Get 10 years production out of Lucerne



Get 10 years production out of Lucerne
North Island | July 2016
Get 10 years production out of Lucerne
Lifting performance of tail end ewes
Finding your way through calf milk options
02 Welcome
03 Lifting performance of tail end ewes
04 Primer and exit drenching
05 Finding your way through calf
milk options
06 Identifying and treating downer cows
this spring
07 Balancing the ‘big four’ macro-minerals
08 Get 10 years production out of Lucerne
10 Robust maize makes up for steep terrain
11 Determining when enough is enough
12 Polyethylene pipe for all situations
13 Dog food – it is not all the same
14 NORSEWEAR – the road less travelled
15 Support at the front line
16 PGG Wrightson directory
Thank you to all our customers who
visited the PGG Wrightson site at this
year’s National Fieldays®. As always,
it is great to see so many farmers from
across the country enjoying what is
on offer. Our free lunch and Wild Bean
coffee were very popular and we were
inundated with customers on our site
during this time.
Yet again, this year’s event demonstrated the amount of
knowledge and technical innovation across New Zealand’s rural
industries. The newly created education hub showcased the
opportunities available to both young and old to continually
develop knowledge in the field.
Rural Diary is about making the most of the latest research,
knowledge and proven solutions to assist in the coming season.
This issue pays particular attention to improving the health and
nutrition of animals with a range of articles from PGG Wrightson
Technical Specialists.
We visit Anawai Station, a Beef + Lamb New Zealand monitor
farm in Hawke’s Bay where Lucerne has helped to achieve
increased production. Local PGG Wrightson Technical Field
Representative, Mark Walwyn has been involved with the
success of the farm for close to 10 years.
Enjoy the read.
Shannon Galloway
GM Marketing – PGG Wrightson
Cover: Sam Clark, Manager of Anawai Station in Hawke’s Bay with Mark Walwyn, PGG Wrightson Technical Field Representative. See pages 8 and 9 for more information.
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Animal health
Lifting performance of tail end ewes
It has been stated that the biggest gains in sheep production can be achieved by reducing the
number of ewes with the lowest body condition score (BCS) in a flock1.
As we head from scanning to set stocking, the focus should
always be on the tail end ewes. Feed allocated for preferential
feeding, to lift the tail end ewes by one condition score, is worth
approximately 35 cents / kgDM2. This is the highest return a
sheep and beef farmer will achieve from any of his stock classes
at this time of year.
The aim is to have as many of your ewes at BCS 3 at pre-lamb
as possible. There are many things that can upset your plans
to achieve this target. The inability of twin and triplet bearing
ewes to maintain their weight in late pregnancy, liver fluke and
parasites are just some of the challenges.
Farmers in much of the North Island will be particularly
challenged this year due to the effects of facial eczema. Only a
small portion of sheep with facial eczema will show clinical signs
of peeling skin. For every sheep showing clinical signs, many
more will have liver damage. These ewes with liver damage
become evident during stress periods such as pregnancy and
lambing because they are more likely to become ill-thrifty and
suffer loss of body condition.
Irrespective of the cause, most farms will have a tail end in
the ewe flock at pre-lamb. A recent trial in the King Country
targeting tail end ewes (average BCS 2) has highlighted the
benefits of treating these ewes with long acting anthelmintic
treatments pre-lamb3. The trial showed (figure 1) that
treated ewes had lost less weight at docking and had gained
significantly more weight by weaning than untreated ewes
(average 3.5 kg). The lambs from treated ewes were also heavier
at weaning (average 2.6 kg). The trial also found that there was
no significant difference in the production gains obtained
between either the Bionic® Hi Mineral Capsules (Merial) or
Cydectin® Long Acting Injection for Sheep (Zoetis).
Figure 1. Mean live-weight of ewes taken at
pre-lamb, docking and weaning from the capsule,
moxidectin and negative control groups3
Weight (kg)
The average weight of lambs at weaning3
Treatment group
Weight at weaning (kg)
Negative Control
Cydectin LA Injection
Bionic Hi-Min Capsule
(Each superscript is statistically different (p<0.0001)
The use of long acting anthelmintic products pre-lamb has
been shown to speed up the development of drench resistance.
Therefore these products should be used with care, and not
all ewes within a flock should be treated. Focusing on the tail
end ewes, particularly twin bearing ewes, should be the logical
choice. It allows you to lift overall flock performance by targeting
ewes that would otherwise struggle, while minimising the
development of drench resistance.
For a detailed pre-lamb plan, talk to your local PGG Wrightson
Technical Field Representative.
Kenyon PR, Maloney SK, Blache D. Review of sheep body condition score in relation
to production characteristics. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 57, No.1,
38-64, 2014.
Cydectin LA
Negative control
Beef + Lamb New Zealand. Ewe body condition scoring handbook.
Bingham C. Comparison of the production effects of two different long active
pre-lamb treatments in poor condition twin bearing ewes. Proceedings of the Society
of Sheep and Beef Cattle Veterinarians of the NZVA 2016.
JULY 2016 |
Animal health
Primer and exit drenching
A primer drench is given as you administer a long acting drench
injection or capsule. The objective of combination drenching is to
aid the elimination of the adult worm burden present at the time
of administration.
