- United Nations ESCAP

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- United Nations ESCAP
National Workshop
on Pro-Poor and Sustainable Waste Management
in Secondary Cities and Small Town
Prospects for the Application of Anaerobic Digestion Process
to Treat Municipal Solid Waste/MSW
in Indonesia
by:
Rudy A. Arifin
Head of Subdirectorate of Municipal Solid Waste Management
Directorate of Environmental Sanitation Development
Directorate General of Human Settlements
Ministry of Public Works and Housing
Republic of Indonesia
2014
national policy and strategy
INDONESIA
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
Population 2012 : 244,723,038, with annual growth rate 1.49 %
Area : 5,180,053 km2
Number of provinces : 34
Number of cities/districts : 511
Number of metropolitan/big/medium cities: 10/13/56
Daily MSW generation in urbanized area: 76,305 tons
The Levels of
MSW Handling System
ARAS SPASIAL
TUJUAN
Spatial
1. Regional
PENDEKATAN
Approach
Goal

To handle in the regional level
between cities or districts

To develop a regional
handling
RUANG LINGKUP KEGIATAN
KETERPADUAN
PROGRAM
Compatibility
Activity
 MSW treatment plant
 Regional landfill


2. City

To improve the level of coverage
and performance of MSW
handling system, to achieve the
minimum level standard of
service

To improve the access to
service
 To assist the construction
of MSW treatment plant
with sanitary landfill
process
 To assist the improvement
of overall MSW handling
system
 To assist the development
of MSW at the city/district
level


Clean Development
Mechanism/Kyoto Protocol
Waste to Energy
IUIDP (Integrated Urban
Infrastructure
Development Program)
Adipura prize for city
cleanliness
3. Community

To reduce the MSW quantity and
polution potential, for optimizing
the transport and further
treatment processes

To reduce and partially treat
MSW
 To facilitate the
construction of 3R
infrastructures
 To provide the collection
and transportation
infrastructures

Priority area (KADAL
program), regional
economic development
(KAPET program), real
estate program, and MSW
treatment plant program
4. Neighbourhood

To enforce reduce, reuse, and
recycle of the MSW

To enforce the community
involvement
To educate from school level
 To disseminate the
campaign for
MSWseparation at the
MSW source
 To endorse the 3R activity
 Pilot project of 3R
infrastructures

Green & Clean City
program
 To endorse the
composting process or
organic MSW at the
household level

Composting of organic
MSW program

5. Household

To reduce the quantity of organic
MSW from the source of MSW
generation
 To treat organic MSW to solid
compost
The Paradigm of
MSW Handling System in Indonesia
OLD
NEW
MSW
Reduce
Collection
Reuse
MSW
Transport
Residue
Disposal
Transport
Treatment
Recycle
Aspects in
MSW Handling System
TECHNOLOGY
MSW
HANDLING
SYSTEM
FINANCIAL
LEGAL
COMMUNITY
INVOLVEMENT
ORGANIZATION
Policy at the National Level
Target based on the Medium Term National
Development Plan 2010-2014
1. To increase the MSW collection by 75%.
2. To increase the performance of landfills in 210
cities.
3. To reduce MSW quantity and polution
potential.
Program
1. To promote 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle)
activities .
2. To educate through campaign.
3. To enhance institutional development.
4. To optimize and develop MSW infrastructures.
5. To revitalize landfill and apply the regional
system for landfill.
6. To promote private investment.
Policy
1. To reduce MSW generation rate and
polutant potential, from household level.
2. To increase the role of community and
private sector as a partner in MSW
handling.
3. To increase the service coverage and
performance of MSW handling system.
4. To develop the institution and legal
aspects.
5. To find the alternative of financial
resources.
Strategy at the National Level
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To optimize the use of existing infrastructures.
To increase the service coverage.
To increase the capacity of MSW infrastructure.
To revitalize the landfill.
To optimize the current landfill process towards controlled landfill
(for small and medium cities) and sanitary landfill (for big and
metropolitan cities).
To increase the implementation of regional landfill.
To perform research in appropriate and environmental friendly
technologies.
Readiness Criterion to Get
Technical Assistance from Central Government – (1)
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In line with the Ministry of Public Works Strategic Plan.
Listed in the cities’/regencies’ Medium Term Investment Plan
Document.
Listed in the City Sanitation Strategy (Program Memorandum is
preferred)
In line with the duty of the Directorate General of Human
Settlements.
Other criterion:
 The availability of managing institution.
 The availability of land, detail engineering design, and
environmental impact assesment.
 MoU between local governments (for regional landfill).
Readiness Criterion to Get
Technical Assistance from Central Government – (2)


Commitment to optimize the existing infrastructures.
Commitment from the Local Government to:
 Sign the MoU and allocate adequate funding for institution
strengthening as well as for operation, maintenance, and
rehabilitation of the infrastructures.
 Developing and/or provide supporting infrastructures.
 Prepare the Loan Proposal and Loan Acceptance by the Local
Government.
 Clarify the performance indicators, as well as the program output
and outcome.
MSW treatment plants
(communal base vs institutional base)
Communal Base vs Institutional Base

