: Universal
Edition, 2009.
IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library.
http://imslp.org/index.php?title=Category:For_2_violins&transclude=Template:Catintro
New membership has been implemented. Membership is not required to download almost all the files,
but there is a 15 second delay to download and ads are included.
Járdányi, Pál. Hegendűdók. Budapest, Hungary: Editio Musica, 1979.
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Kalke, Ernst-Thilo. Gospel, Blues et cetera. Magdeburg, Germany: Edition Walhall, 2000.
O’Connor, Mark. Limerock. http://www.sitemason.com/site/kGwSPe/limerock.html
Rennie, Michael. Favorite Folk Tunes for Two Violins. London: Pan Educational Music, 1995.
Taylor, Hollis. Unsquare Dances. Portland, OR: Twisted Fiddle Music, 1995. http://www.hollistaylor.com
E-mail: [email protected] CD can be purchased separately.
Waterfield, Polly. More Polytekniks: Intermediate Violin Duets for Musical and Technical Accomplishment.
England: Faber Music, 1992.
Whistler, Harvey S. and Hummel, Herman A. Selected Duets for Violin. Vol. 2. Rubank, Inc: Miami, Florida,
Williams, Byron. Play American: Songs and Pieces for Two Violins. Mainz, Germany: Schott, 1985.
Williams, Byron. Play International: Songs and Pieces for 2 Violins. Mainz, Germany: Schott,1995.
Wolters, Jan. Jan Wolters Sheet Music. Includes folk music from many countries for numerous ensemble
combinations, not limited to strings. Some pieces arranged for two violins and some for two treble
instruments and piano. Pay per piece. http://www.janwolters.nl/index-uk.html
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