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Scripts - 中国人民大学出版社
研究生英语综合教程
Postgraduate
English Course: An
Audiovisual Approach
Teacher’s Manual
研究生学术英语
视听说教程
(教师用书)
主 编 副主编 编 委 审 校
王筱晶
(按汉语拼音顺序)
方 帆 夏晓燕
(按汉语拼音顺序)
方 帆 桂 洲 孙晓燕
王筱晶 夏晓燕 杨君如
叶施宏 郑慧斌
[ 美 ] DeVante Allen(德文特 · 艾伦)
中国人民大学出版社
·北京·
Contents
Culture & Life
Unit 1 English Around the World: Global Englishes......................................... 1
Unit 2 Cultures: Interpretations of the World. ............................................... 13
专题听力一 Culture & Life................................................................................ 35
Section 1: Food & Health............................................................................................ 35
Section 2: Food & Obesity.......................................................................................... 39
Section 3: Food, the Flavour of Life............................................................................ 42
Nature & Environment
Unit 3 To Fly or Not to Fly: That Is the Question. .......................................... 71
Unit 4 Why Not Go on a Trip?.......................................................................... 83
专题听力二 Nature & Environment...................................................................... 93
Section 1: Animals & Conservationists....................................................................... 93
Section 2: Animals & Ecology..................................................................................... 97
Section 3: Smog & Environment............................................................................... 101
Section 4: Save the Environment, Save Us . ............................................................. 105
Love & Passion
Unit 5 Music: Language Without Boundaries. .............................................. 147
Unit 6 Sports & Outdoors. ............................................................................ 157
Unit 7 Love or Not? Believe in Yourself. ....................................................... 169
Postgraduate
English
Course:
An
Audiovisual
Approach
Postgraduate
English
Course:
An
Audiovisual
Approach
Teacher’s Manual
研 究 生 学 术 英 语 视 听 说 教 程 教 师 用 书
专题听力三 Love & Passion............................................................................... 185
Section 1: Education Matters.................................................................................... 185
Section 2: Test & School........................................................................................... 189
Section 3: School Education..................................................................................... 193
Business & Technology
Unit 8 Personalized Technology: The Apple of Your Eye.............................. 225
Unit 9 Employment: Get a Job!..................................................................... 237
专题听力四 Business & Technology................................................................... 249
Section 1: Science & Our Life................................................................................... 249
Section 2: Technology—Friend or Foe?.................................................................... 253
1
English Around the World: Global Englishes
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Watch the video and answer the following questions.
1. The discovery of new land and the drive of colonization.
2. The North Americans speaking English.
3. 54%.
4. 10 billion euros.
5. 14 years old.
6. Mandarin.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. C 2. B 3. A
4. A
5. B 6. D
7. C
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. Yes.
2. At least 1,000 phrases.
3. 10
4. A soldier.
5. They need to push harder to get their mouths used to the alien sounds.
6. No.
7. American people can study Chinese so that Chinese and American people can
make friends with each other.
8. Funding teacher training programs; looking for new models of language learning;
developing new textbooks.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. beneficial practice
2. international business
3. sole domain
4. best education
5. naturally
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. a. To modernize the country;
b. To empower the citizens through education;
c. The U.K. could benefit from some oil wealth.
2. Every 14 days.
3. The U.K. and the U.S.
UNIT
1
4. In 1964.
5. A cost-free solar lamp.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Lionel believes that Bertie can regain his confidence as the king to make a speech.
2. No.
3. To stay for dinner.
4. The coronation.
5. He intended to prepare for the King’s (Bertie) speech.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. chorus
2. warbling
3. peculiar
4. compliment
5. continuous sound
6. on the throne
7. relief
8. heir
9. succeed
10. stammer
Part B
略
Postgraduate
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Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
In 2007, three centuries after the Active Union that formed it, Britain is in an age
of transition. The royal crest is giving way to the crossed boxes of democracy. There is
no empire and there is no dominion. However, one thing remains. It bound the empire
more tightly than any garter or sash of cord. When the British themselves of long gone
and British authorities dissipated, the English language is thrived. It is a story about
ships in power. With the discovery of new lands and the drive to colonize, language
came to play an important and global role. From domestic administrative needs, the
imperial powers of Europe had learned the importance of a standardized language. The
growth of British power, the demands of running an empire is adoption in the United
States and transportation to Australia meant that the English language spreads to the far
reaches of the globe. The twin forces of the British Empire and American growth meant
that English was the language both of old and new power. When asked what was likely
to be the greatest influence on the course of world politics, Otto von Bismarck remarked
that it would be the fact that the North Americans speak English.
It had also become the language of scholarship and political innovation. More
than that, it had become the language most closely associated with success. With the
rise in a more global economy in the 20th century, English change in being a language
of imperium to being a language of business and commerce. In the world of business,
Forbes 2004 list of the top 2,000 companies, 54% have their headquarters in countries
where English is the first language. And that is discounting countries like Finland, the
Netherlands and others in which English competency is very high indeed. Nine out of
the top ten are based in either the UK or the US.
A report to the French government estimates the UK gains at least 10 billion euros
per annum from the dominance of the English language. More people speak English in
Southeast Asia than in Britain and North America combined. As the world looks east for
the next great economic wave, the UK status in relation to the English language can only
put in good stead. But as English has become a basic skill around the world, the natural
advantage of the native speaker has been whittled away.
UNIT
1
When Indian companies can train native English speakers in Belfast as call center
operatives, English no longer privileges the native speaker in quite such clear times. Of
all our European counterparts, we have the highest number of citizens who speak no
language except their mother tongue. Foreign language learning for post 14-year-olds
has recently been made voluntary. When international cooperation is sought, there is
no common language. There is diminishing reason to assume that English would be
chosen as a common platform for communication. When it comes language choice,
economics can be a stronger force than the opinion of what has hitherto been the
world’s lingua franca. For example, China has become Sudan’s largest inward investor.
In such of solution to language barrier it was decided that Mandarin rather than
English should be used. With the money, success and interest coming from China, why
should the Sudanese and others learn English? “People’s relationship with capitalism,
modernity, democracy, aid and education,” argues Sue Wright, “are mostly mediated
through English.” At the same time, these concepts themselves are being re-negotiated.
Capitalism is giving way to globalization. Modernity to post-modernity and the concepts
of democracy, aid and education are being restructured accordingly. As we go through
these changes, English will be a vital link and a common asset but the advantages we
accrue as native speakers cannot be taken for granted.
VIDEO WATCHING
As we said that Chinese have decided that English is the language of international
competition and they are going to speak “competition.” In fact, as of tonight, there are
more people studying English in China than there are people in America. And Clarissa
Ward is telling us how they are doing it. She’s in Beijing tonight. Clarissa.
Good evening, Diane. China is in the throes of campaign to break through the
language barrier. In the next five years, all government employees under forty will be
required to master at least one thousand phrases in English, and all schools will begin
teaching English in kindergarten.
China is learning English. “What is this?” “A snake.” What color?” “It is orange.” “This
feeling is like no others.” Parents who can afford it are forking out for private language
schools that are popping up across the country. “My name is Fran.” Where kids start
learning as young as two. “It is an elephant.” “Good.” “I am five years old.” “You are five
years old. And do you like to study English?” “Yes.” By the time they are ten, they are
fluent. “Are you ready?” “Yes.” “What do you want to do when you grow up?” “I want to
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be a soldier in the future because I want to protect our country.” It is part of a push to
promote internationalism.
“China is more open to the world. We want our kids to open their eyes to get to
know the world to look at China not only from standing in China but from outside of
China as well.”
“Today I want to tell you a true story.” State-run TV has even launched in American
idol type reality show where kids have to sell themselves in English to clinch the judges’
votes.
“I was born and raised here, in China. And I love my country with all my heart.”
“Mirror, mirror on the wall…” She makes the sound easy but in Chinese it sounds very
different. “Shui Shi Zui Piao Liang De?” For adults, learning the language is more of the
struggle. “Very.” “Very.” “This one?” “Well.” They push to get their mouths around the
alien sounds. “Very well.” “Very well.” But it hasn’t deterred them from trying. And many
yearn of hoping more Americans will do the same. “And I wish that American people can
study Chinese. And I think that is very good for us to make friends with them.” As part of
the new initiative, the government is also funding teacher training programs, looking at
new models of language learning and developing new textbooks. Diane.