If using a drench capsule, a triple
combination oral is an effective product
to use. For Cydectin® Long Acting (LA),
the use of Nilvax® provides a short
acting combination drench which will be
effective on most farms. A drench efficacy
test will provide information that is
specific to your farm.
Exit drenching refers to the use of
an effective combination drench
(preferably a triple) at the end of the
payout period for the selected drench.
For capsules and Cydectin LA, this period
is about 100 days (or at weaning). For
Eweguard this is after 35 days (or at
docking). The objective is to remove any
worm larvae and adults that are resistant
to the drench used, as these resistant
worms can spread their genetics over
your farm for many months1.
A positive faecal egg count during the
persistent activity period indicates
that the drench is ineffective, but it is
The aim of these
practices is twofold:
1. Improve the effectiveness of the
long acting drench products
used (injections or capsules).
important to realise that a zero egg
count in a ewe does not mean that there
are no adult worms present1. They may
be surviving but not breeding at the
time. Exit drenching is important to
protect the long acting drench that you
have used so that is can be used again
in future years2. It removes any resistant
worms that will have a breeding
advantage as all of the susceptible
worms are being killed.
Ewes that have singleton pregnancies
are likely to give the least production
gain from a LA drench and for this reason
are often left untreated. Lambing some
of these ewes in with the treated ewes
provides a valuable source of refugia.
Another option is to leave some ewes
untreated in each mob.
Each situation is different and
takes precise planning. Talk to your
PGG Wrightson store to discuss your
parasite management plan.
2. Slow the development of
drench resistance so these
products can continue to
be used effectively.
Andrew Dowling BVSc
Technical Manager – Animal Production
PGG Wrightson
Sutherland et al, The effect of anthelmintic capsules
on the egg output and larval viability of drug resistant
parasites. Veterinary Research Communications,
(2003),27, 149-157.
Sutherland et al, Selection for drug-resistant
nematodes during and following extended exposure
to anthelmintic. Parasitology (2000),121, 217-226.
Calf rearing
Finding your way through calf milk options
When deciding which rearing method to use, practical considerations such as ease of mixing,
consistency and palatability will be important but cost effectiveness, performance and peace of
mind should come to the fore.
Calf milk replacers (CMR) offer some advantages over milk from
the vat which could be sold. Formulated to a higher protein to
fat ratio, they are less satisfying than whole milk and tend to
encourage higher intakes of hard feed. This can save costs and
also stimulate rumen development which lessens stresses at
weaning. Importantly, CMR is normally fortified with essential
minerals, trace elements and vitamins. However, the difference
is in the detail, which can make subtle improvements to both
growth and health.
Conventional milk replacers have 18 to 23 percent protein.
Higher protein or enhanced milk replacers like Reliance Calf Milk
Replacer are well suited to earlier weaning and can also be used
in accelerated feeding programmes using fortified whole milk.
Based on whole milk products, it is a good option for farmers
who want to move into and out of calf milk replacer and whole
milk because calves transition from one to the other very easily.
It helps keep calves content and robust, a good choice if rearers
are inexperienced or weather conditions are harsh. The inclusion
of a coccidiostat makes such products especially appealing
where units have a previous history of coccidiosis challenge.
Products with a good specification and some non-milk protein,
such as Reliance Calf Milk Finisher may offer cost savings and are
well suited to conventional, traditionally weaned beef and heifer
calves. Incorporating vegetable proteins can help standardise the
proteins delivered from milk. Very young calves lack the ability
to fully digest even high quality vegetable proteins. Accordingly,
finisher type products are best suited to older calves – perhaps
when the transition milk, which cannot be sold from the first four
days of lactation, has been used up.
Whey based powders are popular internationally because
dried whey and dried whey protein concentrate are
considered consistent, cost-effective by-products from
cheese manufacturing. The whey protein is separated from
the curd used to make cheese, it does not clot and therefore
spends less time in the abomasum (true stomach) than replacers
based on whole milk. Intakes of hard feed are normally stronger
when calves are fed whey based powders and despite more
rapid movement through the digestive tract, scouring can be
reduced. A key benefit of whey based powders that contain
organic acids like NRM’s Power Whey is that lower gut pH limits
pathogen growth, thereby reducing the incidence and severity
of diarrhoea. They are less filling and ideal for calves that can be
housed for longer, especially in colder locations.
Calf rearing can be stressful for both people and animals.
Having support and practical advice from your PGG Wrightson
Technical Field Representative and local PGG Wrightson store
can give peace of mind.
JULY 2016 |
Identifying and treating downer cows
this spring
Prompt identification and appropriate treatment is the key to effectively managing cases of milk
fever and grass staggers.
Milk fever (hypocalcaemia) – Uncomplicated milk fever,
due to low blood calcium, usually occurs at calving or in the
48 hours that follow. In the early stages cows become excitable,
uncoordinated and may appear drunk.
As the condition progresses, cows go down, become quiet and
depressed and they often develop an S-bend in their neck.
Severely affected cows may be found unresponsive, flat out on
their side or with their head twisted around to the flank.
When treating a milk fever case, always check the cow for an
undelivered calf and for mastitis. If the cow has mastitis, consult
your veterinarian for treatment advice. My recommendations for
milk fever treatment are as follows:
For a down cow
Severe staggers
>> One 500 ml bag of calcium borogluconate (e.g. MetaBoost
CBG Injection)1 product slowly into the jugular vein of
the neck. A bag in the vein provides calcium for two to
four hours.