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As the policy of Ministry of Public Works, in regards to provide the
basic need, thus landfill technology has currently been selected as the
most efficient technology that can be affordably operated by
Municipalities
An urge to provide other technologies than landfill, has marked the
construction of institutional base MSW treatment plants, as has been
constructed in Kota Bima, Kota Banda Aceh, and Kota Tangerang
Selatan, as prototype
However, Ministry of Public Works pushes the construction of
institutional base MSW treatment plants that can generate income in
an adequate amount, to the private parties through the PPP scheme
From these perspectives, Ministry of Public Works focuses on the
communal base MSW treatment plants, with the capacity to serve 100200 households/day or equal to 1.5-3.0 m3 of mixed MSW/day
MSW treatment plants
(institutional base)
In Kota Bima, Nusa Tenggara Barat
capacity 20 m3 of shredded organic MSW/day
MSW treatment plants
(communal base)
Process Selection

The scarcity of land in cities for construction of landfill, as the solely
centralized MSW treatment plants

The need to push the technological concept “the highest ratio between MSW
treatment capacity within the smallest requirement of areas, in affordable cost
and ability to be operated-maintained-rehabilitated”

The initial step through the aerobic (windrow composting) process, that has
been commonly practised and spread in almost 500 locations all over
Indonesia, with the communal-base mechanisms

Passive aerobic process would not be able to cope the small requirement of
space, due to the shallow organic waste heap height as the limiting factor

The process modification through anaerobic process that can be more
resilient in term of organic waste heap height, enriched with the double-stage
anaerobic process to enhance the process performance

Additional by-products can be harvested through anaerobic process, such as
biogas, as the renewable energy source, that can be used as the partial
substitution of energy for cooking purposes, with the communal base
mechanism
Aerobic (Windrow Composting) Process
capacity 0.5 m3 of shredded organic MSW/day
MSW treatment plants with communal base:
module SIKIPAS
(SIstem Komunal
Instalasi Pengolahan Anaerobik Sampah)
Process Flow
20 days of anaerobic process + 20
days of aerobic process
biogas
generation unit
hydrolysis
unit
solid
compost
leachate
collection
unit
electricity generation
unit
biogas
biogas
combustion
unit
adjusted pH
to 6.5-7.5
leachate resirculation
unit
biogas
measurement
unit
liquid
compost
Process Specification
operating capacity
1 m3/day ; 0.6 ton/day ; 400 households/day ;
2,000 inhabitants /day
types of MSW
shredded organic waste
process
combination of anaerobic and aerobic process
detention time
20 days (anaerobic) + 20 days (aerobic)
by-products generation
potential
solid compost (300 kg/day),
liquid compost (150 liters/day), and biogas (97.5 m3/day)
energy conversion potential
121.8 kWh (netto) ≈ average requirements of energy in each
house (in Indonesia) for 10 days
GHG emission tackled
potential
825.6 kg CO2(eq)/day
space requirements
1,350 m2 (including supportive units)
operation-maintenenace
cost
IDR 20,000/household/month
Comparison with Other Processes
indicator
detention time (days)
area requirements for
main process units (m2)
ratio of operating
capacity and area
requirements for main
process units (m3 of
organic MSW/day/m2 of
space)
investment cost (IDR)
annual operationmaintenance cost
(IDR/year)
anaerobic process
(Module SIKIPAS)
aerobic process
(Windrow Composting)
vermicomposting
40
40
15
30
40
33.75
0.050
0.0375
0.042
400-525 millions
400-525 millions
400-525 millions
30-55 millions
20-45 millions
30-55 millions
(excluded the helminth)
In Army Special Task Force Headquarters, Jakarta
capacity 1 m3 of shredded organic MSW/day
In Cipinang Detention Centre, Jakarta
capacity 1 m3 of shredded organic MSW/day
Achievements
periods
achievements
September 2011
Directorate of Environmental Sanitation Development planned to improve the
performance of TPS 3R
January 2012
named as Modul SIKIPAS and the design was presented in MDGS exhibition in Balai Kartini,
Jakarta
Februariy2012
design was presented in Clean Ciliwung River Exhibition, Jakarta
May 2012
design was presented in World Water Day Exhibition in Ministry of Public Works, Jakarta
September 2012
the completion of construction and commissioning in Army Special Task Force Headquarter,
Jakarta
October 2012
design was presented in Asian Pacific Landfill Symposium (APLAS) Bali 2012, Bali
December 2013
the completion of construction and commissioning in Cipinang Detention Centre, Jakarta
May 2014
design was presented in World Water Day Exhibition in Ministry of Public Works, Jakarta
August 2014
design was presented in 24th EAROPH (Eastern Regional Organization for Planning and
Human Settlements) World Congress, Jakarta
October 25th, 2014
got 2nd rank (category of appropriate technology) in National Construction Award 2014,
which was awarded by Minister of Public Works
November 13rd-15th,
2014
design (3D mimic diagram) is presented in Bandung Institute of Technology alumni
commemoration (class of 1974), Bandung
Appreciation
thank you .....

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