LECTURE WATCHING
Patricia Ryan: Don’t Insist on English!
I know what you’re thinking. You think I’ve lost my way, and somebody’s going to
come on the stage in a minute and guide me gently back to my seat. (Applause) I get
that all the time in Dubai. “Here on holiday are you, dear?” (Laughter) “Come to visit the
children? How long are you staying?”
Well actually, I hope for a while longer yet. I have been living and teaching in the
Gulf for over 30 years. (Applause) And in that time, I have seen a lot of changes. Now
that statistic is quite shocking. And I want to talk to you today about language loss
and the globalization of English. I want to tell you about my friend who was teaching
English to adults in Abu Dhabi. And one fine day, she decided to take them into the
garden to teach them some nature vocabulary. But it was she who ended up learning all
the Arabic words for the local plants, as well as their uses—medicinal uses, cosmetics,
cooking, herbal. How did those students get all that knowledge? Of course, from their
grandparents and even their great-grandparents. It’s not necessary to tell you how
UNIT
1
important it is to be able to communicate across generations.
But sadly, today, languages are dying at an unprecedented rate. A language dies
every 14 days. Now, at the same time, English is the undisputed global language. Could
there be a connection? Well I don’t know. But I do know that I’ve seen a lot of changes.
When I first came out to the Gulf, I came to Kuwait in the days when it was still a
hardship post. Actually, not that long ago. That is a little bit too early. But nevertheless,
I was recruited by the British Council, along with about 25 other teachers. And we were
the first non-Muslims to teach in the state schools there in Kuwait. We were brought
to teach English because the government wanted to modernize the country and to
empower the citizens through education. And of course, the U.K. benefited from some
of that lovely oil wealth.
Okay. Now this is the major change that I’ve seen—how teaching English has
morphed from being a mutually beneficial practice to becoming a massive international
business as it is today. No longer just a foreign language on the school curriculum,
and no longer the sole domain of mother England, it has become a bandwagon for
every English-speaking nation on earth. And why not? After all, the best education —
according to the latest World University Rankings—is to be found in the universities of
the U.K. and the U.S. So everybody wants to have an English education, naturally. But if
you’re not a native speaker, you have to pass a test.
Now can it be right to reject a student on linguistic ability alone? Perhaps you have
a computer scientist who’s a genius. Would he need the same language as a lawyer, for
example? Well, I don’t think so. We English teachers reject them all the time. We put a
stop sign, and we stop them in their tracks. They can’t pursue their dream any longer,
till they get English. Now let me put it this way: If I met a monolingual Dutch speaker
who had the cure for cancer, would I stop him from entering my British University?
I don’t think so. But indeed, that is exactly what we do. We English teachers are the
gatekeepers. And you have to satisfy us first that your English is good enough. Now it
can be dangerous to give too much power to a narrow segment of society. Maybe the
barrier would be too universal.
Okay. “But,” I hear you say, “what about the research? It’s all in English.” So
the books are in English, the journals are done in English, but that is a self-fulfilling
prophecy. It feeds the English requirement. And so it goes on. I ask you, what happened
to translation? If you think about the Islamic Golden Age, there was lots of translation
then. They translated from Latin and Greek into Arabic, into Persian, and then it was
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translated on into the Germanic languages of Europe and the Romance languages. And
so light shone upon the Dark Ages of Europe. Now don’t get me wrong; I am not against
teaching English, all you English teachers out there. I love it that we have a global
language. We need one today more than ever. But I am against using it as a barrier.
Do we really want to end up with 600 languages and the main one being English, or
Chinese? We need more than that. Where do we draw the line? This system equates
intelligence with a knowledge of English, which is quite arbitrary.
(Applause)
And I want to remind you that the giants upon whose shoulders today ’s
intelligentsia stand did not have to have English, they didn’t have to pass an English test.
Case in point, Einstein. He, by the way, was considered remedial at school because he
was, in fact, dyslexic. But fortunately for the world, he did not have to pass an English
test. Because they didn’t start until 1964 with TOEFL, the American test of English.
Now it’s exploded. There are lots and lots of tests of English. And millions and millions
of students take these tests every year. Now you might think, you and me, “Those fees
aren’t bad, they’re okay,” but they are prohibitive to so many millions of poor people. So
immediately, we’re rejecting them.
(Applause)
It brings to mind a headline I saw recently: “Education: The Great Divide.” Now I
get it, I understand why people would want to focus on English. They want to give their
children the best chance in life. And to do that, they need a Western education. Because,
of course, the best jobs go to people out of the Western Universities, that I put on
earlier. It’s a circular thing.
Okay. Let me tell you a story about two scientists, two English scientists. They
were doing an experiment to do with genetics and the forelimbs and the hind limbs of
animals. But they couldn’t get the results they wanted. They really didn’t know what to
do, until along came a German scientist who realized that they were using two words
for forelimb and hind limb, whereas genetics does not differentiate and neither does
German. So bingo, problem solved. If you can’t think a thought, you are stuck. But if
another language can think that thought, then, by cooperating, we can achieve and learn
so much more.
My daughter came to England from Kuwait. She had studied science and
mathematics in Arabic. It’s an Arabic-medium school. She had to translate it into English
at her grammar school. And she was the best in the class at those subjects. Which tells us
UNIT
1
that when students come to us from abroad, we may not be giving them enough credit
for what they know, and they know it in their own language. When a language dies, we
don’t know what we lose with that language.
This is—I don’t know if you saw it on CNN recently—they gave the Heroes Award
to a young Kenyan shepherd boy who couldn’t study at night in his village, like all the
village children, because the kerosene lamp, it had smoke and it damaged his eyes. And
anyway, there was never enough kerosene, because what does a dollar a day buy for
you? So he invented a cost-free solar lamp. And now the children in his village get the
same grades at school as the children who have electricity at home. (Applause) When he
received his award, he said these lovely words: “The children can lead Africa from what
it is today, a dark continent, to a light continent.” A simple idea, but it could have such
far-reaching consequences.
People who have no light, whether it’s physical or metaphorical, cannot pass our
exams, and we can never know what they know. Let us not keep them and ourselves
in the dark. Let us celebrate diversity. Mind your language. Use it to spread great ideas.
Thank you very much.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Bertie: I couldn’t even give them a Christmas speech.
Lionel: Like your dad used to do?
Bertie: Precisely.
Lionel: He is not here anymore.
Bertie: Yes, he is. He is on that shilling I gave you.
Lionel: Easy enough to give away. You don’t have to carry him around in your pocket.
Or your brother. You don’t need to be afraid of the things you were afraid of
when you were five. You’re very much your own man, Bertie.
Bertie: Am I?
Lionel: Your face is next, mate.
Myrtle: Lionel, dear.
Lionel: Myrtle.
Bertie: Is this your wife?
Lionel: Yes. Bertie, come here. Are you alright, Logue?
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Bertie: Yes. Shouldn’t we go through?
Lionel: Trust me. It’s important.
Bertie: What is it?
Myrtle: Oh. You are…
Liz: It’s “Your Majesty” the first time. After that, it’s “Ma’am.” As in “ham.” Not “malm”
as in “palm.”
Lionel: I haven’t told her about us. Sit down, relax.
Liz: I’m told your husband calls my husband “Bertie.” And my husband calls your
husband “Lionel.” I trust you won’t call me Liz.
Myrtle: Your Majesty, you may call me Mrs. Logue, ma’am.
Liz: Very nice to meet you, Mrs. Logue.
Bertie: Logue, we can’t stay here all day.
Lionel: Yes, we can.
Bertie: Logue.
Lionel: I need to wait for the right moment.
Bertie: Logue, you’re being a coward.
Lionel: You’re damn right.
Bertie: Get out there, man.
Lionel: Hello, Myrtle, darling. You’re early. I believe you two have met, but I don’t think
you know…King George the Sixth.
Bertie: It’s very nice to meet you.
Myrtle: Will Their Majesties be staying to dinner?