>> Administer a 500 ml bag of magnesium sulphate under the
skin, and then call your veterinarian urgently for further
treatment advice.
>> After the cow improves and I am confident that she can
swallow, I follow this treatment with an oral calcium drench
(e.g. Pro-Cal Oral) to increase the length of protection to
12 - 24 hours.
All down cows will benefit from some TLC and a little bit of effort
will improve the treatment response rates dramatically.
If the cow is still standing
>> One 500 ml bag of calcium borogluconate product under the
skin of the neck or over the ribs and an oral calcium drench
(e.g. Pro-Cal Oral).
Grass staggers (hypomagnesaemia) – Commonly seen in
springer, colostrum or milking cows when feed is lush and where
magnesium supplementation has been insufficient. In the early
stages, cows will be trembling, twitching and uncoordinated. They
are usually excitable and may often show signs of aggression.
As the disease progresses, these cows go down but they remain
alert, are easily stimulated and are very twitchy. Severe cases will
seizure and at this stage, they will not be responsive.
Grass staggers is an emergency. DO NOT DELAY TREATMENT.
Normally placid animals may become aggressive, so keep your
safety in mind at all times.
Nursing down cows
Protect down cows from the cold by either bringing them in
under shelter, or at a minimum, use a ground sheet and a cow
cover. A cold cow will not stand up.
>> Provide food and water at all times.
>> Lift the cow with hip clamps several times a day and regularly
roll the cow onto her other hip. A cow sitting on one leg all day
will get a dead leg.
>> Down cows should be moved to a soft surface. A cow that is
down on a hard surface (e.g. concrete) will develop nerve and
muscle injury and is less likely to recover.
>> Regularly check down cows for mastitis.
More than three percent of your cows developing milk
fever indicates a herd wide milk fever issue. I recommend
you seek advice from your PGG Wrightson Technical Field
Representative on milk fever prevention.
Mild staggers
>> Administer a 500 ml bag of magnesium sulphate
(e.g. MetaBoost Magnesium Sulphate) under the skin,
drench with an oral calcium and magnesium treatment
(e.g.Pro-Cal Oral), and follow up with another magnesium
sulphate bag under the skin 12 hours later. Alternatively
drench cows with Oral Mag, an oral magnesium supplement.
Review magnesium supplementation rates to correct a
potential herd wide magnesium deficiency.
Ben Allott BVSc (dist)
Technical Expert – Animal Health
PGG Wrightson
Some cases of milk fever are complicated by low magnesium or ketosis. In these
cases, reach for a combination bag containing calcium, magnesium and dextrose
(e.g. MetaBoost 4-in-1).
Balancing the ‘big four’ macro-minerals
Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg)
and sodium (Na) are essential minerals for
ruminants. This means they are critical to the
health and wellbeing of the animals and must
be provided via feed.
Contact your local PGG Wrightson Technical Field
Representative to organise extensive pasture testing to help
devise a tailored mineral supplementation programme.
The ‘big four’ are used in the development of bones, teeth,
muscle growth and milk production. The four graphs presented
show the average mineral profile through the year (solid line),
and the range1 (upper and lower bounds – dashed lines) for Ca,
P, Mg and Na in pasture samples submitted by PGG Wrightson to
Hill Laboratories from 2009 - 2015.
In contrast to the supply of minerals from pastures, the shaded
area on the graphs demonstrate the mineral requirement through
the phases of the lactation2. Based on the average mineral
content of pasture, supplementation of the ‘big four’ is often
required for optimal productivity. Due to the wide variability of
minerals in pastures, ‘extended feed’ testing is recommended to
accurately determine supplementary feeding rates.
Andrea Murphy B.Sc. (Agr) (Hons) M.Sc.
Member of NZARN
PGG Wrightson Technical Specialist – Animal Nutrition
Nadine Huitema MSc, BMS (Hons), BSc
Member of NZARN
PGG Wrightson Technical Specialist – Animal Nutrition
Range based on the standard deviation of the data set.
Optimal nutrient requirements assuming August calving and based on NRC, 2001,
and Hutjens, 1998.
2 Calcium Content of Pastures vs. Optimal Calcium
Requirement of Dairy Cows
Phosphorus Content of Pastures vs. Optimal
Phosphorus Requirement of Dairy Cows
Based on 501 samples tested from 2009-2015
Based on 499 samples tested from 2009-2015
% Dry Matter
% Dry Matter
Ca Requirement
Pasture Ca Upper Bound
Average Pasture Ca
P Requirement
Pasture Ca Lower Bound
Pasture P Upper Bound
Magnesium Content of Pastures vs. Optimal
Magnesium Requirement of Dairy Cows
Average Pasture P
Pasture P Lower Bound
Sodium Content of Pastures vs. Optimal Sodium
Requirement of Dairy Cows
Based on 505 samples tested from 2009-2015
Based on 1143 samples tested from 2009-2015
% Dry Matter
% Dry Matter
Mg Requirement
Pasture Mg Upper Bound
Average Pasture Mg
Na Requirement
Pasture Mg Lower Bound
Pasture Na Upper Bound
Average Pasture Na
Pasture Na Lower Bound
JULY 2016 |
Get 10 years production out of Lucerne
Beef + Lamb New Zealand rate Lucerne
as a practical feed source to ensure
consistently high lamb growth rates.
