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plagiat merupakan tindakan tidak terpuji plagiat
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ENGLISH-INDONESIAN CODE SWITCHING
IN INDONESIAN SONG LYRICS
COMPOSED BY MELLY GOESLAW
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as partial Fulfillment of Requirements
For the Degree of Sarjana Sastra
In English Letters
By
ROSA DELIMA WIKASITAKUSUMA WIDAYA
Student Number: 104214054
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTEMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS
FACULTY OF LETTERS
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2015
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ENGLISH-INDONESIAN CODE SWITCHING
IN INDONESIAN SONG LYRICS
COMPOSED BY MELLY GOESLAW
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as partial Fulfillment of Requirements
For the Degree of Sarjana Sastra
In English Letters
By
ROSA DELIMA WIKASITAKUSUMA WIDAYA
Student Number: 104214054
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTEMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS
FACULTY OF LETTERS
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2015
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This is the KEY
of
MY FREEDOM!
The next step is building my own kingdom

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To
My Beloved God,
My Family, and
The people who always
support me.
THANK YOU!
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ACKNOLEDGEMENTS
Doing a research is something which is new for me. There were many
temptations to finish this undergraduate thesis. I would like to thank Jesus Christ
for the blessing and support; I could rise from adversity and could complete this
research properly.
Firstly, I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Adventina Putranti, S.S.,
M.Hum., for the assistance, advice, guidance, and patience. I would also like to
thank my co-advisor, Dr. Fr. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A. , for the guidance, correction,
and suggestion.
My deep gratitude goes to my parents, dr. B. Restu Widaya, Sp.B and Dra.
A.M. Retno Abri S., my lovely younger sister, R.D.K. Tunjung Biru, and my
grandmothers for the support and understanding.
My special thanks go to my beloved aunt, Yuyun Yulia, Ph.D., who is
always willing to be contacted anytime, 24 hours a day. Thank for advices.
I am a blessed person surrounded by good-hearted people. Then, for all
lecturers and staff of English Literature Department Sanata Dharma University, I
thank for the knowledge, patient, experiences and lessons. I would also like to
thank Grup Rempong, Formasi Malang, B-10 Sasing, English Letters 2010, Anak
Bimbingan Bu Venti, Grup KKU, KKN 36 Kliwang, Rotaract Club of Yogyakarta
Malioboro, GTS, Bedjo 28, for the support and wonderful experiences.
To whom I can not mention one by one, thank for the support and lessons.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………...…. ii
APPROVAL PAGE……………………………………………………...…….iii
ACCEPTANCE PAGE………………………………………….................... iv
LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH..v
STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY……………………………………....… vi
MOTTO PAGE…………………………………………………………….… vii
DEDICATION PAGE…………………………………………………………viii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………x
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………….…xii
ABSTRAK………………………………………………………………………xiii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………
A. Background of the Study…………………………………………..
B. Problem Formulation……………………………………………….
C. Objectives of the Study…………………………………………….
D. Definition of Terms………………………………………………...
1
1
3
4
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CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE………………………………
A. Review of Related Studies…………………………………………
B. Review of Related Theories………………………………………..
1. Code Switching……………………….…………………………
2. Types of Code Switching………………………………………..
3. Reasons of Code Switching……………………………………..
4. Code Mixing…………………………………………………….
5. Code Switching in Song Lyrics………………………………….
6. Components of the Song………….……………………..………
C. Review of Related Background………………………………….....
D. Theoretical Framework……………………………………………..
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CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY………………………………………….
A. Object of Study…………………………………………………......
B. Approach of the Study……………………………………………..
C. Method of the Study………………………………………………..
1. Data Collection…………………………………………………..
2. Data Analysis……………………………………………………
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CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS (RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS)…………. 28
A. Types of Code Switching..…………………………………………. 28
1. Tag Switching…………………………………………………… 28
2. Intrasentential Switching……………………………………….. 30
3. Intersentential Switching……………………………………...… 33
B. Possible Reasons of Code Switching………………………………. 44
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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION……………………………………………… 68
BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………….. 71
APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………… 75
Lyric texts of Ten Indonesian Songs Composed by Melly
Goeslaw………………………………………………………………… 75
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ABSTRACT
WIDAYA, ROSA DELIMA WIKASITAKUSUMA. English-Indonesian Code
Switching in Indonesian Song Lyrics Composed by Melly Goeslaw.
Yogyakarta: Department of English Letter, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma
University, 2015.
Code switching has been commonly used in communication either in
conversations or songs. The use of code switching in conversations and song
lyrics are very different. Unlike in the use of code switching in conversations that
occurred spontaneously, the use of code switching in song lyric has a specific
purpose because it is edited and recorded, it does not occur spontaneously.
Nowadays, there is a new trend to switch Indonesian to English in some
Indonesian songs. This research gives some information of the use of code
switching in ten Indonesian songs composed by Melly Goeslaw in 2007 until
2013 which is used to be a basis and a comparison for coming analysis.
Two main purposes highlighted in this research: (1) identifying the types
of code switching which are used in Indonesian song lyrics composed by Melly
Goeslaw, and (2) identifying the reasons of code switching in that Indonesian
song lyrics.
This research needs all of Indonesian songs composed by Melly Goeslaw
which contain Indonesian-English code switching at parts of the song. There are
ten Indonesian songs composed by Melly Goeslaw which contain IndonesianEnglish code switching. Thus, that songs are collected and analyzed to answer two
questions elaborated in problem formulation.
The results of the analysis show ten Indonesian song lyrics examined in
this research use three types of code switching. Tag switching has four cases
found in three Indonesian songs. Intrasentential switching has five cases in three
Indonesian songs. The majority of song lyrics use intersential switching: twenty
one intersentential switching cases occur in eight songs. The code switches are
found in title, verse, chorus, bridge, refrain and coda of the song. There are six
reasons why the speaker of the song uses song switching, namely because of
certain state of mind and feeling, because of lack of facility, because of semantic
significance, because of different audiences, because of emphasis the point of
information, and because of attraction the attention.
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ABSTRAK
WIDAYA, ROSA DELIMA WIKASITAKUSUMA. English-Indonesian Code
Switching in Indonesian Song Lyrics Composed by Melly Goeslaw.
Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata
Dharma, 2015.
Alih bahasa telah umum digunakan dalam komunikasi baik dalam
percakapan atau lagu. Penggunaan alih bahasa pada percakapan sehari-hari dan
lirik lagu sangat berbeda. Tidak seperti dalam penggunaan alih bahasa dalam
percakapan yang terjadi secara spontan, penggunaan alih bahasa dalam lirik lagu
memiliki tujuan tertentu karena telah melalui proses pengeditan dan rekaman, alih
bahasa tersebut tidak terjadi secara spontan. Saat ini terdapat sebuah tren baru
penggunaan alih bahasa dari Bahasa Indonesia ke Bahasa Inggris di beberapa lagu
Indonesia. Penelitian ini memberikan informasi mengenai penggunaan alih bahasa
di sepuluh lagu Indonesia karangan Melly Gowslaw pada selang waktu 2007-2013
yang dapat digunakan sebagai dasar dan perbandingan untuk penelitian
selanjutnya.
Terdapat dua tujuan utama dalam penelitian ini: (1) mengidentifikasi jenis
alih bahasa yang digunakan dalam lirik lagu Indonesia yang diciptakan oleh Melly
Goeslaw, dan (2) mengidentifikasi alasan penggunaan dari alih bahasa tersebut.
Penelitian ini membutuhkan semua lagu Indonesia yang disusun oleh
Melly Goeslaw yang menggunakan perpaduan Bahasa Indonesia dan Inggris pada
bagian lagu. Ada sepuluh lagu Indonesia disusun oleh Melly Goeslaw yang
menggunakan alih bahasa. Selanjutnya, lagu-lagu tersebut dianalisa untuk
menjawab dua pertanyaan seperti yang diuraikan dalam rumusan masalah.
Hasil analisa menunjukkan sepuluh lirik lagu Indonesia yang diteliti dalam
penelitian ini menggunakan tiga jenis alih bahasa. Terdapat empat kasus tag
switching yang ditemukan di tiga lagu. Intrasentenial switching terjadi lima kali di
dalam tiga lagu. Mayoritas penggunaan alih bahasa menggunakan tipe
intersentential switching, terdapat dua puluh satu kasus yang terjadi di delapan
lagu. Alih bahasa tersebut terjadi di judul, bait, chorus, bridge, refrain dan koda.
Ada enam alasan mengapa sebuah lagu menggunakan alih bahasa, yaitu untuk
mengungkapkan pikiran dan perasaan tertentu, karena kurangnya fasilitas, karena
signifikansi semantik, untuk menyampaikan pesan lagu ke pendengar yang
memiliki latar belakang bahasa yang berbeda, untuk menekankan sebuah
informasi, dan untuk menarik perhatian.
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Human is a social being who has to live with others and language is a
means to communicate in society which human used to have a communication in
a society. This era is a globalization era; many people realize that learning and
mastering in more than one language give them many advantages. Developing
communicative competence in two or more languages is a must for either
integrative reasons or instrumental reasons.
Those who were interested in studying the language in order to be able to
identify with the target people, or because they were interested in the
culture of the target people, were said to be integratively motivated. Those
who wanted to study the language for the purpose of career advancement,
were instrumentally motivated. (Svanes, 1987: 342).
From the beginning of the independence of Indonesia, English has been
decided to be the first foreign language learned in this country.
Early on, it was decided that English, rather than Dutch, would be the first
foreign language of the country because Dutch was the language of the
colonialists and it did not have the international status that English did.
(Lauder, 2008: 10).
Even there are laws stating that English as the first foreign language in Indonesia
which has to be learned by the students since the elementary school and it is found
in the curriculum which has to be followed by official education institution.
In the 1989 Law, Chapter IX, Section 39, Verse 3, English is specified as a
compulsory subject, part of the Basic Curriculum. This supported by
Government Regulation Number 28, 1990, which states that English is to
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be taught from the first year of Junior High School but may be taught as
early as Primary Four at the school‟s discretion. (Lauder, 2008: 16).
Hence, it is not wondering if Indonesian people have a good ability to understand
English and use code features to deliver the message in their daily conversation.
English is also used as a language tool to exchange information in business,
politics, education, and media. (Lauder 2008:2).
Indonesian people sometimes use code switching, they changes the
language from Indonesians to English, to deliver a message. Lauder (2008: 11)
states that “in Indonesia, English‟s role is defined primarily by means of a
conscious process of language planning, rather than by linguistics evolution.”
The phenomenon of code switching is also be able to observed in literary
works which exist in society. The song lyric is one of the literary works which can
be an example. The use of code switching in conversation and song lyric are
different. Language switching in the song lyric is used by some purposes, it does
not occur spontaneously.
There is a fundamental different between the code switching in lyrics and
other types of literature and that which occurs in conversation. The former
is not spontaneous, but a conscious and predicated strategy and the
discourse in which it occurs is edited and recorded. It is deliberate style
used by the artist who would have prepared and reflected upon the lyrics
before the relapse of the song. (Davies, 2008: 3-4).
Language switching nowadays is a common phenomenon and there are some
previous code switching usages in song lyrics.
The most well known examples are the macaronic songs and carols
popular in medieval Europe, which feature a combination of Latin with
one or more vernacular language such as English or French, often serving
to convey religious message in a way relatively accessible to the
uneducated masses (see Schendl 1996, 1997). In eleven century al-
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Andalus, many of the muwashsha songs featured refrains (kharjas) in a
mixture of Arabic and Romance (see, for instance, Stern 1948; Armistead
and Monroe 1983). Folksongs in may parts of the world also feature mixed
language lyrics; between Spanish and Quechua (Muysken 1990), while in
Morocco the Jewish community has long used songs combining Hebrew
and Arabic (Zafrani 1983, 2003) Picone (2002) also discusses an
interesting range of examples of code switching in the lyrics of recent
popular song. (Davies, 2006: 368-369).
This occurrence is also found in Indonesia. There are some songs which
use English-Indonesian code switching which are popular in Indonesian society.
The first song composer whose songs is in the Indonesian top chart and has been a
reference for other English-Indonesian song composers is Melly Goeslaw. Her
works are not only popular in Indonesia, but also in foreign countries, such as in
Singapore and Malaysia.
Due to its popularity, the researcher is interested in analyzing the code
switching in Indonesian song lyrics including the reasons. The analyzed songs are
Melly Goeslaw‟s songs (ten songs in number). This research gives some
important information of code switching in Indonesian society through literacy
view, in particular Indonesian lyrics songs. The result of this analysis is used to be
a basis and a comparison for the coming analysis. The result is also used to
observe the type and reason of code switching in the Indonesian song lyrics in the
future.