Liz: We’d love to, such a treat, but alas a…previous engagement. What a pity.
Bertie: Archbishop.
Archbishop: Welcome, Your Majesty. What a glorious transformation, sir. I hope you’ll
forgive us if we continue our preparations? Now, allow me to guide you through
the ceremony. We begin, of course, at the west door into the nave.
Bertie: I see all your pronouncements are to be broadcast, archbishop.
Archbishop: Ah, yes. Wireless. It is, indeed, a Pandora’s box, and I’m afraid I’ve also had
to permit the newsreel cameras. The product of which I shall personally edit.
Lionel: Without momentary hesitations.
Bertie: This is Dr. Logue of Harley Street. He’s…my speech therapist.
Lionel: Your Grace.
Archbishop: Had I known that Your Majesty was seeking assistance, I should make my
10
UNIT
1
own recommendation.
Bertie: Dr. Logue will…will be attending the Coronation.
Archbishop: Of course I shall speak to the Dean, but it will be extremely difficult.
Bertie: I should like the…doctor to be seated in the…King’s box.
Archbishop: But members of your family will be seated there, sir.
Bertie: That is why it is suitable.
Lionel: And now, if you don’t mind, Your Grace, we need a premises.
Archbishop: My dear fellow, this is Westminster Abbey. The church must prepare His
Majesty.
Lionel: My preparations are equally as important. With complete privacy, if you don’t
mind.
Bertie: Those are my wishes, Your Grace.
Archbishop: I will place the Abbey at Your Majesty’s disposal, this evening. Your Majesty.
Clip # 2
Bertie: My brother.
Lionel: What about him? Try singing it.
Bertie: I’m sorry?
Lionel: What songs do you know?
Bertie: Songs?
Lionel: Yes, songs.
Bertie: “Swannee River.”
Lionel: I love that song.
Bertie: It happens to be my favorite.
Lionel: Sing me the chorus.
Bertie: No, certainly not. You know…I always wanted to build models. But… father
wouldn’t allow it. He…collected stamps, so we had to collect stamps.
Lionel: You can finish that off if you sing. My brother David Dum, dum, dum, dum…
Bertie: I’m not going to sit here warbling.
Lionel: You can with me.
Bertie: Because you are peculiar.
Lionel: I take that as a compliment. Well…Rules are rules.
Bertie: I’m not…crooning “Swannee River.”
Lionel: “Camptown Races,” then. My brother David said to me…doo-dah, doo-dah…
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continuous sound will give you flow.
Bertie: No.
Lionel: Does it feel strange now that David’s on the throne.
Bertie: To tell the truth, it was a relief. Knowing I…wouldn’t be…king.
Lionel: B ut unless he produces an heir, you’re next in line. And your daughter,
Elizabeth, would then succeed you.
Bertie: You are barking up the wrong tree now, doctor, doctor.
Lionel: Lionel. See? You didn’t stammer.
Bertie: Of cource I didn’t stammer. I’m singing.
12
2
Cultures: Interpretations of the World
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. The fourth Thursday in November.
2. Vietnam and Ghana.
3. Turkey dinners, family gatherings, football games and parades.
4. President Abraham Lincoln.
5. Optimistic people.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. C 2. C 3. A
4. D
5. C
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. The holiday honors the birth of Jesus Christ some 2000 years ago.
2. In the third century.
3. Because back then Christmas celebrations were marked as wild parties.
4. In 1848, when the image of the royal family next to the 40-foot Christmas tree was
published in American magazines.
5. The Christmas gifts are to remind people of the gifts brought to baby Jesus by the
three kings.
6. Santa Clause.
7. It was Saint Nicholas of Myra who was famous for giving gifts.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. how we judge others
2. the other audience
3. our thoughts and our feelings
4. prejudice
5. power dynamics
6. expanding
7. take up space
8. not just limited to
9. feeling powerful
10. universal and old
11. pride
12. born with sight
14
UNIT
13. at a physical competition.
14. slightly lifted
2
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. Power nonverbals are related to the extent to which the students were participating,
and how well they were participating.
2. Thoughts and feelings and the sort of physiological things that make up our
thoughts and feelings.
3. a. Tending to be more assertive;
b. Tending to be more confident;
c. Tending to be more optimistic;
d. Tending to feel they are going to win even at games of chance;
e. Tending to be able to think more abstractly;
f. Tending to take more risks.
4. Testosterone is high and cortisol is low.
5. Because testosterone was about (related to) dominance.
6. Power is also about how a person reacts to stress.
7. 86%.
8. T
he findings support that our nonverbals do govern how we think and feel about
ourselves.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. S
itting at a sidewalk café, looking in shop windows, walking in the rain, having
fun and maybe having some excitement.
2. Public relations.
3. It’s an American term and it means anybody who has a great deal of charm.
4. 1,250 dollars.
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5. T
he legend of “The Mouth of Truth” is that if you’re given to lying, you put your
hand in there it’ll be bitten off.
6. Each one represents a wish fulfilled.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. lovely things
2. rejoice to say
3. put on your slippers
4. Everything we do is so wholesome
5. with the Embassy staff
6. you’ll be presented with a small car.
7. Inspection of Food and Agricultural Organization
8. preside over the laying of the cornerstone
9. Youth and progress
10. conference here with the press
11. lunch with the Foreign Ministry
12. It didn’t spill
13. you’re ill
14. You please let me die in peace
15. Control yourself, Ann.
Part B
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Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
The fourth Thursday in November is a national day of Thanksgiving in the United
States. The tradition is a very old one, dating to the arrival of the first English settlers in
North America in the 17th century who, after their first successful harvests, paused to
celebrate their bounty and give thanks for surviving their first terrible winter in what was
then a wilderness.
Falling in the autumn, Thanksgiving has much in common with harvest holidays in
other nations and cultures, such as Vietnam’s Trung Thu celebration and Homowo, the
annual yam festival in Ghana. Still, with its turkey dinners, family gatherings, football
games and parades, there’s something about the day that is distinctively American.
Together with July 4th, when the United States marks its independence from Great
Britain, it’s a truly national holiday that includes all citizens in a common purpose,
regardless of religious, political or ethnic persuasion.
It also is a time for people to look back at the year, take stock and think about the
future. With our nation dealing with crises in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and West
Africa, the looming uncertainties of 2015 likely will be on many minds today. President
Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the first official Thanksgiving amid similar serious
circumstances, the American Civil War.
But like their colonial ancestors, Americans are essentially an optimistic people.
Surrounded by friends and family, today as in the past, they will enter into the spirit of
the day, giving thanks for life’s blessings and the promise of the future living in a free
land.
VIDEO WATCHING
Decorating trees, exchanging gifts, and singing songs about Santa Claus, it’s what
most people think of when they think of Christmas. But for Christians, December 25th
has a more important significance. The holiday honors the birth of Jesus Christ some
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2000 years ago. Well, we bet you didn’t know that in the early years of Christianity,
Christians didn’t celebrate Christmas at all. In fact, there is no mention of December
25th in the Bible. Early Christians couldn’t even agree on which date Jesus was actually
born. It was only in the third century that the December 25th became the official
celebration of the birth of Jesus. Most likely because it coincided with already existing
pagan festivals. By the end of the eighth century, Christmas was widely celebrated
across Europe. But its pagan roots died hard, and for many centuries, people marked
the holiday with wild parties, similar to Mardi Gras celebrations. This will leads some
religious purists, such as the Puritan Settlers of colonial America to oppose Christmas
celebrations. In 1644, the Massachusetts legislature fined anyone who observed
Christmas 5 shillings, which was a lot of money at that time. In fact, Christmas as
we know it didn’t really begin until the 1800s. That’s when Germany’s Prince Albert
brought his country’s long-time tradition of decorating evergreen trees to England after
his marriage to Queen Victoria. When the image of the royal family next to their 40-foot
Christmas tree was published in American magazines in 1848, the custom caught on
in the United States as well. The tradition of sending Christmas cards also started in
England around the same time. Giving gifts is a relatively old Christmas tradition with
roots going back many centuries. At first, gift giving had a religious significance, to
remind people of the gifts brought to baby Jesus by the three kings. But the Industrial
Revolution and the rise of advertising in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries make
Christmas the commercial holiday it is today, even it has continued to have a religious
meaning for Christians.