The crop can be productive for up
to 10 years, providing feed through
summer and flexibility in stocking rates.
Ewes benefit from being weaned in good
condition, making summer management
easier. However, good crop management is
key to achieving any of these benefits.
Anawai Station in Hawke’s Bay is a Beef + Lamb monitor
farm, owned by Craig Hickson of Progressive Meats Ltd and
managed by Sam Clark. The farm is 1,300 effective ha and
home to sheep, beef and deer, all bred, finished or grown out
as replacement stock. They’ve been using Lucerne to finish
lambs for the past ten years and graze deer.
PGG Wrightson Technical Field Representative,
Mark Walwyn has supported Anawai for nine years and is
particularly involved with managing the Lucerne stand,
from planting, through establishment and maximising
lifetime longevity of production.
Mark knows the farm well. “Anawai could be divided
into two distinct areas. The top country (the lucerne
platform) is gently rolling, starting from a higher exposed
area at the southern end and gradually lowering in
altitude to the north. There’s good drainage here and it’s
supposedly summer safe. Then there’s the bottom country
with steep westerly slopes, down to gently rolling (with a
plantain platform).
“Pasture is mostly native grasses, although there is a cropping
programme, growing swede and kale mainly for the deer, after
which the paddocks are put into AR1 ryegrass.
“A big challenge in Hawke’s Bay is that summers are generally
dry, even in the ‘summer safe’ areas. Lucerne was introduced on
Anawai as a better solution than the standard grass system to
finish the farm’s 4,000 plus lambs. And more importantly, grow
replacement ewe lambs to be at a good weight, mating in May
as hoggets.”
Sam’s biggest challenge is managing different stock classes,
together with the marketing strategies that come with being
part of Progressive Meats. “The stock classes require preferential
feeding at certain times. Also, Craig has a lot of trial work
happening with his meat processing plants. One day we may be
selling small milk lambs at 10 kg liveweight, then the next we are
growing lambs out to 65 kg liveweight. We have to be flexible
with in our system. Lucerne helps with feed flexibility over the
dry summer months.
“We also have an out of season lambing group where ewes have
the opportunity to lamb five times in three years. Obviously, this
puts pressure on our feed supply at certain times of the year.”
The 100 ha Lucerne crop is closely managed by both Sam and
Mark with a stringent weed control programme in place, mainly
to control thistle.
“We’re making progress in reducing thistle with better stock
grazing principles” says Mark. “But we have a good ag-chem
strategy in place too.”
Sam Clark, Manager of Anawai Station in Hawke’s Bay with
Mark Walwyn, PGG Wrightson Technical Field Representative.
New Lucerne is sprayed with Spinnaker at 400 ml/ha, plus
65 g/ha Preside and 1 L/ha Peptoil. Alternatively, they spray
with Dynamo at 3 L/ha. Established Lucerne gets a winter
spray of Tyllanex at 2 L/ha (or Atranex WG at 1 kg/ha) plus
Gramoxone 250 at 2.4 L/ha. If required, they spring spray
with Dynamo for seeding thistles. Also, if required, they
spray late spring with Hexazinone 750 for mature flowering
nodding thistles. Over and above this, they carry out weed
wiper control. The key to choosing the best option is
knowing the correct growth stage for each application.
Just 15 months into his role at Anawai, Sam can’t comment
on Lucerne yields relating to weed management.
“However,” he says, “I do know that we missed spraying
some of the crop last year and the difference between that
area and the rest of the crop was like chalk and cheese.”
He can see good crop management is key to lifetime
production. “We have Lucerne that is knocking on 10 years
old; the plants are more spread out, limiting kgDM/ha
grown and encouraging weed establishment. So long as
the sward is still thick and weed control isn’t a major cost,
10 years production is achievable. Yield depends very much
on management as well as soil and fertility.”
Sam concludes that advice from PGG Wrightson has
been key to maximising the lifetime production of their
Lucerne crop.
Mark calls by on a regular basis, ensuring that we
are not only managing the stands, but also planting
and spraying in a timely manner. He has a wealth of
knowledge, supported by PGG Wrightson, that no
farmer is expected to have.
JULY 2016 |
Land production
Robust maize makes up for steep terrain
Approximately 20 km inland
from Otorohanga is the
tiny settlement of Maihiihi,
home to Luke Edwards and
his family.
Luke is a 20 percent partner in his family’s
farm which he manages along with two
full time staff. It consists of 220 ha of dairy,
another 20 ha of pine, 12 ha designated
for maize and some native bush.
Luke lives there with his wife Alice
and their two children, Zara and Nico.
Spending time with his young family
and friends is important to him, which
means he has to manage the farm in a
way that allows him to do this (along
with occasional hunting and fishing trips
thrown in for good measure).
Luke milks 630 Friesian cross cows
and last year produced 252,000 kg of
milksolids on a property that has its
own set of challenges. The contour of
the farm means a lot of long walks to
the milking shed over steep hills and to
control pasture, Luke uses 16 day rounds
during spring and summer. In addition, if
the winter is wet, he has to ‘stand-off’ the
cows from the steeper parts of the terrain.
However, he agrees all of these
inconveniences are more than offset by
the fantastic views. “You can go up to our
maize growing field and look back and see
the whole farm in an amazing panorama,
it’s pretty awesome,” says Luke.