B. Problem Formulation
This research requires more than disclosing of code-switching occurring in
the Indonesian song lyrics composed by Melly Goeslaw. Hence, two problems can
be formulated in this research are:
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1. What are the types of code switching in Indonesian song lyrics composed by
Melly Goeslaw?
2. What are the possible reasons of code switching in Indonesian song lyrics
composed by Melly Goeslaw?
C. Objective of the Study
The research has two objectives of the study. First is to identify the
English-Indonesian code switching in Indonesian song lyrics composed by Melly
Goeslaw. Second is to identify the reasons of code switching at some parts of
Indonesian song lyrics composed by Melly Goeslaw.
D. Definition of Terms
Scholars define various explanations of code-switching. In order to get
same understanding, there are several definitions of terms appearing in this
research:
1. Code means a system used for communication between two or parties used on
any occasions. (Wardhaugh, 2010: 103). Wardhaugh also defines code as “any
kind of system that two or more people employ for communication. It can refer to
a language, dialect, style, and kinds of language varieties.” (Wardhaugh, 2010:
84).
2. Code switching is one of language phenomena that exists in a society. The
term „code-switching‟ defined by Victoria and Rodman is “a term in linguistics
referring to using more than one language in conversation. Code-switching can be
distinguished from other language contact phenomena.” (Fromkin, 1974: 65).
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Within this study, code switching refers to the juxtaposition of Indonesian to
English in the literary works, namely the lyrics in Melly Goeslaw‟s songs.
3. Song lyrics are a set of words that make up a song. Song lyric derives
via Latin lyricus from the Greek λσρικός (lyrikós), the adjectival form of lyre.
(Asher, 1903: 264). The song lyric consists of several stanzas which are
components of a song. The most commonly known components of a song are
verse part and chorus part. The lyrics of a song often contain a significant message
about the society. The message can be explicit, or implied through metaphor or
symbolism.
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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter outlines four main parts: review of related studies, review of
related theories, review of related background, and theoretical framework. Review
of related studies discusses two previous international journals which have similar
general topic as well as objective of this research. Review of related theories
presents the theories applied. Review of related background provides Melly
Goeslaw‟s biography. The final section is theoretical framework outlining, the
contribution of the theories and review in solving the problems of the study.
A. Review of Related Studies
The researcher uses two previous published international journals which
have similar objects as a comparison and a basis in doing this research. Both of
the previous journals are done in the twenties century, thus it is previously
researched.
1. Word Borrowing and Code Switching in Ancash Waynu Songs (Julca,
2009)
This paper presents a description and analysis of the processes of
borrowing and code switching in Ancash waynu, a genre of popular traditional
Andeans songs. The researcher found that both Quechua and Spanish are used in
various ways, essentially to create special poetic and expressive-communicative
effects. The data used based on the researcher‟s own collection and transcription
of Ancash waynus from DVDs, CDs, and recordings of the songs performed
during popular festivities in different parts of the Ancash region during the
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summer 2006 and 2007. The conclusion of this research outlines different kinds of
bilingual language use and reflects a general trend in language shift from
monolinguistic in Quechua to bilingualism in Quechua and Spanish and from that
to monolingualism in Spanish
2. Code Switching in Contemporary Nigerian Hip-Hop Music (Babalola,
2009)
The objectives of “Code Switching in Contemporary Nigerian Hip-Hop
Music” are to (1) examine the nature of the phenomenon code switching and the
reason of code switching, (2) discuss the stylistic effects of this trend, and (3)
examine the implications of this practice for communication through music. The
findings reveal that while most code switching is done in three languages English,
Nigerian Pignin, and Yoruba– the prominent role is Yoruba. This code switching
makes the languages feature in turns, thereby producing switches at discourse
boundaries. The study concludes that the unique identities created by code
switching in Nigerian hip-hop have positive local and global influence for music
and artists, and reflect the ethno-linguistic diversity of the Nigerian nation.
This thesis has a similar general objectives to the two previous researches
namely, song lyrics, but the main attention in this research is different. The main
focus of this research is code switching in ten Indonesian songs and the possible
reasons why the speaker of the song switches language when he or she wants to
describe a specific message.
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B. Review of Related Theories
This section presents the basic theories used such as the general
explanation of code switching, the detail explanation of code switching and the
code switching classification type by Stockwell (2002: 33). A brief explanation of
music theory focusing in components of the song, as well as the reasons of code
switching by Malik (1994: 16) will be discussed.
1. Code Switching
Code switching is one of the language phenomena commonly observed in
the society. Before explaining the meaning of code switching, the researcher
presents the basic word of code switching, namely the word „code‟. According to
Asher (1994: 577) the term code refers to any system of signs or symbols which
convey information. Wardhaugh (2010: 84) also defines code as “any kinds of
system that two or more people employ for communication. It can refer to a
language, dialect, style, and the kinds of language varieties.” So, code is a system
which is used by people who have a same interpretation about something to get a
good understanding communication.
Code switching refers to the juxtaposition of two languages or more in a
communication process. As cited by Mandiri (2002: 9), Hymes (1974) defines
code switching as “a common term for alternative using of two languages or
more, varieties of a language or even speech style.” Bokamba (1989) as quoted by
Mandiri (2002: 9) also states that “code switching is the mixing of words, phrases,
and sentences from two distinct grammatical (sub) systems across sentence
boundaries within the same speech event.”
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2. Types of Code Switching
There are some theories of types of code switching. In this research, the
researcher uses Stockwell‟s Theory to analyze the data because it is suitable with
discussions to be performed and the research purposes. In Sociolinguistics a
Resource Book for Students book, Stockwell (2002: 33) states that there are three
types of code switching: tag switching, intrasentential switching, and
intersentential switching. The classification of the types of code switching based
on the form and the meaning of switching.
a. Tag Switching
Poplack (1988: 223) states that tag switching is component of content
words which may be inserted almost anywhere within the sentence without
violating any grammatical rules. So, tag switching is allowed to use as long as it
does not break the grammatical rules of the main language in that communication.
Milroy and Muysken (1995: 8) also equally mention tag switching is used to refer
“a switching between an utterance and the tag or interjection attached to it.” Tag
switching does not have a long pattern because it only a single word. Type of
switching involves single words –mainly nouns- and it is motived by lexical
needed. (Wardhaugh, 2010: 42). The example of tag switching can be seen below:
I‟m pleased to see you‟re getting bewegungsmelder (security light).
(Stockwell, 2002: 28)
b. Intrasentential Switching
Intrasentential switching occurs within a sentence. “A sentence is a group
of words containing a subject and a predicate and expressing a complete thought.”
(Eggenschwiller, 2001: 63). A sentence is allowed to have more than one main
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language, but the use of that different languages restricted by punctuation and
other factors. Intrasentential code switching consists of cases in which speaker
switches some clauses within a sentences or clauses. (Julca, 2009: 93). Below is
the example of intrasentential switching:
What’s so funny? Come, be good. Otherwise, yu bai go long kot. –
What‟s so funny? Come, be good. Otherwise, you‟ll go to court.
(Romaine, 1995: 123)
c. Intersentential Switching
Intersentential switching occurs from one language to another language in
the different sentences. This implies one sentence is in a one language while the
other sentence or sentences is in a totally different language. “Intersentential code
switching, that is, the alternation in a single discourse between two languages,
where the switching occurs after a sentence in the first language has been
completed and the next sentence starts with a new language.” (Appel, 1987: 118).
Intersentential code switching involves cases in which a bilingual speaker
switches languages from clause to clause. (Winford, 2003: 102). Following
Appel-Muysken‟s and Winford‟s statement, it is defined that intersentential code
switching is the process which the song lyric switches the language from line to
line, from sentence to sentence, from couplet to couplet, and from stanza to stanza
which has a same pattern. According to Winford‟s argument, a line, a sentence, a
couplet, and a stanza is a unity when the topic does not change. Felix JulcaGuerrero applied a same perspective in his journal “Word Borrowing and Code
Switching in Ancash Waynu Songs” to analyze the type of code switching in
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waynu songs. The example of intersentential switch in English-German bilingual
can be seen below:
We‟re going to Nicki‟s house at nine and maybe to the night club afterwards.
Kristina bleibt allerdings zu Hause sie muss noch arbeiten.
(Unfortunately Kristina is staying at home because she still has to do some work).
(Stockwell, 2002: 33)
3. Reasons of Code Switching
Malik states that “code-switching is context-governed phenomenon.”
(Malik, 1994: 10). Therefore, there is a spesific reason why people use code
switching to delivery the message. According to Malik, there are ten reasons of
code switching:
a. Lack of facility
Malik (1994: 16) states that code switching is used when the speaker
cannot find an appropriate expression or a vocabulary item which is needed to
carry on the conversation smoothly. The following is an example for the reason
lack of facility in the Malay:
Saya difahamkan bahawa OKS jarang minum, hanya seorang social drinker.
[I understand that OKS seldom drinks, he is only a social drinker.]
(Muthusamy, 2009:4)
b. Lack of register
This reason occurs when the speaker does not know the specific terms of
the language that is being used. This condition makes the speaker uses a term of
language which he or she mastered. “In case the topic of discourse is of a
technical, their registral items are likely to be from English and grammatical items
from Hindi.” (Malik, 1994: 16). It usually occurs in certain occupations, such as in
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the speech of doctors, lawyers, engineers. The example of reason for lack of
register can be seen as follow:
Ujian alcohol telah dijalankan iaitu breath analyzer test.
[The alcohol test was conducted, i.e., a breath analyzer test]
(Muthusamy, 2009:4)
c. Mood of the speaker
Malik (1994: 16) claims that usually when a speaker who masters in more
than one language is tired or angry, code switching is used to deliver that feeling.
In this research, this reason is used when the speaker has a certain state of mind;
he or she spontaneously finds certain English expressions which represent his or
her feeling. The following is an example for the reason because of mood of the
speaker:
This situation is fan till max!
(Fong, 2011: 51)
The word „fan‟ (bothered) is used in expressing the participant‟s frustration in the
example. This can be due to the participant‟s mood that made she use that word
unconsciously. Hence, Mandarin Chinese is used for the subject of the sentence or
main idea that the participant is trying to convey.
d. Emphasizing certain point
Switching is also used to emphasize a point. Gal (1988: 251) reports
several instances in which a switch at the end of an argument not only helps to
end the interaction but may serve to emphasize a point. The switching aims to
give a stress and more force the statement. As cited by Muthusamy (2009), David
(2003) uses the courtroom environment to show how a defending lawyer uses
dominant Bahasa Malaysia to start with and shifts to English to emphasize an
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important point to the judge that the accused had not committed any crime for 10
years.
Sebelum ini OKT pernah ditangkap pada tahun 1975 dan 1986. There has been a
10 years gap since the last offence Semenjak itu OKT telah berumahtangga,
mempunyai kerja tetap dan insaf”.
[Before this, OKT was caught in 1975 and 1986…..since then OKT has married
and has held a steady job.]
(Muthusamy, 2009:5)
e. Habitual experience
Malik (1994: 16) stresses the fact that “code switching often occurs in
fixed phrases of greeting and parting, commands and request, invitation,
expressions of gratitude and discourse markers.” The speaker uses code switching
because that expressions are habitual experiences used in his or her daily life.
Muthusamy (2009: 5) cites that Hoffman (1971) reports in Puerto Rican homes,
the mother gives short commands to their children in English, such as Don’t do
that…. and the rest of the mother‟s warning will be in Spanish.
f. Semantic significance
It is a communicative resource that builds on participant's perception of
two languages. It also serves as an implicit purpose which is only known by
particular addressees in certain specific information. The example below shows
how a judge shifts from Bahasa Malaysia, the national language and the official
language at Malaysian courts, to English as a face saving gesture:
Kenapa kamu tak setuju, panggilan pertama telah dijawab oleh BG Boy dan dah
tentu Das mesti menanya di manakah BG Boy berada? Kamu tak faham soalan,
saya maksudkan……
[Why don‟t you agree – Bg Boy responded to the first call and surely Dos asked
where he was ? You do not understand the question, I mean….]