What about the most famous of all Christmas characters—Santa Claus? It’s actually
based on Saint Nicholas of Myra, a Dutch saint famous for giving gifts who is known as
Sinterklaas. In early incarnations, Santa Claus worn many different colors. But after a
Coca Cola ad in 1930 showed him wearing red and white, the image’s done. From the
date of the holiday itself to the traditions associated with it, Christmas has a long and
colorful history. We bet you didn’t know!
LECTURE WATCHING
Amy Cuddy: Body Language Shapes who You Are
So I want to start by offering you a free no-tech life hack, and all it requires of
you is this: that you change your posture for two minutes. But before I give it away, I
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want to ask you to right now do a little audit of your body and what you’re doing with
your body. So how many of you are sort of making yourselves smaller? Maybe you’re
hunching, crossing your legs, maybe wrapping your ankles. Sometimes we hold onto
our arms like this. Sometimes we spread out. (Laughter) I see you. So I want you to
pay attention to what you’re doing right now. We’re going to come back to that in a few
minutes, and I’m hoping that if you learn to tweak this a little bit, it could significantly
change the way your life unfolds.
So, we’re really fascinated with body language, and we’re particularly interested
in other people’s body language. You know, we’re interested in, like, you know—
(Laughter)—an awkward interaction, or a smile, or a contemptuous glance, or maybe a
very awkward wink, or maybe even something like a handshake.
[Narrator: Here they are arriving at Number 10, and look at this lucky policeman
gets to shake hands with the President of the United States. Oh, and here comes the
Prime Minister of the—? No.(Laughter) (Applause).
So a handshake, or the lack of a handshake, can have us talking for weeks and weeks
and weeks. Even the BBC and The New York Times. So obviously when we think about
nonverbal behavior, or body language—but we call it nonverbals as social scientists—it’s
language, so we think about communication. When we think about communication, we
think about interactions. So what is your body language communicating to me? What’s
mine communicating to you?
And there’s a lot of reasons to believe that this is a valid way to look at this. So
social scientists have spent a lot of time looking at the effects of our body language, or
other people’s body language, on judgments. And we make sweeping judgments and
inferences from body language. And those judgments can predict really meaningful life
outcomes like who we hire or promote, who we ask out on a date. For example, Nalini
Ambady, a researcher at Tufts University, shows that when people watch 30-second
soundless clips of real physician-patient interactions, their judgments of the physician’s
niceness predict whether or not that physician will be sued. So it doesn’t have to do so
much with whether or not that physician was incompetent, but do we like that person
and how they interacted? Even more dramatic, Alex Todorov at Princeton has shown us
that judgments of political candidates’ faces in just one second predict 70 percent of U.S.
Senate and gubernatorial race outcomes, and even, let’s go digital, emoticons used well
in online negotiations can lead to you claim more value from that negotiation. If you use
them poorly, bad idea. Right?
So when we think of nonverbals, we think of how we judge others, how they judge
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us and what the outcomes are. We tend to forget, though, the other audience that’s
influenced by our nonverbals, and that’s ourselves. We are also influenced by our
nonverbals, our thoughts and our feelings and our physiology.
So what nonverbals am I talking about? I’m a social psychologist. I study prejudice,
and I teach at a competitive business school, so it was inevitable that I would become
interested in power dynamics. I became especially interested in nonverbal expressions
of power and dominance.
And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance? Well, this is what
they are. So in the animal kingdom, they are about expanding. So you make yourself big,
you stretch out, you take up space, you’re basically opening up. It’s about opening up.
And this is true across the animal kingdom. It’s not just limited to primates. And humans
do the same thing. So they do this both when they have power sort of chronically, and
also when they’re feeling powerful in the moment. And this one is especially interesting
because it really shows us how universal and old these expressions of power are. This
expression, which is known as pride, Jessica Tracy has studied. She shows that people
who are born with sight and people who are congenitally blind do this when they win
at a physical competition. So when they cross the finish line and they’ve won, it doesn’t
matter if they’ve never seen anyone do it. They do this. So the arms up in the V, the chin
is slightly lifted.
What do we do when we feel powerless? We do exactly the opposite. We close
up. We wrap ourselves up. We make ourselves small. We don’t want to bump into the
person next to us. So again, both animals and humans do the same thing. And this is
what happens when you put together high and low power. So what we tend to do when
it comes to power is that we complement the other’s nonverbals. So if someone is being
really powerful with us, we tend to make ourselves smaller. We don’t mirror them. We
do the opposite of them.
So I’m watching this behavior in the classroom, and what do I notice? I notice that
MBA students really exhibit the full range of power nonverbals. So you have people
who are like caricatures of alphas, really coming into the room, they get right into the
middle of the room before class even starts, like they really want to occupy space. When
they sit down, they’re sort of spread out. They raise their hands like this. You have other
people who are virtually collapsing when they come in. As soon they come in, you see
it. You see it on their faces and their bodies, and they sit in their chair and they make
themselves tiny, and they go like this when they raise their hand.
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I notice a couple of things about this. One, you’re not going to be surprised. It
seems to be related to gender. So women are much more likely to do this kind of thing
than men. Women feel chronically less powerful than men, so this is not surprising.
But the other thing I noticed is that it also seemed to be related to the extent to
which the students were participating, and how well they were participating. And this is
really important in the MBA classroom, because participation counts for half the grade.
So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap. You get these
equally qualified women and men coming in and then you get these differences in
grades, and it seems to be partly attributable to participation. So I started to wonder, you
know, okay, so you have these people coming in like this, and they’re participating. Is it
possible that we could get people to fake it and would it lead them to participate more?
So my main collaborator Dana Carney, who’s at Berkeley, and I really wanted to
know, can you fake it till you make it? Like, can you do this just for a little while and
actually experience a behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful? So we
know that our nonverbals govern how other people think and feel about us. There’s a
lot of evidence. But our question really was, do our nonverbals govern how we think
and feel about ourselves?
There’s some evidence that they do. So, for example, we smile when we feel happy,
but also, when we’re forced to smile by holding a pen in our teeth like this, it makes
us feel happy. So it goes both ways. When it comes to power, it also goes both ways. So
when you feel powerful, you’re more likely to do this, but it’s also possible that when
you pretend to be powerful, you are more likely to actually feel powerful.
So the second question really was, you know, so we know that our minds change
our bodies, but is it also true that our bodies change our minds? And when I say minds,
in the case of the powerful, what am I talking about? So I’m talking about thoughts and
feelings and the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings, and
in my case, that’s hormones. I look at hormones. So what do the minds of the powerful
versus the powerless look like? So powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly, more
assertive and more confident, more optimistic. They actually feel they’re going to win
even at games of chance. They also tend to be able to think more abstractly. So there
are a lot of differences. They take more risks. There are a lot of differences between
powerful and powerless people. Physiologically, there also are differences on two key
hormones: testosterone, which is the dominance hormone, and cortisol, which is the
stress hormone.
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So what we find is that high-power alpha males in primate hierarchies have high
testosterone and low cortisol, and powerful and effective leaders also have high
testosterone and low cortisol. So what does that mean? When you think about power,
people tended to think only about testosterone, because that was about dominance.
But really, power is also about how you react to stress. So do you want the high-power
leader that’s dominant, high on testosterone, but really stress reactive? Probably not,
right? You want the person who’s powerful and assertive and dominant, but not very
stress reactive, the person who’s laid back.
So we know that in primate hierarchies, if an alpha needs to take over, if an
individual needs to take over an alpha role sort of suddenly, within a few days, that
individual’s testosterone has gone up significantly and his cortisol has dropped
significantly. So we have this evidence, both that the body can shape the mind, at least
at the facial level, and also that role changes can shape the mind. So what happens,
okay, you take a role change, what happens if you do that at a really minimal level, like
this tiny manipulation, this tiny intervention? “For two minutes,” you say, “I want you to
stand like this, and it’s going to make you feel more powerful.”