To extend the milking season and ensure
the cows maintain good condition right
through to calving, Luke plants 20 ha of
Pioneer® brand maize every year for silage
(14 ha of P9400 and 6ha of P8805). About
8 ha are rotated around the farm and he
has a 12 ha designated block for growing
maize which is very high above sea level
and exposed to the elements.
Luke sought the advice of his local
Pioneer representative, Noldy Rust along
with PGG Wrightson Technical Field
Representative, Mark Bulwer before
planting. “We targeted a maize hybrid
that has a cob that sits low on the plant
to keep it from blowing over in strong
winds,” explains Luke.
Farmer, Luke Edwards with his PGG Wrightson
Technical Field Representative, Mark Bulwer.
He usually aims for 19 tDM/ha on this
block and the rest, which is grown on the
dairy platform, yields 22 tDM/ha. He also
uses Pioneer brand 11C33 inoculant at
harvesting to keep the stack cooler and
improve the quality of the feed. “Last
year we had the stack tested and the ME
was 11.0 MJ/kgDM. That’s the highest it’s
ever been.”
Like all dairy farmers in these low payout
times, Luke is keeping a careful eye on
the costs per kg of milksolids. They are
currently sitting at $3.50 and he would
like to get them lower. At the same time,
he is aiming to increase production to
more than 280,000 kgMS and plans to
plant more maize silage in the future to
achieve this goal.
This is the third season Luke has managed
the farm and using maize silage has seen
production go from 170,000 kgMS in his
first year to 252,000 kgMS last year. He’s
on target to achieve the same production
again this year.
As Luke puts it: “At 19 c/kgDM, maize
silage has got to be the cheapest
supplement in the long term.”
Land production
Determining when enough is enough
Making fertiliser decisions can seem complicated by the time you measure soil nutrient reserves,
decide what levels are needed to support your production system and finally calculate whether the
economics stack up.
To achieve optimal growth, plants need certain amounts of
essential elements. Liebig’s law of the minimum states that the
nutrient that is most limiting will be the key determinant of a
plant’s ability to fulfil its growth potential. Adding other nutrients
will be a waste of money if the most limiting nutrient is not
replenished first.
It is also important to understand how pasture growth responds
to increasing soil fertility. In their untouched state, most New
Zealand soils are low in some of the major elements required for
pasture growth, notably phosphorus and sulphur.
Over time, as fertiliser is added, soil fertility levels will rise towards
the maximum level for pasture production. However, if you graph
this process it is not a straight line. As soil fertility increases, the
pasture production response for each unit of input decreases.
At some stage, usually when pasture production is at about 80 to
90 percent of its potential maximum, you will reach the optimal
levels for a nutrient. Adding more will cost more than the returns
you will get.
Understanding these two concepts can help your fertiliser
decisions. Josh Verhoek, Ballance Agri-Nutrients Science
Extension Officer, has some good advice: “Your best strategy
is to concentrate on the ‘low-hanging fruit’, where you can get
the biggest productivity gains. If you’re at 80 percent relative
productivity, then you’re not going to get the same response
as if you were at 60 percent. If you’re operating above
optimum levels, you’ve got room to move and can cut back
for a year, maybe two. However, if you do this, you do need
to monitor your soil fertility to make sure you don’t fall below
optimum levels.”
Josh believes dairy farmers have the opportunity to precisely
manage their nitrogen additions. “Nitrogen is a cheap way
of growing feed, but farmers are inclined to blanket spread
it. Ballance has a tool called N-Guru, which can be used in
combination with testing soil nitrogen levels and spatial
application technology to strategically apply nitrogen. So, on
paddocks with high soil nitrogen levels you can add less, and
where nitrogen levels are low, you can add more.”
For sheep and beef farms, the focus is generally on phosphorus,
sulphur and pH levels. “It’s about concentrating on the areas that
have the greatest production potential first,” says Josh. “If you
have a combination of hill country and more productive flat or
rolling areas, get the flat and rolling country up and cranking
before addressing the steeper areas. Also, it is good to grow extra
feed but it needs to be used properly or your investment will be
wasted. Subdivision is a big part of that.”
For more information about how to manage your soil
fertility to get the best results for your farm, talk to your
PGG Wrightson Technical Field Representative.
JULY 2016 |
Farm maintenance
Polyethylene pipe for all situations
Discovered in 1933,
Polyethylene (PE) has grown
to become one of the world’s
most widely used and
recognised thermoplastic
When selecting pipe materials, designers,
owners and contractors specify materials
that provide reliable, long-term service
durability and cost-effectiveness. Solid wall
PE pipes provide a cost-effective solution
for a wide range of piping applications
around the farm such as irrigation, stock
water and effluent dispersal.
PE pipe can be used in many
applications on farm and is classed
into three distinct categories:
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Made from a PE100 resin, HDPE is a metric
sized Outside Diameter (OD) pipe to assist
any irrigation or farm water application.
It’s ideal where a high pressure pipe
system is required as it provides cost
savings as well as an increased life
expectancy of the pipeline.
Benefits include:
>> Excellent pressure resistance
>> High tolerance to ground movement
>> Lightweight
>> Higher flow rates when compared to
MDPE with the same pressure rating
>> Higher chemical and corrosion
resistance compared to MDPE
Medium Density Polyethylene (MDPE)
Made from a PE80 resin, MDPE is a
metric sized Outside Diameter (OD) pipe
developed for situations where higher
pressure ratings are required than an
LDPE pipe.