(Muthusamy, 2009: 5)
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g. Showing identity with a group
Code-switching is used to signify shared values and experiences by people
of a same group or culture. Hence, words and phrases are retained in their original
languages to represent a sense of belonging and familiarity to the group. As cited
by Malik (1994: 17), Pietro reports that Italian immigrants would tell a joke in
English and give the punch line in Italian, not only because it was better said in
Italian but also to stress the fact that they all belong to the same minority group,
with shared values and experiences.
h. Addressing a different audience
Code switching is used to convey a message targeted to different listener
from various linguistic background. Malik (1994: 17) states that “code switching
is also used when the speaker intends to address people coming from various
linguistic backgrounds.” Hence, the speaker uses some parts of the topic in one
language and the other parts in another language. The speaker also clearly
distinguishes whom he/she addresses and what should be communicated. Below is
an example of the the use of code switching to address a different audience:
Merry Christmas, Furong ren.
(Fong, 2011: 52)
In that example, the participant wanted to dedicate her wishes to a specific group
of people by addressing them in Mandarin Chinese.
i. Pragmatic reason
Code switching depends on the context of a conversation or other factors
such as formality, participants and location where a conversation is taking place.
(Malik, 1994: 17). Code-switching may portray a varying degree of speaker‟s
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involvement. As an example, a Javanese young man is talking to his friends in
Javanese, and then he switches the language into Indonesian when he talks to the
lecturer in order to be more polite.
j.
Driving attention
Malik (1994: 18) shows that code switching is also used to attract the
attention of the readers/listeners. In English conversation when the interlocutor
comes across non-English, either Hindi or any one of the other Indian languages,
the interlocutor‟s attention is automatically drawn to depend on the language
background he or she originates from. Attention of interlocutor is also obtained
when the speaker uses words from a foreign language. A similar situation prevails
in song lyrics which uses English in some parts of the song.
For the example Malik (1994: 18) shows that in advertisements (in both,
written as well as in spoken) in India, codeswitching is used to attract the attention
of the readers/listeners. In English newspaper when the readers come across nonEnglish, either Hindi or any one of the other Indian languages, the reader‟s
attention is automatically drawn to depend on the language background he/she
originates from. A similar situation prevails in advertisements that involve audio
and video output.
4. Code Mixing
Code mixing occurs when speakers use two or more language below
clauses level within one social situation. As cited by Claros (2009), Muysken
(2000) defines three types of code mixing: insertion, alternation, and congruent
lexicalization. In his view, code switching occurs when lexical items from one
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language are incorporated into another. Bokamba (1989) notes that code mixing is
a part of code switching.
5. Code Switching in Song Lyrics
According to Bentahila-Davies the use of code switching in conversation
and in song lyric are different because “the utterance in a conversation are
typically spontaneously produced” (Bentahila, 2002: 192), while the use of code
switching in the song lyrics has a purpose, “the author of the lyrics has
deliberately assembled them with the aim of achieving particular effects.”
(Bentahila, 2002: 192).
Code switching also serves a poetic function, contributing to the aesthetic
and rhetorical effect or discourse that is not spontaneous, but carefully constructed
(Bentahila, 2008: 2). From the theories, it is seen that the use of code switching in
song lyrics is on a purpose. If some components of song lyrics use language
switching, they have specific purposes which can be analyzed.
6. Components of the Song
Stanzas in a song lyric have their own function seen from part of the song
point-of-view. According to Davidson and Heartwood, a good song consists of
verse, chorus, bridge, hook, and refrain. “All songs are put together with some or
all of these parts in a particular pattern.” (Davidson, 1996: 6). The researcher
collaborates Davidson-Heartwood‟s Theory to Espie Estrella‟s Theory. Estrella
contended besides those five parts, a good song has also to have title and coda, as
an optional component of the song.
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From knowing the components of the song which use code switching,
the researcher gains knowledge of the reasons of code switching in that
components of the song because each part has its own function to deliver the song
message.
a. Title
Title is a component of the song which is recognized first from a song.
Title sometimes contains the main idea of the song. “Many times, the chorus is
taken from the title of the song.” (Davidson, 1996: 6). The song title should also
to be memorable and fitting to the theme of the song. (Estrella, 8th September
2014).
b. Verse
Verses are components of the song containing the song background. “The
verse contains the details of the song: the story, events, images and emotions that
the writer wishes to express.” (Davidson, 1996: 6) The verses direct the listeners
of the song to know and understand deeper the message background which wants
to deliver in the chorus part. “The verses are preliminary parts which can deliver
the listeners to feel and guess what is actually to be conveyed in the chorus. The
verses fill in on the story-line.” (Bentahila, 2002: 202).
c. Chorus
Chorus is a component of the song which can be easily remembered by
the listeners of the songs because this part is always sung repeatedly. “The chorus
is repeated throughout the song.” (Davidson, 1996: 6). The frequently with which
the chorus is repeated may make it the most dominant and memorable element of
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the song. (Bentahila, 2002: 202). The chorus is the component of the song which
contains the main idea of song message. “It contains main idea, or big picture, of
what being expressed.” (Davidson, 1996: 6).
d. Hook
Hook is “a phrase of word that literally hooks, or grabs, the listeners and
draws them into song.” (Davidson, 1996: 7). The hook is the component of the
song which is recognized easily by the listeners and it is an icon of the song. The
hook is not only a phrase of word, but also an instrument. “The hook can be
musical, such as repeated guitar or keyboard riff.” (Davidson, 1996: 7).
e. Bridge
Not every song has a bridge. Bridge is used to keep the listeners‟ attention.
“The break is a device that is used to break up the repetitive pattern of a song and
keep the listeners‟ attention.” (Davidson, 1996: 7). The bridge can also be a
change of key music. “In a bridge, the pattern of the words and music change.”
(Davidson, 1996: 7).
f. Refrain
Refrain is different from chorus. A refrain is "a repeated line or musical
phrase that ties a song together. A refrain is only a phrase, or a word, while a
chorus contains many more words.” (Davidson, 1996: 7). A refrain may be
defined as a repetitive phrase or phrases that serve the function of a chorus
lyrically but are not placed in a separate section and/ or long enough so as to be
considered a chorus. (Cope, 2009: 68).
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g. Coda
The English word „coda‟ comes from “an Italian word for „tail‟, it is the
additional lines of a song which brings the song to a close.” (Estrella, 8th
September 2014). The coda is an optional addition to a song, so not every song
has a coda as component of the song.
C. Review of Related Background
This part provides a review of Melly Goeslaw‟s biographical background
to support the analysis. The review is taken from the website maintained by the
management team of Melly Goeslaw, so the contents can be accounted for.
1.
Melly Goeslaw
Mellyana Goeslaw Hoed, who has a stage name “Melly Goeslaw”, was
born in Bandung on 7 January 1974. She is known as an Indonesian singer and
songwriter. Her career is begun by becoming a backing vocalist for Elfa Seciora.
After marrying Anto later that year, they went on to form the band Potret and the
band's first album was released in 1995. In 1999, Goeslaw started her solo career
with her self-titled debut album. As a songwriter, Melly Goeslaw is an
independent song writer and she is brave to produce work which is different from
others. The Jakarta Post described her lyrics as being deliberately antagonistic.
Goeslaw's songs have won awards within and outside Indonesia. (Rudi, 2014).
D. Theoretical Framework
In order to answer the first problem formulation, namely, code switching
in Indonesian song lyrics, the researcher uses Stockwell‟s Theory to classify types
of code switching.
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Furthermore, in order to answer the second problem formulation, the
researcher uses Malik‟s Theory to identify possible reasons why the speaker of the
song switches the language to another language when delivering the message. The
researcher elaborates Davidson-Heartwood‟s Theory and Espie Estrella‟s Theory
to classify components of the song which use code switching as a tool to know
the reason of the use of code switching in song lyrics. The analysis is also related
to explanation in the first problem formulation, namely the types of code
switching in Indonesian song lyrics.
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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
The researcher uses specific methodology to analyze the data and this
chapter provides the description of the objects of the study, the approach of the
study, and the description of procedures used in data collection and data analysis.
A. Object of the Study
In this study, the researcher only analyzes Indonesian song lyrics
composed by Melly Goeslaw in 2007 until 2013 which use English-Indonesian
code switching in the parts of the song. The researcher finds that there are ten
Indonesian songs composed by Melly Goeslaw which use Indonesian-English and
also English-Indonesian switching in the song‟s lyrics. The titles of the songs
which use code switching are:
1. I‟m Falling in Love
The speaker in this song is mentioned clearly in the lyrics. The speaker is a
woman who is falling in love with a man and she hopes she can be his bridge. The
main language of this song is Indonesian. The switching to English occurs in a
simple form in the chorus part. The English part consists of a sentence which is
repeated several times.
2. Let‟s Dance Together
The speaker of the song asks others to follow him or her to dance together
in the dance floor. The use of English in this song is more complex than the first
song because there is a stanza which uses English, but other stanzas still use
Indonesian to deliver the song message.
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3. I‟m Sorry Goodbye
The song “I‟m Sorry Goodbye” narrates the women‟s thank you because
God show her lover‟s real nature which is manipulative. Similar to the first song,
the code switching case occurs from Indonesian, as the main language of the song,
to English. The switching occurs at the end of the song.
4. My Heart
The lyrics of this song narrate that there is a couple of lover who are
falling in love. In the future, probably they will not be a couple of lover again, but
the love feeling will always exist in their heart The code switching occurs between
Indonesian stanza to English stanza accordingly.
5. Selamanya Cinta
The speaker of this song is falling in love and she thinks that she will love
him throughout her life. The main language of this song is Indonesia language, the
code switching from Indonesian to English occurs at the end of the song. There is
no clue that this song contains English code switching because the title, verses, ad
chorus of the song use Indonesian.
6. Butterfly
From the lyric the readers and the listeners know that the speaker of this
song is falling in love with someone. Butterfly is an English word used to be the
title of the song and to be the addressee‟s nickname given by the speaker. The
verses of this song use Indonesian, while the chorus part uses English to delivery
the song message.
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7. Glow
From the song lyric, the listeners of this song know that the speaker has a
high self-confidence. The speaker believes that he or she can do anything. The use
of code switching in this song is a complex one. The use of code switching has
several different patterns in some parts of the song.
8. Love Story
Love is eternal forever and ever is the message which is to be delivered to
the listeners of this song. There are two forms of code switching usage in this
song, namely a sentence and a phrase. The code switching occurs from Indonesian
to English.
9. I‟m not Diva
The speaker loves herself. The speaker is proud of herself. She always
shows her real side. She is happy to be who she is. This is one of the songs
analyzed which quite often switches Indonesian to English, even the opening of
the song uses English.
10. Let‟s Talk about Love
This is the last Indonesian song composed by Melly Goeslaw which
becomes the object of study in this research. The speaker of this song says to his
or her lover that he or she loves her or him so much. The speaker also believes in
her or him. The speaker of the song thinks that love is something which is private
and others do not need to know.The main language of this song is Indonesian,
even though English is often used in this song.
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B. Approach of the Study
From the title of this research, “The Use of English-Indonesian Code
Switching in Indonesian Song Lyrics Composed by Melly Goeslaw” seen that this
research uses sociolinguistics approach.
Sociolinguistics is concerned with investigating the relationships between
language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the
structure of language and how languages function in communication.
(Wardhaugh, 2010: 54)
The sociolinguistics approach is the most suitable approach and a basis
approach in this research because the data used are ten Indonesian song lyrics
composed by Melly Goeslaw. The goal of this research is identifying the types of
code switching in that song lyrics and the possible reasons of code switching
based on linguistics theory.
C. Method of the Study
This part is divided into two smaller sections, namely data collection and
data analysis. Data collection presents the number of the data and specifies how
the data are collected, organized, categorized, and treated for the purpose of the
study. Data analysis clarifies the steps of analysis for finding the answer for the
problem formulations.
1. Data Collection
This research needs song lyrics of all of Indonesian songs composed by
Melly Goeslaw which contain Indonesian-English code switching usage. These
two languages are significant in different ways in Indonesia. Indonesian is the
Indonesian official language, while English, as an international language, is the
foreign language in Indonesia. The first step to collect the data is finding out
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Melly Goeslaw‟s biography in the internet to get a list of songs which Melly
Goeslaw made. The next step, the researcher finds out the lyric of each song from
internet, in order to know which songs contain code-switching and which do not.
Thus, the songs which contain code switching are collected and analyzed to
answer two questions elaborated in problem formulation.