So this is what we did. We decided to bring people into the lab and run a little
experiment, and these people adopted, for two minutes, either high-power poses or
low-power poses, and I’m just going to show you five of the poses, although they took
on only two. So here’s one. A couple more. This one has been dubbed the “Wonder
Woman” by the media. Here are a couple more. So you can be standing or you can be
sitting. And here are the low-power poses. So you’re folding up, you’re making yourself
small. This one is very low-power. When you’re touching your neck, you’re really
protecting yourself.
So this is what happens. They come in, they spit into a vial, we for two minutes, say,
“You need to do this or this.” They don’t look at pictures of the poses. We don’t want
to prime them with a concept of power. We want them to be feeling power, right? So
two minutes they do this. We then ask them, “How powerful do you feel?” on a series of
items, and then we give them an opportunity to gamble, and then we take another saliva
sample. That’s it. That’s the whole experiment.
So this is what we find. Risk tolerance, which is the gambling, we find that when
you are in the high-power pose condition, 86 percent of you will gamble. When you’re
in the low-power pose condition, only 60 percent, and that’s a pretty whopping
significant difference.
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Here’s what we find on testosterone. From their baseline when they come in,
high-power people experience about a 20-percent increase, and low-power people
experience about a 10-percent decrease. So again, two minutes, and you get these
changes. Here’s what you get on cortisol. High-power people experience about a
25-percent decrease, and the low-power people experience about a 15-percent increase.
So two minutes lead to these hormonal changes that configure your brain to basically
be either assertive, confident and comfortable, or really stress-reactive, and feeling
sort of shut down. And we’ve all had the feeling, right? So it seems that our nonverbals
do govern how we think and feel about ourselves, so it’s not just others, but it’s also
ourselves. Also, our bodies change our minds.
But the next question, of course, is, can power posing for a few minutes really
change your life in meaningful ways? This is in the lab, it’s this little task, it’s just a
couple of minutes. Where can you actually apply this? Which we cared about, of course.
And so we think it’s really, what matters, I mean, where you want to use this is evaluative
situations, like social threat situations. Where are you being evaluated, either by your
friends? For teenagers, it’s at the lunchroom table. For some people it’s speaking at
a school board meeting. It might be giving a pitch or giving a talk like this or doing a
job interview. We decided that the one that most people could relate to because most
people had been through, was the job interview.
So we published these findings, and the media are all over it, and they say, Okay, so
this is what you do when you go in for the job interview, right? (Laughter)
You know, so we were of course horrified, and said, Oh my God, no, no, no, that’s
not what we meant at all. For numerous reasons, no, no, no, don’t do that. Again, this
is not about you talking to other people. It’s you talking to yourself. What do you do
before you go into a job interview? You do this. You’re sitting down. You’re looking
at your iPhone—or your Android, not trying to leave anyone out. You’re looking at
your notes, you’re hunching up, making yourself small, when really what you should
be doing maybe is this, like, in the bathroom, right? Do that. Find two minutes. So
that’s what we want to test. Okay? So we bring people into a lab, and they do either
high- or low-power poses again, they go through a very stressful job interview. It’s five
minutes long. They are being recorded. They’re being judged also, and the judges are
trained to give no nonverbal feedback, so they look like this. Imagine this is the person
interviewing you. So for five minutes, nothing, and this is worse than being heckled.
People hate this. It’s what Marianne LaFrance calls “standing in social quicksand.” So this
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really spikes your cortisol. So this is the job interview we put them through, because we
really wanted to see what happened. We then have these coders look at these tapes, four
of them. They’re blind to the hypothesis. They’re blind to the conditions. They have no
idea who’s been posing in what pose, and they end up looking at these sets of tapes,
and they say, “Oh we want to hire these people,” all the high-power posers. “We don’t
want to hire these people. We also evaluate these people much more positively overall.”
But what’s driving it? It’s not about the content of the speech. It’s about the presence
that they’re bringing to the speech. Because we rate them on all these variables related
to competence, like, how well-structured is the speech? How good is it? What are their
qualifications? No effect on those things. This is what’s affected. These kinds of things.
People are bringing their true selves, basically. They’re bringing themselves. They bring
their ideas, but as themselves, with no, you know, residue over them. So this is what’s
driving the effect, or mediating the effect.
So when I tell people about this, that our bodies change our minds and our minds
can change our behavior, and our behavior can change our outcomes, they say to me, “It
feels fake.” Right? So I said, fake it till you make it. It’s not me. I don’t want to get there
and then still feel like a fraud. I don’t want to feel like an impostor. I don’t want to get
there only to feel like I’m not supposed to be here. And that really resonated with me,
because I want to tell you a little story about being an impostor and feeling like I’m not
supposed to be here.
When I was 19, I was in a really bad car accident. I was thrown out of a car, rolled
several times. I was thrown from the car. And I woke up in a head injury rehab ward,
and I had been withdrawn from college, and I learned that my IQ had dropped by two
standard deviations, which was very traumatic. I knew my IQ because I had identified
with being smart, and I had been called gifted as a child. So I’m taken out of college,
I keep trying to go back. They say, “You’re not going to finish college. Just, you know,
there are other things for you to do, but that’s not going to work out for you.”
So I really struggled with this, and I have to say, having your identity taken from you,
your core identity, and for me it was being smart, having that taken from you, there’s
nothing that leaves you feeling more powerless than that. So I felt entirely powerless. I
worked and worked, and I got lucky, and worked, and got lucky, and worked.
Eventually I graduated from college. It took me four years longer than my peers,
and I convinced someone, my angel advisor, Susan Fiske, to take me on, and so I ended
up at Princeton, and I was like, I am not supposed to be here. I am an impostor. And
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the night before my first-year talk, and the first-year talk at Princeton is a 20-minute talk
to 20 people. That’s it. I was so afraid of being found out the next day that I called her
and said, “I’m quitting.” She was like, “You are not quitting, because I took a gamble on
you, and you’re staying. You’re going to stay, and this is what you’re going to do. You are
going to fake it. You’re going to do every talk that you ever get asked to do. You’re just
going to do it and do it and do it, even if you’re terrified and just paralyzed and having
an out-of-body experience, until you have this moment where you say, ‘Oh my gosh, I’m
doing it. Like, I have become this. I am actually doing this.’” So that’s what I did. Five
years in grad school, a few years, you know, I’m at Northwestern, I moved to Harvard, I’m
at Harvard, I’m not really thinking about it anymore, but for a long time I had been
thinking, “Not supposed to be here.”
So at the end of my first year at Harvard, a student who had not talked in class
the entire semester, who I had said, “Look, you’ve gotta participate or else you’re
going to fail,” came into my office. I really didn’t know her at all. She came in totally
defeated, and she said, “I’m not supposed to be here.” And that was the moment for me.
Because two things happened. One was that I realized, oh my gosh, I don’t feel like that
anymore. You know, I don’t feel that anymore, but she does, and I get that feeling. And
the second was, she is supposed to be here! Like, she can fake it, she can become it.
So I was like, “Yes, you are! You are supposed to be here! And tomorrow you’re
going to fake it, you’re going to make yourself powerful, and, you know...
“And you’re going to go into the classroom, and you are going to give the best
comment ever.” You know? And she gave the best comment ever, and people turned
around and were like, oh my God, I didn’t even notice her sitting there, you know.
(Laughter)
She comes back to me months later, and I realized that she had not just faked it till
she made it, she had actually faked it till she became it. So she had changed. And so I
want to say to you, don’t fake it till you make it. Fake it till you become it. You know? It’s
not—Do it enough until you actually become it and internalize.
The last thing I’m going to leave you with is this. Tiny tweaks can lead to big
changes. So, this is two minutes. Two minutes, two minutes, two minutes. Before you
go into the next stressful evaluative situation, for two minutes, try doing this, in the
elevator, in a bathroom stall, at your desk behind closed doors. That’s what you want
to do. Configure your brain to cope the best in that situation. Get your testosterone up.
Get your cortisol down. Don’t leave that situation feeling like, oh, I didn’t show them
who I am. Leave that situation feeling like, I really feel like I got to say who I am and
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show who I am.