The following formula shows the
calculation to use:
OD ÷ SDR = WT (wall thickness).
SDR21, SDR17, SDR15 and SDR13.6 are
generally used in rural applications and all
pipes with an SDR of 17, 15, 13.6 and 11 are
strong enough to be directionally drilled.
Benefits include:
>> Flexible and light weight
>> Excellent tolerance to ground
The table below shows how SDR, PE80
and PE100 work together to create
different pressure ratings.
>> Corrosion free in adverse soil conditions
Manufactured from a monomer ethylene
resin, LDPE is an imperial Inside Diameter
(ID) sized pipe, ideal for situations when
pressure ratings are low.
The major cost in producing any pipe
is its raw material content; so any step
change in SDR could increase or decrease
the finished cost of the pipe by 20 to
25 percent. Designing a pipe system using
the chart below will go a long way to
helping decide the ultimate combination
of pipe cost to required application.
Benefits include:
Jointing polyethylene pipe
>> Ease of installation
LDPE fittings are imperial. There are
several brands that offer a wide range of
fittings specifically designed for use only
on that type of pipe. They cannot be used
to join metric MDPE and HDPE pipe.
>> Easy to install and good pressure
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
>> Cost effective
Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR) and
Pressure Number (PN) rating
When choosing the best pipe on farm, you
need to understand Pressure Number (PN)
ratings, wall thicknesses, material type and
how they are inter-related. PN rating is the
normal operating pressure at 20° C (in bar)
required for the pipe application.
MDPE and HDPE fittings are
metric. The most common forms are
compression fittings.
To understand the best pipe system for
your farm and for more information,
contact your local PGG Wrightson
Technical Field Representative.
The Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR)
number is used to determine how
thick the pipe wall will be (measured in
millimetres), compared to the pipe OD
(measured in millimetres). The smaller the
SDR number, the thicker the pipe wall and
higher the PN rating is.
All Waters and Farr pipe is manufactured and tested to
Nominal working pressure at 20° C
Canine nutrition
Dog food – it is not all the same
Working dogs in New Zealand
are athletes. The long distant
runners on farm cover up to
100 kilometres a day, much
of it at 20-30 kilometres per
hour. Dietary requirements
of working dogs are specific.
Not all dog food is the same.
Like any athlete, working dogs are very
susceptible to muscle injuries. Even the
best dogs will inevitably experience them.
The result is that your dog, a key resource
on your farm, will not be performing to its
potential. Imagine if another machine on
your farm was only working at 50 percent
efficiency. Ultimately, reduced efficiency
means reduced profit for farmers. Like
any high performance athlete, working
dogs need protein to rebuild and repair
their muscles after a hard day’s work in
the field.
As with humans, high protein diets reduce
muscle injuries in working dogs. In 1996,
a study was carried out that compared
protein levels in dog food1. One had 18
percent metabolisable protein, the other
had 24 percent metabolisable protein.
The dogs that were fed the lower protein
diet sustained significantly more muscle
injuries compared to the dogs that
were fed the higher protein food. It is
important to note that the Association of
American Feed Control Officials (AFFCO)
recommends a minimum protein level of
18 percent for a dog food to be complete
and balanced.
What does this tell us? Working dogs
need high protein diets to provide that
vital protection which enables them to
consistently perform at their peak.
Ingredients on the pack are listed in
order with the ingredient making up
the biggest proportion of the product
listed first, and the smallest last. If the
first ingredient is ‘cereals and cereal
by-products’, this means that cereals
make up the biggest proportion of
the food.
It is important to think about the
percentage of protein in your dog’s
food, but it is not the only consideration.
The digestibility of the protein also plays
an important role. Protein comes from
different sources, including animals
(meat) and plants. Although proteins
sourced from meat and plants are both
classed as proteins, they are digested
differently by your dog. One way to
measure the digestibility is by looking
at the amount to feed each day. Feeding
guidelines can be found on the pack. The
less ‘grams per’ usually means a higher
digestibility. It also ensures your dog is
getting the right amount of nutrition and
energy to work longer and harder.
This is where dog food pricing differs
greatly. Next time you consider buying
dog food, look at the feeding guides on
the pack. The less you have to feed, the
longer the bag will last, saving you time
and money. The cheapest bag is not
always the cheapest option2.
The number one ingredient listed on pack
of PEDIGREE® Working Dog is real meat,
and this is the key source of protein in
the food. PEDIGREE has been formulated
based on research from the Waltham
Centre for Pet Nutrition. For nearly
50 years, WALTHAM® has been the leading
authority within the field of cat and dog
nutrition and the hub of PEDIGREE global
research activities.
Not only does PEDIGREE Working Dog
Formula have a higher percentage of
protein than other mainstream dog
foods, it is formulated to market leading
quality guidelines. The protein comes
from real meat to assist in muscle
recovery and deliver peak performance
from working dogs.
PEDIGREE may also deliver on your
bottom line with a cost of less than a
dollar a day3.
To discuss protein requirements for
your working dogs, visit your local
PGG Wrightson store.