2. Data Analysis
This part clarifies the steps of the analysis for finding the answers for the
problems. This part also clarifies how to interpret the numbers and symbols
presented in the data. There are five steps conducted to accomplish the research
as follows:
a. Selecting the target data
The research makes a list of Melly Goeslaw‟s songs and finds out which
songs containing code switching in the parts of the songs;
b. Identifying the types of code switching
After knowing the list of Indonesian songs composed by Melly Goeslaw
which use code switching in some of the song parts, the next step which has to do
is to identify the types of code switching in the song lyrics. That classifying is
based on Stockwell‟s Theory and uses document descriptive analysis. According
to Seliger in his book: "Second Language Research Method", descriptive research
is to study or examine something in detail in order to establish certain
phenomenon by describing them explicitly (Seliger, 1989: 124-126). To get the
explicit interpretation of the song lyrics, there is a brief explanation why those
data are included in those types of code switching;
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c. Making the numbering of the data
To simplify the analysis and avoid double discussion, each code switching
case has its own numbering with this following pattern:
(A/ TYPE OF CODE SWITCHING/ CASE NUMBER)
„A‟ refers to the code of the code switching. Then, the next numbering refers to
type of code switching based on Stockwell‟s Theory. There are three code usages:
TAG refers to tag switching, INTRA refers to intrasentential switching, and
INTER refers to intersentential switching. The last part of this numbering refers to
the case number of each type of switching. The case numbering uses roman
numerals. For example data (A/ TAG/1) refers to the first data identified in tag
switching part and this data is in the part A of analysis chapter;
d. Identifying the reasons of code switching
After identifying the type of code switching, the next step which has to do
is identifying the possible reason why that part of the song lyric switches into
different language and why that switching occurs in that component of the song.
To answer this second problem formulation, the researcher uses Malik‟s Theory.
According to Malik (1994), there are ten reasons why the speaker uses code
switching to delivery the message: lack of facility, lack of register, mood of the
speaker, emphasizing certain point, habitual experience, semantic significance,
showing identity with a group, addressing a different audience, and attacking
attention. The classification of reasons employees the text analysis. The text
analysis based on Systemic Functional Linguistics or SFL concerning language as
a system of meaning. This argumentation is in line with Halliday in Bloor and
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Bloor. ”For SFL, a language is „a system of meanings‟. That is to say that when
people use language, their language acts produce or, or more technically,
construct meaning.” (Halliday, 2004: 2). The researcher closely read the song
lyrics to get into the context and understand why in certain parts of the song using
code switching. It is done so that the analysis to the second problem formulation is
not based on speculation of the researcher;
e. Making a conclusion based on the findings
The last step is making a conclusion from the findings to answer two
questions elaborated in the problem formulation.
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CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the analysis done by the researcher to answer two
questions elaborated in the problem formulation. The first is to identify the types
of code switching in Indonesian song lyrics composed by Melly Goeslaw and the
second one is to find out the possible reasons of code switching.
This section is divided into two main sub-sections. The first one is the
explanation of the types of English-Indonesian code switching in Indonesian song
lyrics composed by Melly Goeslaw and the second one is the explanation of
possible reasons of code switching. These two sub-sections are interrelated and
cannot be separated because the explanation from each sub-section will support
the other.
A. Types of Code Switching
This section classifies the types of code switching based on Stockwell‟s
Theory. There are three types of code switching according to Stockwell; there are
namely tag switching, intrasentential switching, and intersentential switching.
1. Tag Switching
From the analysis, there are four cases of tag switching in ten song lyrics
examined in this research. The following paragraphs elaborate the notion of code
switching as well as the reasons.
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a. Let’s Dance Together
The first data of tag switching usage in Indonesian song lyrics composed
by Melly Goeslaw is found in “Let‟s Dance Together” song. There is a case of the
tag switching in the fourth stanza.
(A/ TAG/I) Lihat DJ memainkan musik disko dimulai.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 4, line 3).
The main language in that sentence is Indonesian, but it turns to English in
the word „DJ.‟ DJ is continuation of Disc Jockey.
b. Butterfly
There is a tag switching case occurring in this song:
(A/ TAG/ II)
Butterfly terbanglah tinggi,
Setinggi anganku untuk meraihmu.
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 3, line 1-2).
The English nominal item „butterfly‟ is used as a subject in the first sentence of
the Indonesian dominating stanza. In formal Indonesian grammatical rules, a
sentence consists of subject, predicate, and object though in many cases, a
sentence can be merely a subject or predicate (verb). The English word „butterfly‟
inserted in Indonesian sentence as a subject which does not cause any violating in
formal Indonesian grammatical rule because the subject can stand alone as long as
it has a clear meaning which subsequently collaborated with other words to form a
sentence.
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c. I’m not Diva
(A/ TAG/ III) Ku bukan diva.
(Goeslaw, 2011, Stanza 4, line 1).
The tag switching case occurs in the first line of third stanza. The English
word „diva‟ uses in this line. The same case also occurs in the first line of the fifth
stanza.
(A/ TAG/ IV) Sedangkan kamu seolah-olah diva.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanza 5, line 1).
For the additional information, both of them occurs in the first line of the fourth
and fifth stanza.
2. Intrasentential Switching
In this research, five intrasentential switching cases in three Indonesian
song examined. The followings highlight such notion,
a. I’m Falling in Love
The first song which uses intrasentential switching is “I‟m Falling in
Love.” Language code switching occurs twice in this song and both of switching
cases are categorized in intrasentensial switching.
(A/ INTRA/ I) Perasaanku berkata, I’m falling in love.
(Goeslaw, 2005, stanza 2, line 3).
(A/ INTRA/ II) Hati kecilku berkata, I’m falling in love, I’m falling in love.
(Goeslaw, 2005, stanza 2, line 5).
The intrasentential switching cases are begun in Indonesian and then shifts
to English without changing the topic. The English sentence refers to a
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continuation of Indonesian topic which wants to narrate that her or his feeling and
heart are falling in love with the addressee. The Indonesian has to be connected to
the English part in order to form a complete sentence. Generally, the progressive
(or “continuous”) focuses on the situation as being in progress at a particular time
(Greenbaum-Quirk, 1990:53).
b. Selamanya Cinta
(A/ INTRA/ III)
Walau takdirku tak bersamamu,
I’m not dreaming now.
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 7, lines 1-2).
Data (A/ INTRA/ III) exhibits intrasentential code switching. In data (A/
INTRA/ III) the language switches the Indonesian language to the English
language. The English part is the independent clause in this switching. “An
independent clause, along with having a subject and predicate, expresses a
complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.” (Eggenschwiller, 2001: 59).
The aspect presents progressive collaborated with the time adverbial „now‟ in
these sentence shows the action is going on during that period of time. “Aspect is
a grammatical category that reflects the way in which the action of a verb is
viewed with respect of time.” (Greenbaum-Quirk, 1990: 51). On the contrary, the
subordinate clause of this sentence is the Indonesian part. The Indonesian part
started with the word „walaupun.‟ In English, „walaupun‟ means „even though.‟
“Some subordinate clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions
(although, because, if, unless, when, etc)” (Eggenschwiller, 2001: 60). The
subordinate clause in the first line needs the independent clause in the second line
to have a complete understanding. “Subordinate clause depends on something else
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to express a complete thought, which is why it is called as a dependent clause.”
(Eggenschwiller, 2001: 60).
The English part is an independent clause of the sentence, so an
independent clause of a sentence can stand as a complete sentence. “An
independent clause, along with having a subject and predicate, expresses a
complete though and can stand alone as a sentence.” (Eggenschwiller, 2001: 59).
c. Glow
A switching from Indonesian to English within a sentence, called
intrasentential switching, also occurs in the second and third line in the third
stanza of this song.
(A/ INTRA/ IV) Membuatku merasa,
Oh happy all I though.
(Goeslaw, 2009, stanza 3, lines 2-3).
The English part narrates a feeling statement which becomes a clue to deliver the
message in Indonesian part, but the main idea of that statement is delivered in
English. The second and third lines have a unity with the first line of the stanza,
so the English part also uses a stative present tense. Although composed of two
different lines, this switching case is still categorized as intrasentential switching
because the statement in the second line needs the statement in the third line to
express a complete thought.
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d. I’m not Diva
The intrasentential switching occurs in the second and third line of the
fifth stanza.
(A/ INTRA/ V)
Gaya selangit,
but don’t have money.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanza 5, lines 2-3).
In data (A/ INTRA/ V), the switching starts in Indonesian and then shifts to
English without change the topic. The English sentence shows the contradiction of
the Indonesian statement. “The speaker uses „but„ to modify a statement and the
addressee can use it to express a contrary opinion, refuse a statement by the
interlocutor, reject a suggestion, etc.” (Biber, 1999: 82). In line with explanation
in (A/ INTRA/ III) and (A/ INTRA/ IV), this sentence consists of two clauses
which are in the different lines. These lines (line 2 and line 3 in fifth stanza of the
song) use inversions to the delivery of the message. It is the reason why data (A/
INTRA/ V) still called clauses, even though they do not have a subject in the
beginning of the clauses.
3. Intersentential Switching
Intersentential switching is the type of switching occurs between
sentences. Intersentential switching is the type of code switching often used in ten
song lyrics examined in this research. The intersentential switching cases have
been found in eight songs.
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a. I’m Sorry Goodbye
There is only one code switching case in these songs.
(A/ INTER/ I)
Terima kasih oh Tuhan, tunjukkan siapa dia.
Maaf kita putus.
So thank you so much, I'm sorry, goodbye.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 4, lines 1-5).
The switching occurs in a stanza and it includes intersentential switching
from Indonesian sentences to English sentence. There are two Indonesian
sentences ended with a stop mark means that the sentences are complete and they
are followed by English sentence. The message on the Indonesian narrates that the
speaker say thank you to God because He shows the real character of the
addressee and the speaker wants to break up with the addressee. The English
sentence emphasizes that decision.
The English sentence uses simple present tense means that gratitude is felt
by the speaker without any definite time limit. “The use of the simple present
tense for present tense in commentaries indicates that the event has little or no
duration that occurs at the time of speaking.” (Greenbaum, 1990: 49).
b. Let’s Dance Together
The next song which has an intersentential switching from stanza to stanza
is “Let‟s Dance Together.” This part of the song can be classified as
intersentential code switching.
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Let’s dance together,
Get on the dance floor.
The party won’t start
if you stand still like that.
Let’s dance together.
Let’s party and turn off the lights.
Berdiri semua
di ruang yang redup
bercahaya bagai kilat.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanzas 1-2)
In the data (A/ INTER/ II), the lyrics switch from English to Indonesian
from stanza to stanza. The English stanza asks other to join in floor to dance
together and a similar song message is also mentioned in Indonesian stanza.
c. My Heart
There is a case of intersentential switching from stanza to stanza occurs in
the song “My Heart.”
(A/ INTER/ III)
Disini kau dan aku,
terbiasa bersama,
menjalani kasih sayang,
bahagia ku denganmu.
Pernahkah kau menguntai,
hari paling indah,
kuukir nama kita berdua,
disini surga kita.
Bila kita mencintai yang lain,
mungkinkah hati ini akan tegar,
sebisa mungkin tak akan pernah,
Sayangku akan hilang.
If you loved somebody,
could we be this strong.
I will fight to win
our love will conquer all.
Wouldn't risk my love,
Even just one night.
Our love will stay in my heart.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanzas 1-2).
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The combination of present tense and past tense is seen in this song. The
first sentence of the English part uses conditional clause type 2 or past conditional
clause presenting „you‟ (the addressee) do not love another man, it is the reason
why their love can be strong at the present. Thus, the second sentence which uses
simple present delivers its message. The past tense is used again in the third
sentence. The third clause uses „would‟ at the beginning of the clause shows the
corresponding „prediction in the past‟ (Greenbaum, 1990: 63). The two closing
sentences in this stanza use simple present tense. And the refrain closed with a
noun, my heart.
The intersentential switching occurs from stanza to stanza in this song.
The first stanza uses Indonesian, continued with English. The message delivered
in first stanza is similar to the second stanza.
d. Butterfly
Another code switching cases happened between stanzas.
(A/ 1/ TAG/II)
(A/ 1/ INTER/ IV)
Butterfly terbanglah tinggi,
setinggi anganku untuk meraihmu.
Memeluk batinmu yang sempat kacau
karena merindu.
Butterfly fly away so high
as high as hopes I pray.
To come and reach for you,
rescuing your soul
that previous messed up touching me and you.
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 3-4).
The switch in data (A/ INTER/ IV) is described as a code change, a kind
of intersentential code switching, giving a break completely away from
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Indonesian. The first stanza uses Indonesian, followed by English in the second
stanza.
The third stanza uses Indonesian, while the fourth one uses English. The
Indonesian part and English part of this song can stand alone as a complete text
because the message in the Indonesian part and English part is similar; however,
the both languages are important in this song.
e. Glow
At the first stanza of the song, an intersentential switching case occurs at
the last line of that stanza.