So I want to ask you first, you know, both to try power posing, and also I want to
ask you to share the science, because this is simple. I don’t have ego involved in this.
(Laughter) Give it away. Share it with people, because the people who can use it the
most are the ones with no resources and no technology and no status and no power.
Give it to them because they can do it in private. They need their bodies, privacy and
two minutes, and it can significantly change the outcomes of their life.
Thank you. (Applause)
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Ann: Do you like it?
Joe: Yeah... very much. So that was your mysterious appointment?
Ann: Mr. Bradley, I have a confession to make.
Joe: Confession?
Ann: Yes, I... ran away last night, from school.
Joe: Oh, what was the matter? Trouble with the teacher?
Ann: No, nothing like that.
Joe: Well, you don’t just run away from school for nothing.
Ann: Well, it were only meant to be for an hour or two. They gave me something last
night to make me sleep.
Joe: Oh, I see.
Ann: Now I’d better get a taxi and go back.
Joe: Well, look, before you do, why don’t you take a little time for yourself?
Ann: It may be another hour.
Joe: Live dangerously. Take the whole day!
Ann: I could do some of the things I’ve always wanted to.
Joe: Like what?
Ann: Oh, you can’t imagine... I’d, I’d like to do just whatever I’d like, the whole day long!
Joe: You mean, things like having your hair cut, eating gelato?
Ann: Yes, and I’d, I’d like to sit at a sidewalk cafe and look in shop windows; walk in the
rain! Have fun, and maybe some excitement. Doesn’t seem much to you, does it?
Joe: It’s great. Tell you what, why don’t we do all those things—together.
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Ann: But don’t you have to work?
Joe: Work? No! Today’s gonna be a holiday.
Ann: But you’ll want to do a lot of silly things.
Joe: Don’t I? First wish, one sidewalk cafe. Coming right up. I know just the place,
Rocca’s.
Joe: What’ll the people at school say when they see your new haircut?
Ann: They’ll have a fit. What would they say if they knew I’d spent the night in your
room?
Joe: Well, er, I’ll tell you what, you don’t tell your folks and I won’t tell mine.
Ann: It’s a pact.
Joe: Now, what would you like to drink?
Ann: Champagne, please.
Joe: Er, commerierie(speaking Italian), er...
Waiter: senor?
Joe: Champagne. Well, er, champagne for the senorina (Italian word) and er, cold
coffee for me.
Joe: Must be quite a life you have in that school—champagne for lunch.
Ann: Only on special occasions.
Joe: For instance?
Ann: The last was my father’s anniversary.
Joe: Wedding?
Ann: No, it was... the fortieth anniversary of umm...the day he got his job.
Joe: Forty years on the job; what do you know about that... What does he do?
Ann: Well...mostly you might call it...public relations.
Joe: Oh, well, that’s hard work.
Ann: Yes, I wouldn’t care for it.
Joe: Does he?
Ann: I’ve...heard him complain about it.
Joe: Why doesn’t he quit?
Ann: Well, people in that line of work almost never do quit—unless it’s actually
unhealthy for them to continue.
Joe: Well, here’s to his health then.
Ann: You know, that’s what everybody says.
Joe: It’s alright?
Ann: Thank you.
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Ann: What’s your work?
Joe: I’m in the selling game.
Ann: Really? How interesting! What do you sell?
Joe: F
ertilizer. Chemicals. You know, chemicals. Stuff like that.
Joe: Irving! Well, am I glad to see you!
Irving: Why? Did you forget your wallet?
Joe: Er, pull up a chair, Irving. Sit down with us here.
Irving: Aren’t you going to introduce me?
Joe: Er, yes, this is a very good friend of mine, Irving Radovich; Anya, Irving.
Irving: Anya...?
Ann: Smith.
Irving: Oh, hiya Smitty.
Ann: Charmed.
Irving: Hey, er, anybody tell you you’re a dead ringer for—Oh! Well, er, I guess I’ll be
going.
Ann: No, don’t do anything like that, Irving. Sit down. Join us, Join us, join us.
Irving: Well, er, just till Fransesca gets here.
Ann: Tell me, Mr. er, er, Radovich, what is a ringer?
Joe: It’s an American term and er, and it means er, anyone who has a great deal of
charm.
Ann: Oh. Thank you.
Irving: You’re welcome.
…
Irving: I slipped?! I almost hurt myself ?! Joe, I didn’t slip!
Joe: ...got a bad sprain there.
Irving: Never mind I got a bad sprain, Joe.
Joe: You’d better go in here and get it fixed up.
Irving: Well, yeah, I’d like to—
Joe: Will you excuse us for a minute?
Ann: Yes, of course; I—I’m so sorry.
Irving: N
ow wait, now wait; just a minute; let—; look, Joe, what are you tryin’ to do
now? Take your hands off—!
Joe: Have you got your lighter?
Irving: What’s that got to do with it?
28
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Joe: Have you got it?
Irving: Yeah, but what are you tryin’ to do?
Joe: Listen, what would you do for five grand?
Irving: Five grand?
Joe: Okay, look. She doesn’t know who I am or what I do. Look, Irving, this is my
story. I dug it up, I’ve got to protect it!
Irving: She’s really the—?
Joe: Ssssh! Your tin-types are gonna make this little epic twice as valuable.
Irving: “The Princess Goes Slumming”
Joe: You’re in for twenty-five percent of the take.
Irving: The takes five Gs?
Joe: Minimum. Henessey shook hands on it.
Irving: ...seven, five; that’s—that’s fifteen hundred dollars!
Joe: It’s twelve-fifty.
Irving: OK, now you shake.
Joe: OK, now, lend me thirty thousand.
Irving: Thirty th—? That’s fifty bucks; you gonna buy the crown jewels?
Joe: She’s out there now drinking champagne that I can’t pay for. We got to entertain
her, don’t we?
Irving: Joe, we can’t go running around town with a... hot princess!
Joe: Ssh, you want in on this deal or don’t you?
Irving: This I want back Saturday.
Joe: OK, now where’s your lighter? Let’s go to work.
Ann: Better now?
Irving: Huh?
Ann: Your ear.
Irving: My ear? Oh, yeah, er, Joe fixed it. Er, would you care for a cigarette?
Ann: Yes, please. You won’t believe this but it’s my very first.
Joe: Your very first? No, er, smoking in school, hmm?
Ann: Mm-hm.
Irving: Your first cigarette. There,the gizmo works.
Joe: Well, what’s the verdict? OK?
Ann: Nothing to it.
Irving: That’s right. Nothing to it.
Joe: Er, commerierie.
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Irving: Stretch my legs a little, here.
Joe: I’ll pick this one up, Irving.
Irving: Yeah, you can afford it
Joe: Well, what shall we do next? Shall we, er, make out a little schedule?
Ann: Oh, not that word, please.
Joe: Oh, I didn’t mean a work schedule, school schedule. I meant, er, a fun schedule.
Ann: Yes, let’s just go?
Joe: Well, how about you, Irving. Are you ready?
Irving: Er, yeah.
Joe: Let’s go.
…
Irving: Oh.. I’m going straight from now on.
Ann: American News Service? What did he mean?
Joe: Huh? Oh, well, you know, say you’re with the Press and you can get away with
anything.
Irving: Yeah...ha! Going to church to get married on a scooter—that’s a hot one. Joe’s a
wonderful liar!
Ann: You don’t have to look so worried; I won’t hold you to it.
Joe: Thank you very much.
Ann: You don’t have to be too grateful!
Joe: OK, I won’t
Ann: I’m a good liar too, aren’t I, Mr. Bradley?
Joe: The best I ever met. Come with me.
…
Joe: The Mouth of Truth. The legend is that if you’re given to lying, you put your
hand in there, it’ll be bitten off.
Ann: Oh, what a horrid idea.
Joe: Let’s see you do it.
Ann: Let’s see you do it.
Joe: Sure.
Joe: (stretching his hand to Ann) Hello!
Ann: You beast! It was perfectly alright! You’ve never hurt your hand!
Joe: I’m sorry, it was just a joke! Alright?
Ann: You’ve never hurt your hand.
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Joe: I’m sorry, I’m sorry. OK?
Ann: Yes.