Reynolds, A. J. Taylor, C. R. Hoppeler, H., Weibel, E. R.,
Weyand, P. R. T., & Reinhart, G. A. (1996). The effect
of diet on sled dog performance, oxidative capacity,
skeletal muscle microstructure, and muscle glycogen
Based on feeding guidelines and pricing of 20 - 25 kg
bags in the New Zealand rural supplies market.
Based on recommended promotional pricing for 20 kg
pack size.
JULY 2016 |
NORSEWEAR – the road less travelled
You are standing in the paddock at 5am on a freezing Sunday morning, with the rain lashing down
and the wind stinging your face. Your feet need to be warm, really warm.
Anyone can make socks. But to make the most comfortable,
hard-wearing and best-performing socks that can withstand
everything a New Zealand farmer can throw at them is exceptional.
Norsewear is a company that does things a bit differently. We
go against the grain, refuse to conform, and have the courage
to take risks. We do this to produce the quality socks that you
demand. Socks that are not just warm, they’re really warm.
Using natural, breathable merino, possum and wool fibres,
combined with nylon and acrylic for durability and performance
Norsewear is unique. Features include the flat toe seam, Y-heel
and soft terry cushioning for your comfort, plus reinforcing and
ribbing so that they stay put. Everything is done to ensure that
these are the best socks you will ever own.
cheapest option, but it does produce garments of a far superior
quality and also creates jobs here in New Zealand.
But you already know all this. Because you’re a New Zealand
farmer. You don’t run with the pack. You take the high road, the
steep drop, the dense bush... where the going is harder, but the
rewards are greater!
You know the story. Take the road less travelled.
For more information and to view the new NORSEWEAR range,
visit your local PGG Wrightson store.
The Norsewear story begins with 376 intrepid pioneers who left
the familiarity of their homelands to face an uncertain future
in Aotearoa. Scandinavian migrants, arriving in New Zealand in
1872, stared adversity in the face but, through hard work and
determination, followed their dreams to establish the town now
known as Norsewood.
The ideology of these settlers still holds true with Norsewear
today – we lead, we don’t follow. We are not afraid to be different
and strive for perfection where others settle for acceptable.
We create our products with the same principles. We will use
unconventional design, untried techniques and unusual fibres to
achieve our goals.
We also support our local community. The people of
Norsewood have chosen not to take the easy route of a 9 to 5,
but to live and work within a close-knit community where they
can really make a difference. We share their spirit, so we invest
heavily in the community.
We also think differently when it comes to sustainability. All our
wool is sourced from farms only in New Zealand. And wherever
possible we manufacture our garments here too. It is not the
RRP $149
Valid 1/7/2016 - 31/7/2016 or while stocks last
PGG Wrightson team
Support at the front line
Technical support is at the core of PGG Wrightson’s day-to-day operations. Mindy, a Customer
Service Representative (CSR) from the PGG Wrightson Te Awamutu store explains the difference
technical support and training has made to her role and how she uses this knowledge to help
each of her customers.
I have an ongoing love and passion for animals and the rural
sector. I use this passion in my role at PGG Wrightson.
I am often the first point of call at the store, and I’m all about
helping people feel welcome and comfortable asking questions.
My main focus is providing technical information for customers
to make the best decision for their rural supplies and animal
health needs.
Farmers call in or phone us with queries and requests. We always
ensure our store team has enough product training and technical
knowledge to help them with any specific questions they may
have. We are regularly encouraged to attend training days and
to continuously build our knowledge. We spend valuable time
with our technical colleagues, who are qualified and experienced
individuals in speciality fields. For example, I recently completed
a hands-on animal health training at a client’s farm. This was a
great experience, and the farmers were helpful and friendly.
I also improve my technical knowledge through the resources
and tools provided by our technical team. For example, I often
refer to the Nutrition Fact Finder. This is a resource created by
Andrea Murphy and Nadine Huitema, PGG Wrightson Technical
Specialists in Animal Nutrition, which covers everything from calf
rearing to nutrient requirements, pasture calculations, feeding
crops and feed testing. In situations where I don’t have the
knowledge to give an answer to a customer, I know I have the
support and expertise of our wider company.
I am involved in information days and store events. Recently, I
spent some time talking with college students at a Get Ahead
day. I emphasised that my role was much more than retail, as
I spend the majority of my day dealing with the big questions
farmers and customers have. I see my job as an opportunity to
connect the rural community with sound technical solutions.
For local knowledge and a warm welcome, visit your nearest
PGG Wrightson store.
PGG Wrightson Technical Specialists in Animal Nutrition, Nadine Huitema
and Andrea Murphy have created nutrition technical resources to support
PGG Wrightson store network.
JULY 2016 |
PGG Wrightson directory
Visit your local PGG Wrightson store for stock food, animal health supplies, farm merchandise,
apparel and so much more. Our expert team of Technical Field Representatives are also here to
help you choose the right products for the best results in the months ahead. Talk to your local
team today, everyone welcome!