(A/ INTER/ V)
Memancar!
Glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow)!
(Goeslaw, 2009, stanza 1, lines 5-6)
This language switching case includes in intersentential switching case
from word to word because „memancar‟ and „glow‟ is an independent word which
does not form a sentence.
At the second stanza, the intersentential switching occurs from sentence to
sentence. The first sentence uses Indonesian, then the second one uses English
sentence, English present tense.
(A/ INTER/ VI)
Ku tak bisa berdiri saja,
Sementara musuhku teriak memanggil.
On the dance floor what are you waiting for.
The music glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow).
(Goeslaw, 2009, stanza 2).
The researcher also finds that the use of formal English grammar in the second
sentence is doubtful in accordance with the official English grammatical rule. The
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„music‟ as a single noun is followed by the verb „glow‟. In accordance with the
applicable rules, it should be „the music is glowing‟ or „the music glows‟. This
existing error is probably due to make the sentence in accordance with the rhythm
of the song.
Another intersentential switching from sentence to sentence occurs in the
third stanza of this song.
(A/ INTER/ VII)
(A/ INTRA/ IV)
Yeah I'm happy all of them.
Membuatku merasa,
Oh happy all I though.
Menyentuh bintang-bintang.
(Goeslaw, 2009, stanza 3).
In this stanza, the intersentential switching occurs between different sentences in a
stanza. A stative present tense is at the beginning of the song, following by
intersentential switching of Indonesian and English in the second sentence and the
third sentence in this stanza uses Indonesian.
Another intersentential switching case occurs between stanzas is:
(A/ INTER/ VIII)
Glow establish to your life.
Music is my energy.
Glow glow glow!
Dan kuhanya ingin bahagia
membawa cintamu setinggi-tingginya.
(A/ INTER/ IX)
Siapkah dirimu melayang bersama.
Glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow)!
(Goeslaw, 2009, stanzas 4-5).
Following Appel-Muysken and Winford, intersentential code switching
also occurs from stanza to stanza. There are English words in the following
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stanza, but the main language in the following stanza is Indonesian. This fact
makes the switching includes in intersentential switching. The English part
probably wants to use present tense, but the grammar is indoubt.
The other case of intersentential switching occurs in the fifth stanza.
(A/ INTER/ IX) Siapkah dirimu melayang bersama.
Glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow)!
(Goeslaw, 2009, stanza 5, line 3-4).
The pattern of this intersentential switching is similar to data (A/INTER/V).
f. Love Story
In “Love Story” song, the switching cases occur in second and third
stanza.
Love story, let’s make a history.
Sejarah cinta kita menguasai bumi.
Mengalahkan semua yang paling terindah.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanzas 2).
(A/ INTER/ X)
Love story, let’s make a history.
Biarpun seribu bencana meremukkan tubuh kita,
namun cinta kita tetap akan utuh.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanza 3).
(A/ INTER/ XI)
The intersentential switching from sentence to sentence in the second and
third stanza, data (A/ INTER/X) and (A/ INTER/ XI), have the same pattern and
words. The English sentence is found at the beginning of the stanza, followed by
two Indonesian sentences. The English sentence uses habitual present asking to
make a history together. “The habitual present is used with dynamic verb senses
to refer to events that repeatedly occur without limitation on their extension into
the past or future.” (Greenbaum-Quirk, 1990: 48).
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Another case of intersentential switching occurs in the last stanza of the
song, in the sixth stanza.
(A/ INTER/ XII)
Meremukkan tubuh kita,
namun cinta kita tetap akan utuh.
Love story, love story, love story.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanza 6).
The sixth stanza is begun by Indonesian sentence, then switched to English phrase
„love story‟ and that phrase is repeated three times at the end of the stanza. “A
phrase is any group of related words that, unlike a sentence, has no subjectpredicate combination.” (Eggenschwiller, 2001: 55).
The next case of intersentential switching from stanza to stanza occurs in
the displacement of the third stanza to fourth stanza of this song.
(A/ INTER/ XIII)
Love story, let’s make a history.
Biarpun seribu bencana meremukkan tubuh kita,
namun cinta kita tetap akan utuh.
Love story.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanzas 3-4).
Even though, an English sentence is at the beginning of the stanza. The main
language in the third stanza is still Indonesian. The fourth stanza is an independent
stanza which consists of an English phrase. There is a reason why case (A/
INTER/ XIII) is categorized in the intersentential switching from stanza to stanza.
g. I’m not Diva
One of language switching cases in this song is intersentential switching
from sentence to sentence in fourth until sixth line.
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(A/ INTER/ XIV)
Jangan tersinggung.
I’m not talking about you.
Just having fun.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanza 5, lines 4-6).
The fourth line uses Indonesian to deliver the message. After the stop mark, the
language switches to English until the end of the stanza. Even though the
language is different, the messages in the fourth, fifth, and sixth line have a unity
and attachment to each other.
Code switching also involves different mechanisms of bilingual language
usage. The next code switching case occurs between the second and the third
stanza. The second stanza uses present English tense, while the third stanza uses
Indonesian.
(A/ 1/ INTER/XV)
I like music.
I like movie.
I like drama.
Don’t like to be a drama queen.
Ku bukan diva.
Aku bukan ratu.
Bagai mahkota,
atau kembang goyang.
Maunya mewah.
Maunya yang mahal.
Itu bukan aku.
(Goeslaw, 2011, stanzas 3-4).
This example exhibits intersentential code. In (A/ INTER/ XV), the language
switches from English to Indonesian from stanza to stanza. The message in each
stanza is different, it makes the addressee has to have a good ability in both
English and Indonesian to understand the whole song message.
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h. Let’s Talk about Love
“Let‟s Talk about Love” is the newest song composed by Melly Goeslaw
which uses language switching. There are some cases of language switching, but
the pattern of switching is similar to the previous songs.
The first code switching usage case in this song occurs from stanza to
stanza.
(A/ INTER/ XVI)
Let’s talk about love, baby.
Love love love baby.
Let’s talk about love, baby.
(A/ INTER/ XVII)
Baby, I love you.
Kutemukan cinta sejati di kamu,
hanya dengan kamu.
(Goeslaw, 2013, stanza 1-2)
This case concludes in intersentential switching from stanza to stanza. The first
stanza uses English words, followed by English stanza in the second stanza.
The second and third cases of switching are intersentential switching from
sentence to sentence in the same stanza. The pattern and the explanation of both of
the cases are similar.
(A/ INTER/ XVII)
Baby, I love you.
Ku temukan cinta sejati di kamu,
hanya dengan kamu.
(Goeslaw, 2013, stanza 2, lines 1-3).
(A/ INTER/ XVIII)
Baby, I need you.
Tak tahu aku jadi apa tanpamu,
aku butuh kamu.
(Goeslaw, 2013, stanza 3, lines 1-3).
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The first line uses English, while the following sentences use Indonesian. The
same pattern can be found in case (A/ INTER/X) and (A/ INTER/ XI) in “Love
Story” song. Different from case (A/ INTER/X) and (A/ INTER/ XI), case (A/
INTER/XVII) and (A/ INTER/ XVIII) use the state present.
The state present is used with stative verb senses to refer to a single
unbroken state of affairs that has existed in the past, exist now, and is
likely to continue to exist in the future. It includes the “time less present”,
which refers to “eternal truth.” (Greenbaum-Quirk, 1990: 48).
The next case of intersentential switching from stanza to stanza occurs
from sixth stanza to seventh stanza.
(A/ 1/ INTER/ XIX) Diriku percaya kau tercipta untukku.
Babyku terima semua baik burukmu.
(Let's talk about love, baby).
Baby, I love you.
Love love love love, baby.
(Goeslaw, 2013, stanza 6-7).
The main language in the sixth stanza is Indonesian; it is seen from the majority of
the language usage. Seventh stanza is a simple stanza which has simple English
words. Because of the explanation above, this code switching is be categorized
intersentential switching from stanza to stanza.
The last cases of intersentential switching from sentence to sentence occur
in the sixth and eleventh stanza.
(A/ INTER/ XX)
Diriku percaya kau tercipta untukku.
Babyku terima semua baik burukmu.
(Let's talk about love, baby).
Baby, I love you.
(Goeslaw, 2013, stanza 6).
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(A/ INTER/ XXI)
Babyku percaya kau tercipta untukku.
Babyku terima semua baik burukmu.
Baby, I love you.
(Goeslaw, 2013, stanza 8).
Data (A/ INTER/ XX) and (A/ INTER/ XXI) include in intersentential
switching from Indonesian sentences to English sentence. Even though, there is an
English word in the first and second sentences, the whole sentence of that
sentences use Indonesian.
From the analysis, the most type of code switching which is used in ten
Indonesian song lyrics composed by Melly Goeslaw examined in this
undergraduate thesis is intersentential switching, there are twenty one
intersentential switching cases occur in eight songs. Followed by intrasentential
switching, there are six cases in three Indonesian songs. Tag switching occurs four
times found in three Indonesian songs.
B. Possible Reasons of Code Switching
The data discussed in this undergraduate thesis is ten Indonesian songs
which use language switching (code switching) in the song lyrics. All the songs
use both Indonesian and English, although the proportions of these Languages in
particular songs vary considerably; in some cases Indonesian is more dominant
than English, while in others the use of the two language is almost equally
balance.
From knowing the types of code switching, the researcher has data to
identify the possible reasons why the speaker of the song changes the language to
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deliver a specific song message. Stanzas in song lyrics also have its own function
seen from parts of the song point-of-view. There are seven components of the
song according to Davidson-Heartwood and Estrella‟s Theory. Each part has a
significant function to deliver the message of the song.
This second section elaborate the analysis of type of code switching and
part of the song to get the most appropriate reason of code switching in song
lyrics.
a. I’m Falling in Love
“I‟m Falling in Love” song consists of four stanzas. This song is opened
by a verse which uses Indonesian; it is followed by a chorus which has
intrasentential code switching cases. Then, a different Indonesian verse is sung
and followed by the same chorus.
The first verse of the song conveys that the speaker of the song wants to
become closer to her or his lover. The speaker also imagines if he or she is a
partner of the addressee, he or she will feel very happy. The chorus is a
component of the song which has intrasentential switching cases. The chorus of
this song wants to narrate that the speaker of the song is falling in love. In the
chorus, the listeners of this song know that the speaker of this song is a woman
and the addressee is a man because it says clearly explicit in the second line of the
chorus stanza.
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Dan kut'lah jatuh cinta,
ku wanita dan engkau lelaki.
(Goeslaw, 2005, stanza 2, line 1-2).
The second verse conveys again that she hopes to become the bride of the
addressee. She is grateful because she can fall in love to the addressee. She feels
that feeling is very beautiful, even though she does know whether he has the same
feeling or not. Thus, the same chorus is sung after this second verse stanza.
This song uses English title which has exactly the same words as the
English clauses occurring in intrasentential switching cases in this song. Both of
intrasentential switching occurs in the chorus component of the song, in the third
and fifth line. The chorus is sung twice because the song has two verses and the
chorus is always sung after the verses.
(A/ 1/ INTRA/ I) Perasaanku berkata, I’m falling in love.
(Goeslaw, 2005, stanza 2, line 3).
(A/ 1/ INTRA/ II) Hati kecilku berkata, I’m falling in love, I’m falling in love.
(Goeslaw, 2005, stanza 2, line 5).
The data above are sentences which consist of two clauses. The Indonesian part is
a dependent clause, while the English is an independent clause. It means that the
Indonesian part needs the English part to build a complete though, while the
English part as an independent clause is a sentence when it stands alone.
An independent clause, along with having a subject and predicate,
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. On the
contrary, a subordinate or dependent clause does not express a complete
thought and therefore is not a sentence. (Jean Eggenschwiller, 2001: 59).
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The Indonesian part delivers that the speaker of the song wants to reveal a feeling
and that specific feeling is delivered in the English clause. Because the English
part is an independent clause and is allowed to be seen as a sentence, the English
part is positioned as a sentence in further analysis.
A sentence has a meaning and the same understanding when a sentence is
composed of at least a subject (noun or pronoun) and a verb. “Functionally,
adding a verb to a noun is enough to complete a sentence.” (Celce, 1999: 434).
The word „fall‟ is a stative verb and it expresses emotion of feeling.
Verbs with stative senses do not occur in the progressive. When verbs that
are ordinary stative occur in the progressive, they adopt dynamics
meaning. They may indicate a type of behavior with limited duration.
Verbs expressing emotion and attitude, which are ordinary stative, indicate
tentativeness when they occur in the progressive. (Greenbaum-Quirk,
1990: 53-54).