Joe: Alright, let’s go. Look out!
Irving: I’ll park at the corner.
Ann: What do they mean, all these inscriptions?
Joe: Well, each one represents a wish fulfilled. All started during the war when
there was an air raid—right out here. A man with his four children was
caught in the street. They ran over against the wall, (pointing behind them)
right there, for shelter; prayed for safety. Bombs fell very close, but no one
was hurt. Later on, the man came back and he put up the first of these
tablets. Since then it’s become sort of a shrine: People come, and whenever
their wishes are granted, (stopping, turning round to look back) they put up
another one of these little plaques.
Ann: (looking back along the wall) Lovely story.
Joe: Read some of the inscriptions.
Clip # 2
Ann: I hate this nightgown. I hate all my nightgowns. And I hate all my underwear
too.
Countess: My dear, you have lovely things.
Ann: But I’m not two hundred years old! Why can’t I sleep in pajamas?
Countess: Pajamas!
Ann: Just the top half. Did you know there are people who sleep with absolutely
nothing on at all?
Countess: I rejoice to say that I did not.
Ann: Listen.
Countess: Ann, your slippers. Please put on your slippers and come away from the
window. Your milk and crackers.
Ann: Everything we do is so wholesome.
Countess: They’ll help you to sleep.
Ann: I’m too tired to sleep. I shan’t sleep a wink.
Countess: N ow my dear, if you don’t mind, tomorrow’s schedule—or “schedule,”
whichever you prefer. Both are correct. Eight thirty, breakfast here with the
Embassy staff; nine o’clock, we leave for the Polinory Automotive Works,
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where you’ll be presented with a small car.
Ann: Thank you.
Countess: Which you will not accept.
Ann: No, thank you.
Countess: Ten thirty-five, Inspection of Food and Agricultural Organization will present
you with an olive tree.
Ann: No, thank you.
Countess: Which you will accept.
Ann: Thank you.
Countess: Ten fifty-five, the New foundling Home for Orphans. You will preside over
the laying of the cornerstone. Same speech as last Monday.
Ann: Trade relations?
Countess: Yes.
Ann: For the orphans?
Countess: No, no, the other one.
Ann: “Youth and Progress.”
Countess: Precisely. Eleven forty-five, back here to rest. No, that’s wrong... eleven fortyfive, conference here with the press.
Ann: “Sweetness and decency.”
Countess: One o’clock sharp, lunch with the Foreign Ministry. You will wear your white
lace and carry a small bouquet of (& Ann) very small pink roses. Three-o-five,
presentation of a plaque.
Ann: (to an imagined guest) Thank you.
Countess: Four-ten, review Special Guard of Carabinieri Police.
Ann: No, thank you.
Countess: Four forty-five
Ann: How do you do?
Countess: Back here to change
Ann: (becoming distressed) Charmed.
Countess: To your uniform
Ann: So happy.
Countess: To meet the international—
Ann: STOP!!! Please stop! stop...!
Countess: It’s alright, dear, it didn’t spill.
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Ann: I don’t care if it’s spilled or not. I don’t care if I’m drown in it!
Countess: My dear, you’re ill. I’ll send for Doctor Bonnachoven.
Ann: I don’t want Doctor Bonnachoven; please let me die in peace!
Countess: You’re not dying.
Ann: Leave me. Leave me!
Countess: It’s nerves; control yourself, Ann.
Ann: I don’t want to!
Countess: Your Highness. I’ll get Doctor Bonnachoven.
Ann: It’s no use; I’ll be dead before he gets here.
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
Section 1: Food & Health
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Watch the video and answer the following questions.
1. The developing countries.
2. 1 in 3 people.
3. Heart diseases, stroke, certain types of cancers, and diabetes.
4. 2004.
5. Preparing traditional low-fat food.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. B 2. A
3. C 4. D
5. D
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. She has a headache and her brain cannot function without coffee.
2. The U.S.
3. In portion size and means of consumption.
4. People are working long hours.
5. More than 30 percent.
6. 40
7. To create repeated customers, to get people addicted to the products.
8. College students.
9. A law suit, criticism, and federal ban.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. coastal areas
2. exclusive economic zones
3. darker areas
4. climate change agreement
5. controlling things nationally
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. More than a billion.
2. Changing rainfall patterns.
3. 18 percent.
4. About 7 times as many fish in the coastal areas than there are in the high areas.
5. The European Union plus nine countries.
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
6. a. To set quotas or limits on how much we take;
b. To reduce bycatch;
c. To protect habitats.
7. 700 million people.
8. It can reduce our risks of cancer, heart disease and obesity.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. No.
2. No.
3. She never gives him any chance to address any of the problems of their marriage.
4. He is waiting for her to come home, to have kids, to make him great dinner.
5. She would give half of everything, including the house, and her retirement house.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. deal
2. forgive yourself
3. take care
4. believe
5. play at our wedding
6. every time you think of me
7. monsoon swept me away
8. keep doing the work
9. bossing me
10. mosquito repellent
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Part B
略
38
专题听力一 Culture & Life
Section 2: Food & Obesity
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. Hamburgers, French fries, milkshakes, fried chicken, and greasy pizza.
2. 600.
3. Most have gone bankrupt.
4. They don’t order the low-fat food when it is offered.
5. No, he doesn’t .
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. A
2. D
3. B 4. B 5. D
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. To feed their child.
2. 9.
3. FPIES
4. Playing with and shopping for food with Landon.
5. Landon is not afraid of food.
6. No, there isn’t.
7. 2.5 weeks.
8. A table spoon a day.
9. Coconut.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. wasteful
2. take it home
3. lifetime
4. sold and bought
5. disregards
6. working on
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. Wind.
2. It actually grows in a car tire.
3. I t is a menu that can allow people to choose the amount and volume of food that
they want to consume.
40
专题听力一 Culture & Life
4. Raw vegetable waste.
5. Because water is a very important aspect to a restaurant.
6. The People’s Supermarket.
7. Reduce, reuse, refuse and recycle.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the documentary series clip #1 and answer the
following questions.
1. Miles of pipes and stainless vats.
2. They stay fresh for ages.
3. Decide what not to use.
4. Vitamins and proteins.
5. Use prepared corn grit.
6. Pressure cooker.
7. 90 minutes.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch the documentary series clip #2 and then fill in
the blanks with the exact words you hear.
1. produces
3. That’s not bad
2. brilliant
4. 20
5. happy
6. pressures
7. discover
Part B
略
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Section 3: Food, the Flavour of Life
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. You can find them all over the country.
2. 240,000.
3. In 2013.
4. Because they need to.
5. Unlimited access.
6. Doctors and social workers.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. C 2. C 3. D 4. C 5. A
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. No, she doesn’t.
2. These are foods you would find at any supermarket.
3. The US and the UK.
4. Diet-related health problems cost an estimated 9 trillion dollars every year.
5. Households that are straddling the poverty line.
6. T
o regulate the rising prices of healthy food and provide subsidies to those in
need.
IV. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. put your hands up
2. Most of you
3. the last four generations
4. shorter lifespan
5. the landscape of food
6. overweight or obese
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. 27 years old.
2. Diet-related diseases.
3. 150 billion dollars a year. 300 billion dollars a year.
4. O
besity and diet-related disease doesn’t just hurt the people that have it; it’s all of
their friends, families, brothers, sisters.
Ⅲ. 略
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MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Being a rat means that life is hard.
2. He has a highly developed sense of taste and smell.
3. He discovers that the funny smell was rat poison.
4. Poison checker.
5. Food is fuel.
6. They don’t just survive. They discover. They create.
7. Good food is like music you can taste, colour you can smell.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. find a good place
2. be myself around him
3. wash my paws
4. we handle food with
5. All the time
6. taste everywhere
7. not just any cheese
8. go beautifully
9. a few drops
10. with the garbage
11. There are possibilities
12. the real question
Part B
略
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
Section 1: Food and Health
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Eating to excess.
Chances are many of us overdid it over the festive period, but there are fresh
concerns about our globally expanding waist lines. Researchers say it’s particularly
alarming in the developing world, where people are choosing to spend their increasing
disposable income on fatty sugary foods. The Future Diets report analysed existing data
on global obesity rates. It found in 1980, one in five people were over-weight or obese.