North Island Stores and Technical Field Representatives
Cambridge 87 Duke Street
Simon Dodds (TFR)
07 823 0640
027 595 8268
9 Burns Street
Nathaniel Turner (TFR)
06 385 8500
027 441 4454
66 High Street
Wayne Robinson (TFR) 06 379 6845
027 292 8966
Otorohanga Huiputea Drive Matthew Towers (TFR)
07 873 8179
027 595 3376
19-21 Barraud Street
Bill Keltie
Bryan Burt
Mark Jones (TFR)
06 374 4630
027 463 5384
027 497 6382
027 590 1454
Moa Street
Doug Burnell (TFR)
07 877 0012
027 595 8232
Porirua 2 Auty Lane 04 237 1270
Pukekohe 219 Manukau Road Mark Needham (TFR)
09 237 2020
027 704 6833
97 Tirau Street Allan McCarthy (TFR)
Mark Enevoldsen (TFR)
07 883 7199
027 590 1027
027 590 1435
Rotorua Cnr White and Marguerita Streets Wayne Everest (TFR)
07 349 5488
027 273 8926
Stratford Miranda Street Mike O’Neill (TFR)
Mike Willis (TFR)
Chris Hall (TFR) 06 765 0730
027 290 1840
027 596 8826
027 406 5770
Taihape 47-49 Hautapu Street Butch Cashell (TFR)
06 388 2090
027 590 1036 Tatuanui State Highway 26 Jason King (TFR)
07 889 4476
027 235 6454
Taumarunui Miriama Street Dean Hamilton (TFR)
07 895 3220
027 702 1025
Taupo 1 Totara Street
Darryl Jones (TFR)
Craig Farr (TFR) Emma Stevens (TFR)
07 376 7720
027 230 9237
027 403 1572
027 702 5654
Te Awamutu 41 Market Street
Mark Bulwer (TFR)
James Kay (TFR)
07 870 2830
027 707 9356
027 403 7027
Te Kauwhata
Waerenga Road
Jon Nutt (TFR)
07 826 0040
027 705 6932
Te Kuiti Rora Street Russell Smith (TFR)
07 878 0273
027 590 4921
Te Puke
7 Jocelyn Street Steve Wood (TFR)
07 573 0028
027 445 5846
Waihi Seddon Street
Ben Diamond (TFR)
07 863 6582
027 707 8930
Waipapa 2 Pataka Lane
Tim McLeod (TFR)
09 407 4835
027 590 0471
Waipukurau 12 Takapau Road Phil Enticott (TFR)
Hamish Best (TFR)
06 858 6771
027 597 5832
027 807 8538
Wairoa Queen Street
Michael Redward
06 838 8059
027 705 5060
Totara Street
Ron Grbin (TFR)
Mark Bradley (TFR)
09 439 3340
027 471 6388
027 335 6282
Eketahuna 31 Newman Road, State Highway 2 Jason Waterman (TFR)
Trevor Boyles (TFR)
06 375 8125
027 218 1606
027 889 3976
Feilding 18 Manchester Street Andrew Harwin (TFR)
Bob Gillespie (TFR)
Richard Reid (TFR)
06 323 0065
027 712 7018
027 595 3367
027 448 0725
21 Solander Street Emma Pollitt (TFR)
Jeremy Darby (TFR) 06 863 1686
027 597 5821
027 598 3288
131 Kent Street
Bevin Kite (TFR)
07 850 2621
027 590 2628
Hastings Cnr Maraekakaho and Orchard Roads
Garry Jones
Mark Walwyn (TFR)
Michael Hegarty (TFR) Warren Johnson (TFR)
06 873 7207
027 597 5822
027 434 7678
027 597 5824
027 592 7511
27 Glover Road
John Christensen (TFR)
Belinda Wilson (TFR)
Stephen Hurley (TFR)
06 278 0390
027 290 1845
027 836 1806
027 463 5390
Helensville 41B Mill Road
Joe Heng (TFR)
09 420 9412
021 514 114
Huntly 374 Great South Road
Jon Nutt (TFR)
Michelle Bregmen (TFR)
07 828 0960
027 705 6932
027 592 5283
Kaikohe 15 Raihara Street Phil Oates (TFR)
09 405 2795
027 894 4361
9 Empire Street Phil Oates (TFR)
09 408 6130
027 894 4361
Katikati 2 Marshall Road
Ben Diamond (TFR)
07 549 1316
027 707 8930
Kumeu 132 Main Road 09 412 2711
Martinborough 43-45 Jellicoe Street Mike Trafford (TFR)
Geoff Horrobin (TFR)
06 306 9699
027 595 3220
027 443 2588 Marton 5 High Street Peter Death (TFR)
06 327 4730
027 590 1722
Masterton 38 Lincoln Road Geoff Horrobin (TFR)
Gavin Harris (TFR)
06 370 1855
027 443 2588 027 600 4382
Wanganui 99 Wilson Street
David Howard (TFR)
Wayne Coleman (TFR)
06 345 0710
027 245 8723
027 596 5145
Matamata 72 Firth Street Mark Enevoldsen (TFR)
Grant Douglas (TFR)
07 888 4577
027 590 1435
027 477 4232
Port Albert Road
Mike Gamble (TFR)
09 423 9710
027 705 7120
Matawai 6524 Matawai Road Justin Cameron 06 862 4877
027 801 8780
12-14 Peace Street Ian Wright (TFR)
07 307 1613
027 273 1437
Morrinsville 168 Thames Street Callum Donaldson (TFR)
07 889 0160
027 223 5123
Whangarei Cnr Dent and Finlayson Streets Graeme Dickeson (TFR)
Matt Rudsdale (TFR)
09 470 2521
027 687 5363
027 889 3728
Freephone 0800 10 22 76