From knowing the pronoun, the listeners of this song clearly understand
who are the speaker and the addressee of the sentence. The first person (the self)
indicated by using pronoun „I‟ and „we‟. Because of the explanation above, the
researcher also knows that the sentences in this song use the first person point of
view indicating with the use of pronoun „I‟. This pronoun presents as a way to
directly convey the deeply internal.
The researcher also analyzes the use of verb besides knowing the pronoun
used to ease knowing the song message. ”A verb is that it is a word that denotes
an action or state being.” (Celce, 1999: 434). A verb is a key of sentence. The
main attention in this researcher is knowing the reasons of the use of code
switching in a song lyrics, so only sentences that have switching to be analyzed.
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„Fall in love‟ is an idiom which is generally used to describe and show a strong
attraction for somebody or something.
The English switching here means that the speaker of the song wants to
reveal her strong attraction to the addressee, but she is more comfortable to
deliver it in English rather than in Indonesian which is her national language that
are used in everyday life and understood by everyone in the country.
As previously explained, title and chorus are components of song that
draw the attention of the audience for the first time and they are most remembered
by audience. The title and chorus are also components of the song which consist
the main theme and song message. Because those two components of the song
use English which delivers a strong affection to the addressee from the speaker of
the song, it means that the purpose of English usage in the song title and
intrasentential switching usage in chorus parts is to deliver a state of feeling.
Malik claims that usually the speaker turns into English to express certain state of
mind and feeling. It is the reason why the speaker changes the language into
English when she wants to deliver her personal feeling.
b. Let’s Dance Together
Different from the previous song, this song is opened by a chorus. The
whole chorus uses English; there is not any Indonesian word in the chorus part.
Thus, it is followed by a verse which uses Indonesian, but there is a tag switching
case occurs in the word „DJ.‟ After the verse, the same chorus is repeated again.
This song consists of five stanzas.
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Similar to the previous song, this title of the song, which uses English, also
uses an English sentence which is a clue to song message. The speaker of the song
asks others to join in the dance floor to dance together in the party.
There are two types of switching in this song, tag switching and
intersentential switching. The tag switching occurs in the last verse before the
chorus. The tag switching is in the fourth stanza to call „Disc Jockey‟ in English
words. The possibility reason why the language switch into English in the word
“DJ” is there is no appropriate word in Indonesian. “It involves single words –
mainly nouns- and it is motived by lexical need.” (Wardhaugh, 1992: 42).
According to Malik, this reason of this code switching usage is caused because
lack of facility in Indonesian.
The intersentential switching occurs from chorus part to the verse part.
The opening of the song, the first stanza of the song, uses English. Then, it is
followed by verses which use Indonesian.
The speaker and the addressee of this song are clearly understandable
because there is an English word „you‟ in the fourth line of first stanza. Because
of the word „you‟, the listeners know that the message is given directly. The
English sentences use present tense with the dynamic verbs indicates the action
which is factual. There are three sentences begun by the word „let‟s‟. „Let‟s‟ is a
contraction of the two words, „let‟ and „us.‟ „Let‟s‟ is an exhortation of the group
including the speaker to do something (Nohat, 7th July 2014). While, the second
sentence in the English stanza uses conditional sentence type 1. Conditional
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Sentence Type I refers to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a
certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We do not know for sure whether the
condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather
realistic – so we think it is likely to happen (“If Clause Type 1”, 7th July 2014).
The possible reason of intersentential switching from Indonesian verse
stanza to English chorus stanza is a semantic significance. The use of
intersentential switching as a semantic significance serves an implicit purpose
which is only known by particular speakers in certain specific information. The
verse of this song narrates the condition in the dance floor (stanza 3) and explains
the advantages of dancing in the dance floor (stanza 4) in Indonesian. Disclosed in
the verse, one of the advantages of dancing is relieving stress.
Aku dan yang lain
menikmati semua
irama berderap kencang.
Tak ada gundah,
hilang semua penat di dada.
Lihat DJ memainkan musik disko dimulai.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 3-4).
Seen from the message delivered in verse parts, the speaker of the song positions
himself or herself as someone who is describing the situation in the dance floor to
others.
The chorus part, using English, shows that the speaker asks and invites
others to join in the dance floor to dance together directly, spontaneously, and
without a brief explanation means that the target already knows the state on the
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dance floor. Different from the explanation about the condition in the dance floor,
this asking is delivered in English.
Let’s dance together.
Get on the dance floor.
The party won’t start,
if you stand still like that.
Let’s dance together.
Let’s party and turn off the lights.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 1).
c. My Heart
“My Heart” consists of five stanzas and has a similar pattern to „I‟m
Falling in Love‟ song. This song is begun by Indonesian verse and is followed by
an English chorus. After the chorus, there is an Indonesian verse which has
different words and message and is followed again by an English chorus. But
different from “I‟m Falling in Love” song, this song has a coda which uses
English as a closing of the song. The coda has same English words with the title,
namely „my heart‟.
“My Heart” is the third song which uses English words in its title. There is
an intersentential switching usage from stanza to stanza. The verse part uses pure
Indonesian, while the chorus uses English. The Indonesian part generally has the
same message with the message to be conveyed in the English part.
The first verse of this song wants to narrate the listeners that the speaker is
very happy because of her or his relationship, he or she feels to be in heaven and
he or she is happy because of that togetherness. In the next sentence, the speaker
uses an if-conditional sentence to deliver the message. The speaker imagines if
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one of them falls in love with another man, the speaker will still love his or her
partner and will not forget their love. And the message is reemphasized using
English in the next stanza which is a chorus stanza. The next verse is only
repeated the message in the first message, the words is similar to the first verse
and it is followed by the chorus and closed by the coda.
The uses of code switching in this song of course have a purpose. From the
explanation above, it is knew that actually the message which wants to be
conveyed in first verse, second verse, and chorus are same, but both of verse parts
use Indonesia and the chorus uses English. Malik claims that one of the reasons
why a speaker uses code switching is to address different audience. Code
switching is used when the speaker intends to address people from different
linguistics background.
d. I’m Sorry Goodbye
This song consists of six stanzas. The song pattern of code switching in
this song is different from three previous songs examined. The intersentential
switching is found in the last sentence of second chorus stanza. The song is
opened by an Indonesian verse stanza and the chorus follows that verse. The
chorus, itself, consists of two stanzas. The first stanza uses pure Indonesian, while
the second stanza uses both Indonesian and English. Thus, the second verse is
sung and it is followed again by the chorus. Besides the title uses English, there is
only one code switching case in this song. The intersentential switching from
Indonesian sentence to English sentence occurs in two last sentences in the second
stanza of the chorus part.
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The first verse also consists of two main stanzas. The first and second line
of the first stanza narrates that the speaker of the song is very happy because he or
she can meet and know the addressee, but then it changes.
Semenjak bertemu denganmu kumakin bahagia.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 1, line 2)
The third and fourth lines narrate that after knowing deeper the addressee, the
speaker is annoyed because now he or she knows that the addressee is not as good
as what was thought to be.
Semakin lama aku semakin tahu tentang engkau.
Sedikit kecewa ternyata engkau tak baik.
(Goeslaw, 207, line 3-4).
The next stanza narrates the general chronology of the speaker‟s love story. At the
beginning, his or her lover treated the speaker very well, so he or she felt really
loved. But then, the speaker knows that his or her lover often lies to the speaker.
The further action which is taken by the speaker is described in the chorus part.
Pertama-tama semua manis yang engkau berikan,
membuat aku merasakan cinta sebenarnya.
Semakin hari semakin terungkap yang sesungguhnya,
kumakin kecewa ternyata kau penuh dusta.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 2).
As said before, the chorus consists of two stanzas. The first stanza of
chorus narrates the addressee, who is the speaker‟s lover, that he or she apologizes
that he or she are not same as others, he or she is not stupid and wants to leave the
addressee.
Maafkan ku harus pergi,
ku tak suka dengan ini.
Aku tak bodoh,
seperti kekasihmu yang lain.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 3).
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Thus the next chorus stanza emphasizes that statement. The English
sentence in the fourth and fifth lines of second chorus stanza is a complex one
which consists of independent clause and dependent clause. The independent
clause of English sentence has same words to the song title.
(A/ 1/ INTER/ I) Terima kasih oh Tuhan,
tunjukkan siapa dia.
Maaf kita putus.
So thank you so much,
I'm sorry, goodbye.
(Goeslaw, 2007, stanza 4, lines 1-5).
This song uses „thank you‟ in the Indonesian part, translated into „terima kasih‟ in
Indonesian, and repeated in English part to show a polite expression to the
addressee. The message in the third line using Indonesia language is similar to
message in the fifth line using English.
The Indonesian part and English part of intersentential switching from
sentence to sentence in the chorus part basically have the same message, just
delivering in the different way. This repetition makes the audience pay attention in
this message, so this code switching usage is used to emphasize that point of
information (Malik, 2004: 27).
e. Selamanya Cinta
“Selamanya Cinta” song is the one and the only song examined in this
research which uses Indonesian title. The majority of songs which have code
switching parts use English title to make the listener realize and be able to guess
that the songs contains the use of code switching.
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“Selamanya Cinta” song consists of seven stanzas. The song is opened by
an Indonesian verse which consists of two stanzas. The first stanza itself consists
of three lines which are three rhetorical questions about the stars, moon, and sun.
Apakah bintang pernah tidur?
Apa bulan pernah melamun?
Apa matahari pernah nangis?
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 1).
The second stanza narrates that the speaker of the song was restless.
Seperti aku yang gelisah,
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 2, line 1).
Thus, the chorus shows that the speaker is in love, but he or she still does not
know it is true or just a fantasy.
Aku kamu jatuh cinta‟
walau kita berbeda.
Cubit aku biar jelas.
Aku sedang tertidur,
Aku bukan bermimpi.
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 3).
It is followed by the second verse which consists of only one stanza. In this
stanza, the speaker reveals that his or her love is so great. The speaker describes
that a book about love will not be able to express all of that love feeling.
Sebuah buku tentang cinta,
takkan sanggup menampung semua
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 4, line 1-2).
Thus, the same chorus is sung after the second verse. The third verse is also found
in this song, the third verse still uses pure Indonesian which shows that the
speaker wants to convince him or her that he or she really is in love and not
dreaming.
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Selamanya hatiku cinta,
ada dan tiadanya aku.
Cinta yakinkan hatiku,
aku bukan bermimpi.
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 6).
This song is closed by a coda which has an intrasentential switching case (data
A/INTRA/ III).
(A/ INTRA/ III)
Walau takdirku tak bersamamu,
I’m not dreaming now.
(Goeslaw, 2008, stanza 7, limes 1-2).
The intrasentential switching case occurs in the coda part. It means that the
switching occurs at the end of the song and for additional information, not all
Indonesian songs analyzed in this research has a coda part. The English part is the
independent clause of the sentence. In the coda, the speaker finally realizes that
his or her love is real. However, the fact is he or she is not in a relationship with
his or her loved ones. Because the use of English is not so significant in this song,
the most possible reason why this switching occurs is just to attract listener‟s
attention. The switching beautifies the song because the title, the verses, the
chorus of this song uses Indonesian. This usage makes only Indonesian listener or
people who have a good understanding in Indonesian get the song message.
f. Butterfly
This song consists of six stanzas and is started with an Indonesian verse
which consists of two stanzas. The first stanza narrates the speaker is falling in
love with the addressee and that feeling is stronger from time to time. The speaker
feels that his or her loved one also has the same feeling and the speaker wishes
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that the addressee is his or her last lover is the message which wants to be
delivered in the second verse stanza.
Thus, this Indonesian verse is followed by two chorus stanzas. The chorus
consists of two stanzas in two different languages, Indonesian chorus stanza and
English chorus stanza. The chorus started with Indonesian stanza whose message
is repeated in English part. In the chorus, the English word „butterfly‟ is a symbol
given by the speaker of the song to the addressee, so it is used both in Indonesian
chorus stanza and English chorus stanza to call the addressee. The chorus shows
that the speaker will always try to reach the addressee if one day the addressee
walks away.
After the chorus, there is also a verse. These second Indonesian verse
consists of two main stanzas which wants to narrate that the speaker will always
wait the addressee, although it takes a long time. This song is closed by the same
chorus.
In this song, there is an intersentential switching case in “Butterfly” song.
Similar to “My Heart” song, the switching occurs between Indonesian stanzas to
English stanza in chorus part. The verses use Indonesian and there is no English
word contained.
„Butterfly‟ is an English word used both the title of this song and a symbol
refers to the addressee given by the speaker in this song. That English word
„butterfly‟ is associated to the tradition in America which releases butterfly in the
wedding ceremony symbolizing the promise of love and marriage. From the
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explanation, it can be concluded that the speaker has a hope the addressee is his or
her last love and the speaker is willing to wait the addressee, even he or she has to
wait a long time. The use of this tag switching case is purposed to emphasize a
point, to give a stress and an attention to the English word „butterfly‟.
The chorus consists of two main languages, Indonesian and English, which
deliver the same song message. The English part only repeats the Indonesian part
means that the speaker wants to address that message to different audience. People
who do not understand Indonesian know the main song message which is
delivered in English chorus part.
g. Glow
This song consists of eight stanzas and is started with a verse. The verse
uses intersentential switching and consists of two stanzas. The verse is followed
by a chorus which also consists of two stanzas. The first chorus stanza uses
English in first and third line, whiles the second and fourth lines use Indonesian.
Different from first chorus stanza which uses English-Indonesian switching, the
second chorus stanza uses full English. After the chorus, there is a second verse
and it is followed by the same chorus stanza.
The first stanza of first verse stanza describes that the speaker is an
ordinary person and she or he does not have a love feeling that the addressee
wanted, but the speaker believes that he or she is shine and will be always shine.
The second stanza also describes the personality of the speaker who cannot just
stand and see when his or her enemy calls his or her name. The speaker will serve
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his enemy. From third and fourth line of this stanza, the listeners know the
background setting of this song is on the dance floor.
On the dance floor what are you waiting for?
The music glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow).
(Goeslaw, 2009, line 3-4, stanza 2).
Next, the chorus of this song explains that the speaker is a happy person
and the music can be an energy supplier to the speaker. This chorus is followed by
the second verse. In the first stanza of second verse stanzas, the speaker reiterates
that to be happy is only thing that he or she wants. And the next stanzas narrate
that his or her light can burn soul of his or her lover. The background of setting
also restates in this stanza.
The code switching case in this song is more complex than the previous
songs. There are some uses of code switching in this song. There are four
intersentential switching cases in this song. All of the uses of switching occur in
verse and chorus parts. There are three patterns of intersentential switching:
intersentential switching from word to word, from sentence to sentence, and from
stanza to stanza.
The intersentential switching from word to word is only found in this song
whose function is repetition the message which makes an effect the word „glow‟
get a stress. „Memancar‟ and „glow‟ is a synonym word. Frequently, a message in
one language is repeated in other languages, either literally or in somewhat
modified form (Gumperz, 1982: 58). The composer of this song wants to make be
bold the English word „glow‟, a word which is similar to the song title because the
English word „glow‟ is the most English word found in this song. The use of the
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word „glow‟ at the beginning of the song and in the first verse stanza mean that
the speaker begins to direct the mind of the listener to pay more attention to the
words „glow‟ because, as already known, a verse is component of a song which
directs the listener to the core message to be conveyed in the chorus.
In the next stanza of verse part is also found an intersentential switching
from sentence to sentence. This usage shows the mood of the speaker. In the
previous sentence, the speaker states that he or she will not allow himself or
herself to remain in a silent when others give a challenge.
Ku tak bisa berdiri saja,
Sementara musuhku terus memanggil.
(Goeslaw, 2009, line 1-2, stanza 2).
The speaker of the song can not just stand, while his or her enemy always call his
or her name. This emotion leads the speaker change the language into English to
answer the challenge. The switching sentences include in the instantaneous
present. “The instantaneous present is used with dynamic verb senses to refer to a
single event with little or no duration that occurs at the time of speaking.”
(Greenbaum-Quirk, 1990: 49). The same pattern is found in the sixth stanza. This
intersentential switching also wants to direct the listeners to the main message
delivered in chorus part.
The intersentential switching from stanza to stanza also has a purpose to
state a certain mind. In data (A/ INTER/ VIII) seen that the speaker wants to
deliver what he or she believed in English. The use of present time in that
sentences refer to “unbroken state of affairs that has existed in the past, exsist
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now, and likely to continue to exist in the future. It includes the timeless present,
which refers to eternal truths.” (Greenbaum-Quirk, 1990: 48).
The intrasentential switching is in chorus parts. In the third stanza, the
speaker switches to English words when he or she wants to reveal a feeling
statement, while the clue of this statement delivers in Indonesian. This feeling
statement is only found in chorus part and uses two types of code switching,
intersentential switching and intrasentential switching, means that one of the main
message which wants to be delivered in this song is about emotional feeling, on
this case happiness feeling. The use of English verb: „happy‟ is the indicator that
the speaker wants to deliver a certain feeling. Based on Oxford Dictionary, happy
means “showing or causing feeling of pleasure and enjoyment.” (Bull, 1903: 176).
Chorus:
Yeah, I'm happy all of them.
Membuatku merasa,
Oh happy all I though.
Menyentuh bintang-bintang.
(Goeslaw, 2009, stanza 3).
The last case of intersentential usage is found in fifth stanza which is a
verse part. There is a phrase which composed of Indonesian and English. The
English word in this intersentential switching is repeated the previous English
word which also becomes the title of this song: „glow.‟ This repetition is purposed
to make sure that the listeners know what to highlight and be focus of the song.
According to Malik, this usage concludes in emphasizing certain point.
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h. Love Story
The next song which is examined is “Love Story” song. This song is
started with an Indonesian verse. The speaker of this song reveals that whatever
happens in the future, he or she will always try the best to reach his or her beloved
one. This verse is followed by a chorus. This pattern of chorus in this song is quite
unique. The chorus consists of three stanzas and the last stanza of this song only
consists of an English phrase. The chorus restates the statement of the first verse.
The speaker of this song will always struggle to reach his or his beloved one.
There is a simple verse after the chorus. This Indonesian verse just consists of two
lines and again restates the statement of first verse and chorus part. After this
simple verse, the chorus is sung again. To close this song, there is a stanza which
narrates that whatever happens, the speaker‟s and the addressee‟s love will always
be eternal.
From the song lyrics and the explanation above, it is seen that this song
uses simple English words, and the English words: „love story‟ is English words
that most frequently appear in this song. The repetition of this word usage is
caused the speaker wants to give a highlight and a stress in that word. Malik
claims that one of the reasons why people use code switching is to emphasize
certain point of information.
English has no a significant role in this song because the usage is limited.
The intersentential switching cases occur in its chorus in a simple pattern, the
verses, themselves, use Indonesian means that this song is addressed to Indonesian
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listeners. Besides in chorus part, the intersentential switching also occurs in coda
part. The words: „love story‟ are repeated third time in coda part to be a closing of
this song.
i. I’m not Diva
“I‟m not Diva” song is opened by an English stanza. Different from other
songs, this song has three different chorus stanzas. After the first verse, all three
chorus stanzas are sung. Thus, there is a different verse which is followed by
second and third stanzas.
The first verse shows that the speaker of this song is a woman. It can be
seen from the use of the English words: „diva‟ and „beautiful.‟ According to
Oxford Dictionary, „diva‟ means a famous female singer of operatic or popular
music. In the first verse, there are some statements states that the speaker is not
beautiful like a model and an angel and she is not „a plastics girl‟. Thus, the first
chorus narrates that she dares to admit that she like botox, surgery, and tattoo. She
also states that she loves herself. The second chorus narrates that even though she
likes a drama, music, and a drama, she is not a drama queen. The third chorus
states the song message using both English and Indonesian. From this chorus
stanza, the speaker of this song wants to reveal that she is not a diva and a queen,
and she does not hope be a diva or a queen who has luxury and expensive goods.
Inversely with the addressee who always acts like a diva, whereas the addressee
have nothing. To reinforce that the speaker of the song and the addressee are
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different, the speaker repeats the second chorus and third chorus which contains a
comparison between her and the addressee.
There is English tag switching case in this song. The English word „diva‟
always used in this song to fulfill Indonesian lexical need because there is no an
appropriate Indonesian word which can describe the same meaning of the English
word „diva‟. “Tag switching –mainly nouns- motived by lexical need.”
(Wardhaugh, 2010: 42).
There are three choruses in this song, the first and second chorus use
English and state the things that are liked by the speaker. Malik states that when
the speaker of code switching has a certain state of mind, this person uses certain
English expression which represents that feeling.
In the verse part which uses intrasentential and intersentential switching
also shows that the speaker uses English to state the contradiction between the
speaker and the addressee and it is also purposed to show the certain mind of the
speaker which are fed to the addressee. That contradictions include in the use of
the state present means that that facts are timeless present which refer to eternal
truths seen from the speaker point-of-view. The verses of this song use English
which make international listener can know clearly the song message. On the
other hand, the English dictions are simple ones making Indonesia listener who
has an English limitation understanding is able to guess the song message which
want to deliver in English parts. The similar tendency can also be found in the
intrasentential switching and intersentential switching cases in this song.
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j. Let’s Talk about Love
This song is newest song which uses code switching examined in this
research. This song is begun by an English stanza and it is followed by chorus
parts. The chorus consists of two stanzas which every single stanza consists of
three lines. The first line of each chorus stanza uses English to deliver song
message. After the chorus, there is a second verse which uses Indonesian. The
same chorus is repeated again after the second verse. Thus, the other three
different stanzas is followed the chorus.
The opening of this song which uses English asks the addressee who
called with „baby‟ to talk about love. In the next two stanzas which are chorus
part, the speaker says that he or she is so in love with the addressee and she also
needs the addressee. The speaker cannot imagine if his or her life is without the
addressee. The speaker also does not like to reveal others about his or her love
story because that is a private thing is the message which wants to reveals in the
second verse. Then, the same chorus is repeated. After the chorus, there is the
third verse which wants to narrate that the speaker believes that the addressee is
created to accompany the speaker and the speaker can accept all the goodness and
badness of the addressee because the speaker is so in love with the addressee.
The first stanza of this song using English to deliver the message song is
an invitation from the speaker to the addressee to talk about a spesific topic: love.
Love is something which shows a feeling of strong affection for a person. Some
people think that love is a personal topic. Intersentential switching from English
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stanza to Indonesian stanza means that the speaker wants to state a certain mind,
in this case the topic is about love. The other intersentential switching cases from
the English sentence to the Indonesian sentence are found in the chorus part. The
reason of this switching is the speaker states his or her love feeling to the
addressee. The same reason is also found in the fifth stanza and last stanza. In the
last line of that stanza, the speaker switches the language from Indonesian to
English. Love is a stative verb refers to the use of the state present. State present is
a single unbroken affair which is timeless which refers to eternal truths.
The word „baby‟ is used to call the addressee who has a close relation with
the speaker. The word „baby‟ is not analyzed in this research because it is not
categorized into code switching. The frequency of the English word „baby‟ is
more than three times in the corpus of data, so it is categorized into loan word.
“Any word that appears at least three times in a corpus of data is a loanword.”
(Myers, 1993: 207). The word „baby‟ repeats the English word which has been
used since the beginning of the song, which uses English. Thus, that habit makes
that word is used in the Indonesian sentences to call the addressee. The patterns of
English usage also have a similarity to previous songs. English does not have a
significant contribution to deliver song message for international listener in this
song. The English dictions are simple ones and are repeatedly sung in some
components of the song. This song is the only song examined which has a word
bridge. The difference makes the listeners have an affinity with this song.
From the analysis above, it is found that there are six reasons why code
switching is used in the Indonesian songs lyrics: lack of facility, delivering a
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mood of the speaker (stating certain feeling and mind), emphasizing certain point,
a semantic significance, addressing a different audience, and attacking audience‟s
attention. The other reasons is not found in ten Indonesian lyrics examined
because the data are not extensive enough or the settings are not require for the
other four reasons.
The additional finding from the analysis in this sub-section is the code
switching cases occur in title, verse, chorus, bridge, refrain and coda. The hook is
only the component of the song which does not use code switching because all of
the Indonesian songs examined in this research use instrumental hook. This
classifying of components of the song based on Davidson-Heartwood and Espie
Estrella‟s Theory.
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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION
This chapter outlines two questions elaborated in problem formulation.
The first question which has to be answered is identifying the types of code
switching used in Indonesian song lyrics composed by Melly Goeslaw. The
second one is finding the reason why that parts of the song lyric use code
switching to delivery the message. The analysis uses two main theories, namely
Types of Code Switching Theory by Stockwell (2002) and Reason of Code
Switching Theory by Malik (1994).
The classification of code switching in this research uses Stockwell‟s
Theory. There are three types of code switching which are used in ten Indonesian
song lyrics. The first one is tag switching. There are four cases of tag switching
found in three songs, namely in the song “Let‟s Dance Together,” “Butterfly,” and
“I‟m not Diva.” There are also five cases of intrasentential code switching found
in “I‟m Falling in Love,” “Selamanya Cinta,” “Glow,” and “I‟m not Diva.” The
intersentential switching is the type of code switching which is the most widely
used. There are twenty one cases of intersentential code switching cases found in
eight song lyrics. “I‟m Sorry Goodbye”, “Let‟s Dance Together”, “My Heart”,
“Butterfly”, “Glow”, “Love Story”, “I‟m not Diva”, and “Let‟s Talk about Love”
are the song titles of that songs.
In order to answer the second problem formulation, the researcher uses ten
reasons of code switching presented by Malik (1994).
68
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1.
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Lack of facility (vocabulary items)
Two songs have this reason: “Let‟s Dance Together” and “I‟m not Diva.”
The type of switching in both songs includes in the tag switching case;
2. Mood of the speaker
This reason is used when the speaker has a certain state of mind and
feeling. He or she finds certain English expressions which represent his or her
feeling. Three songs have the reason in the intrasentential case: “I‟m Falling in
Love,” “Glow”and “I‟m not Diva.” Three songs use this reason in intersentential
switching: “Glow,” “Let‟s Dance Together,” and “I‟m not Diva;”
3. Emphizing a certain point
This reason is used in all three types of code switching. The title of the
song which uses this reason in tag switching is “Butterfly.” There are also three
songs using this reason in intersentential switching case: “I‟m Sorry Goodbye,”
“Glow,” and “Love Story.” All of the songs which use this reason have the same
words with the song title, either partially or entirety and those words are
constantly repeated;
4. Semantic significance
The reason of semantic significance is use as verbal strategies to convey
an important and meaningful linguistics and social information. The only song
title which uses these strategies is “Let‟s Dance Together” in intersentential
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switching case. In this song, the speaker of the song changes the language to
deliver specific information to the specific audience;
5. Addressing a different audience
The different languages are used to convey when they are targeted to the
different audience. In each “My Heart “and “Butterfly” songs, there is an
intersentential switching from stanzas to stanza. The stanza uses different
language which delivers a similar message;
6. Driving attention
“Selamanya Cinta” song is the only Indonesian song which uses
Indonesian title when there is a code switching case in the component of its song.
The listeners of the song can not recognize that use of code switching until the
intrasentential switching appears at the end of the song. This use of code switcing
makes the listeners be pay attention more to the song.
After analyzing those ten Indonesian song lyrics, there are just six reasons
of code switching used: lack of facility (vocabulary items), delivering a mood of
the speaker (stating certain feeling and mind), emphasizing certain point, a
semantic significance, addressing a different audience, and attacking (triggering)
audience‟s attention.
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APPENDIX
Lyric Texts of Ten Indonesian Songs Composed by Melly Goeslaw
I’m Falling in Love
Kekasihku mendekat padaku.
Saat ini ku ingin secara kita berdua.
Telah lama disini.
Andai saja aku pengantinmu, bahagia pasti di hati.
Rengkuh aku bersamamu, malam ini milik berdua.
Chorus:
Dan ku t'lah jatuh cinta,
ku wanita dan engkau lelaki.
Perasaanku berkata, I'm falling in love.
Sang cinta mendekatlah, malam menyanggupi jadi saksi.
Hati kecilku berkata, I'm falling in love, I'm falling in love.
Andai saja aku pengantinmu, bahagia pasti di hati.
Rengkuh aku bersamamu, malam ini milik berdua.
Jatuh cinta ternyata memang indah, apalagi bersamamu.
Walau aku tak pasti bisa, mendapatkan cintamu.
(Back to Chorus)
(http://www.liriklagumuzika.com/2009/01/lirik-lagu-im-falling-in-love-mellygoeslow-ft.html#ixzz2V67qiOJs accessed in 1 June 2013).
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Let’s Dance Together
Chorus:
Let’s dance together,
get on the dance floor.
The party won’t start,
if you stand still like that.
Let’s dance together,
let’s party and turn off the lights.
Berdiri semua
di ruang yg redup
bercahaya bagai kilat.
Aku dan yang lain
menikmati semua
irama berderap kencang.
Tak ada gundah,
hilang semua penat di dada.
Lihat DJ memainkan musik disko dimulai.
(Back to Chorus)
(http://nugsong.wordpress.com/2007/02/13/lets-dance-together/ accessed in 24
April 2014).
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My Heart
Disini kau dan aku,
terbiasa bersama,
menjalani kasih sayang,
bahagia kudenganmu.
Pernahkah kau menguntai,
hari paling indah?
Ku ukir nama kita berdua,
disini surga kita.
Bila kita mencintai yg lain,
mungkin kah hati ini akan tegar.
Sebisa mungkin tak akan pernah,
sayang ku akan hilang.
If you love somebody,
could we be this strong.
I will fight to win,
our love will conquer all.
Wouldn't risk my love,
even just one night.
Our love will stay in my heart.
Pernahkah kau menguntai,
hari paling indah.
Ku ukir nama kita berdua,
disini surga kita.
Bila kita mencintai yg lain,
mungkin kah hati ini akan tegar.
Sebisa mungkin tak akan pernah,
sayang ku akan hilang.
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Bila kita mencintai yg lain,
mungkin kah hati ini akan tegar.
Sebisa mungkin tak akan pernah,
sayang ku akan hilang.
If you love somebody,
could we be this strong.
I will fight to win,
our love will conquer all.
Wouldn't risk my love,
even just one night.
Our love will stay in my heart.
My heart
(http://lirik.kapanlagi.com/artis/irwansyah/my_heart_%2528feat._acha_septriasa
%2529 accessed in 1 June 2013).
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I’m Sorry Goodbye
Sebelum bertemu denganmu hidupku bahagia.
Semenjak bertemu denganmu ku makin bahagia.
Semakin lama aku semakin tahu tentang engkau.
Sedikit kecewa ternyata engkau tak baik.
Pertama-tama semua manis yg engkau berikan,
membuat aku merasakan cinta sebenarnya.
Semakin hari semakin terungkap yang sesungguhnya,
ku makin kecewa ternyata kau penuh dusta.
Chorus:
Maafkan ku harus pergi,
ku tak suka dengan ini.
Aku tak bodoh,
seperti kekasihmu yang lain.
Terima kasih oh Tuhan,
tunjukkan siapa dia.
Maaf kita putus.
So thank you so much,
I'm sorry, goodbye.
Seribu cara kau membuaiku dengan puitis.
Mungkin kau lupa bahwa aku pun juga manusia,
yang punya mata, punya hati, dan perasaan.
Maaf aku pergi dan takkan untukmu lagi.
(Back to Chorus)
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(http://www.wowkeren.com/lirik/krisdayanti/i-m-sorrygoodbye.html#ixzz2V697CMxP accessed in 1 June 2013).
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Selamanya Cinta
Apakah bintang pernah tidur?
Apa bulan pernah melamun?
Apa matahari pernah nangis?
Seperti aku yang gelisah,
lagu ku sendu menemani
mencoba mengerti
apa yang kurasa.
Chorus:
Aku kamu jatuh cinta
walau kita berbeda.
Cubit aku biar jelas.
Aku sedang tertidur,
aku bukan bermimpi.
Sebuah buku tentang cinta
takkan sanggup menampung semua
gambaran rasaku
sama kamu.
Chorus:
Aku kamu jatuh cinta
walau kita berbeda.
Cubit aku biar jelas.
Aku sedang tertidur,
aku bukan bermimpi.
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Selamanya hatiku cinta,
ada dan tiadanya aku.
Cinta yakinkan hatiku,
aku bukan bermimpi.
Walau takdirku tak bersamamu,
I'm not dreaming now.
(http://nrulfziah.blogspot.com/2012/07/soundtrack-18-forever-love.html accessed
in 1 June 2013).
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Butterfly
Ketika waktu mendatangkan cinta,
aku putuskan memilih dirimu.
Setitik rasa itu menetes
dan semakin parah.
Bisa ku rasa getar jantungmu
mencintaiku apa lagi aku.
Jadikanlah diriku
pilihan terakhir hatimu.
Chorus:
Butterfly terbanglah tinggi,
setinggi anganku untuk meraihmu.
Memeluk batinmu yang sempat kacau
karna merindu.
Butterfly fly away so high
as high as hopes I pray.
To come and reach for you,
rescuing your soul
that previous messed up touching me and you.
Jalan ini jauh,
namun kita tempuh.
Bagai bumi ini
hanya milik berdua.
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Biar ku berlebihan
mendekatimu,
namun ku tunggu.
(http://www.liriklagumuzika.com/2009/01/lirik-lagu-butterfly-melly-goeslowft.html#ixzz2V67qiOJs accessed in 1 June 2013).
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Glow
Ku tak jahat tapi ku tak baik
Mungkin ku tak punya
Cinta yang kau mau
Namun ku terang ku bercahaya
Memancar!
Glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow).
Ku tak bisa berdiri saja,
sementara musuhku teriak memanggil.
On the dance floor what are you waiting for.
The music glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow).
Chorus:
Yeah, I'm happy all of them.
Membuatku merasa,
Oh happy all I though.
Menyentuh bintang-bintang
Glow establish to your life.
Music is my energy.
Glow glow glow!
Dan ku hanya ingin bahagia,
membawa cintamu setinggi-tingginya.
Siapkah dirimu melayang bersama.
Glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow)!
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Gerakkan cintamu yang dingin.
Kubakar jiwamu dengan cahayaku.
On the dance floor what you're waiting for.
The music glow (glow) glow (glow) glow (glow).
(Back to Chorus)
(http://lyricsalls.blogspot.com/2009/07/melly-goeslaw-glow.html accessed in 1
June 2013).
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Love Story
Bila cinta endapkan semua harapan,
jalan terjal dan mematikan pasti ku tempuh juga.
Bila cinta seribu tahun akan ku tunggu,
walau tubuh tertimbun bukit tanganku menggapaimu.
Chorus:
Love story, let’s make a history.
Sejarah cinta kita menguasai bumi.
Mengalahkan semua yang paling terindah.
Love story, let’s make a history.
Biarpun seribu bencana meremukkan tubuh kita,
namun cinta kita tetap akan utuh.
Love story
Bila cinta seribu tahun akan ku tunggu,
walau tubuh tertimbun bukit tanganku menggapaimu.
(Back to Chorus)
Meremukkan tubuh kita,
namun cinta kita tetap akan utuh.
Love story, love story, love story.
(http://liriklagu-liriklagu.blogspot.com/2011/01/lirik-lagu-melly-goeslaw-featirwansyah.html accessed in 1 June 2013).
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I’m not Diva
I’m not a model.
I’m not beautiful.
I’m not an angel.
But, I’m not a plastic girl.
Chorus 1:
I like a botox.
I like a surgery.
I like a tatoo.
I’m happy to be who I am.
Chorus 2:
I like music.
I like movie.
I like drama.
I don’t like to be a drama queen.
Chorus 3:
Ku bukan diva.
Aku bukan ratu.
Bagai mahkota,
Atau kembang goyang.
Maunya mewah.
Maunya mahal.
Itu bukan aku.
Sedangkan kamu seolah-olah diva.
Gaya selangit,
but don’t have own money.
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Jangan tersinggung,
I’m not talking about you.
Just having fun
(Repeat chorus 2)
(Repeat chorus 3)
(http://clarissaichaa-aboutme.blogspot.com/2011/02/lirik-im-not-diva-by-mellygoeslaw.html accessed in 24 April 2014).
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Let’s Talk about Love
Let's talk about love, baby.
Love love love love baby.
Let's talk about love, baby.
Chorus:
Baby, I love you.
Ku temukan cinta sejati di kamu,
hanya dengan kamu.
Baby, I need you.
Tak tahu aku jadi apa tanpamu,
aku butuh kamu.
Biarlah orang lain ingin tahu,
cinta kita bukan untuk diumbar-umbar.
Biarlah semua rantai berisik,
mengganggu ketenangan aku dan kamu.
(Back to Chorus)
Diriku percaya kau tercipta untukku.
Baby ku terima semua baik burukmu.
(Let's talk about love, baby).
Baby, I love you.
Love love love love, baby.
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Baby ku percaya kau tercipta untukku.
Baby ku terima semua baik burukmu.
Baby, I love you.
(http://lyricsalls.blogspot.com/2012/12/lirik-lagu-melly-goeslaw-lets-talk.html
accessed in 1 June 2013).
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