In 2008, it has risen to one in three. The report also found that in the developing world,
countries like the UK and the US, raise went from 321 million to 571 million. But in
developing countries like Egypt and Mexico, numbers almost quadrupled from 250
million to 904 million.
“Well, the explosion of over-weight, and obese people in developing world is largely
down to the emerging economy. Those sort of has gone through a transition from the
lowing economies to middling economies in the last generation. And that has produced
a large middle class of people who have rising incomes, so they can buy the foods they
want and they are undertaking more sedentary lifestyles.
“Is these sorts of greasy, fatting processed sugary foods that are causing a problem.
This glass of coke has more than a daily recommended maximum limit of sugar around
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13 teaspoons of sugar in that. Get through enough of these sort of foods and drink
regularly enough, and you’ll risk things like heart disease, strokes, certain types of
cancers and diabetes, all increases. It’s already putting a huge strain on health systems
right across the world.”
Denmark banned trans-fat which is used to extend shelf life but has no nutritional
value back in 2004. The report also cites South Korea’s large-scale training scheme
to teach women about preparing traditional low-fat meals, a success story and how
government policies can help fight obesity.
“I have never worried about my weight, because I always enjoy eating porridge like
this. I would never eat fatty foods, I like to eat vegetables and fruit.”
“Korean prefer vegetables, where westerners seem to eat more red meat. Also
Koreans tend to eat less in general. People are quite weight conscious here.”
The report says more governments need to start introducing taxes on sugary fatty
foods. Much of the food and drinks industry is in keen though and argue the only thing
that will get lighter is people’s wallets.
VIDEO WATCHING
In the city that never sleeps, a perpetual craving for energy never eases. On nearly
every Manhattan street, you will find two things: a coffee shop and customers cupping
their fix, a liquefied legal stimulant that most can’t envision quitting.
“I feel like I had a...I get a headache, I can’t function, so I just have to.”
“Are both of these for you?”
“Yes, actually yes.”
“I don’t know, if I can get rid of coffee. I love coffee.”
“Five or six cups a day?”
“Yes!”
“Quiet not good, too much anything is not good, right?”
“Right, so you gonna drink your cup, sir?”
“Definitely.”
Americans consume four hundred million cups of coffee per day, making the US
the leading consumer of coffee in the world. According to medical experts, daily intake
of caffeine should stay below three hundred milligrams or fifteen ounces of coffee. One
large cup of Starbucks contains more caffeine than the daily maximum recommendation.
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
“However, in recent years the country’s addiction to caffeine has grown both in
portion size and means of consumption. Consumers no longer have to down twenty
ounces of Starbucks or sixty-four ounces of soda to get an energy high.”
Unconventional products, such as 5-hour energy drinks and stimulant-laced gum
have meet caffeine, America’s most marketable legal drug.
“Because the work is competitive in America and we are working really long hours.
People are chronically sleep-deprived also, so they’re reaching for stimulants to get them
through a day.”
Amid on-going economic instability, US energy drink sales increase more than
30 percent between 2010 and 2011. The newest stimulant hitting the market is a slim
plastic inhaler called AeroShot. Each squeeze dispenses around forty milligrams of
caffeine in your mouth.
“The number one country ordering AeroShot is America. It is the caffeine....em...
nation, we are on caffeinated generation. Em.... I think Americans particular are looking
for new eyes to pursue their caffeine.”
Meanwhile multi-taskers feeling for the biggest serving are turning to product called
5150 juice. One gallon contains 64,000 mg of caffeine. The equivalence of four hundred
Red Bulls.
“The whole objective for food corporation is to create repeat customers, to get
people addicted to the products. Caffeine is clearly addictive substance. And by creating
all these products, there are definitely appealing to a wide range of consumers and
feeding into the larger problem which is, you know, caffeine over consumption of
caffeine.”
While going after new consumers, one US company created national controversy by
packaging caffeine and liquor together.
“Get another crazy about that, can we took two legal products that Americans love
and combine them, caffeine and a bottle of alcohol.”
Heavily marketed among college students, it turned out to be a deadly mix.
“One family in Florida who say four locals kill their son.”
“Police say dozes of students have been sent to the hospital from these drinks.”
Amid lawsuits, mounting criticism and eventually a federal ban, the company
subsequently removed caffeine from the drink. But the national demand for the natural
stimulant remains uncompromised with more and more Americans looking for their
legal high.
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LECTURE WATCHING
Jackie Savitz: Save the Oceans, Feed the World
You may be wondering why a marine biologist from Oceana would come here today
to talk to you about world hunger. I’m here today because saving the oceans is more
than an ecological desire. It’s more than a thing we’re doing because we want to create
jobs for fishermen or preserve fishermen’s jobs. It’s more than an economic pursuit.
Saving the oceans can feed the world. Let me show you how.
As you know, there are already more than a billion hungry people on this planet.
We’re expecting that problem to get worse as world population grows to nine billion
or 10 billion by midcentury, and we can expect to have greater pressure on our food
resources. And this is a big concern, especially considering where we are now. Now we
know that our arable land per capita is already on the decline in both developed and
developing countries. We know that we’re headed for climate change, which is going to
change rainfall patterns, making some areas drier, as you can see in orange, and others
wetter, in blue, causing droughts in our breadbaskets, in places like the Midwest and
Central Europe, and floods in others. It’s going to make it harder for the land to help us
solve the hunger problem. And that’s why the oceans need to be their most abundant,
so that the oceans can provide us as much food as possible.
And that’s something the oceans have been doing for us for a long time. As far back
as we can go, we’ve seen an increase in the amount of food we’ve been able to harvest
from our oceans. It just seemed like it was continuing to increase, until about 1980,
when we started to see a decline. You’ve heard of peak oil. Maybe this is peak fish. I
hope not. I’m going to come back to that. But you can see about an 18-percent decline
in the amount of fish we’ve gotten in our world catch since 1980. And this is a big
problem. It’s continuing. This red line is continuing to go down.
But we know how to turn it around, and that’s what I’m going to talk about today.
We know how to turn that curve back upwards. This doesn’t have to be peak fish. If we
do a few simple things in targeted places, we can bring our fisheries back and use them
to feed people.
First we want to know where the fish are, so let’s look where the fish are. It turns
out the fish, conveniently, are located for the most part in our coastal areas of the
countries, in coastal zones, and these are areas that national jurisdictions have control
over, and they can manage their fisheries in these coastal areas. Coastal countries tend to
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
have jurisdictions that go out about 200 nautical miles, in areas that are called exclusive
economic zones, and this is a good thing that they can control their fisheries in these
areas, because the high seas, which are the darker areas on this map, the high seas, it’s
a lot harder to control things, because it has to be done internationally. You get into
international agreements, and if any of you are tracking the climate change agreement,
you know this can be a very slow, frustrating, tedious process. And so controlling things
nationally is a great thing to be able to do.
How many fish are actually in these coastal areas compared to the high seas? Well,
you can see here about seven times as many fish in the coastal areas than there are in
the high seas, so this is a perfect place for us to be focusing, because we can actually get
a lot done. We can restore a lot of our fisheries if we focus in these coastal areas.
But how many of these countries do we have to work in? There’s something like
80 coastal countries. Do we have to fix fisheries management in all of those countries?
So we asked ourselves, how many countries do we need to focus on, keeping in mind
that the European Union conveniently manages its fisheries through a common fisheries
policy? So if we got good fisheries management in the European Union and, say, nine
other countries, how much of our fisheries would we be covering? Turns out, the
European Union plus nine countries covers about two thirds of the world’s fish catch.
If we took it up to 24 countries plus the European Union, we would up to 90 percent,
almost all of the world’s fish catch. So we think we can work in a limited number of
places to make the fisheries come back. But what do we have to do in these places? Well,
based on our work in the United States and elsewhere, we know that there are three
key things we have to do to bring fisheries back, and they are: We need to set quotas
or limits on how much we take; we need to reduce bycatch, which is the accidental
catching and killing of fish that we’re not targeting, and it’s very wasteful; and three,
we need to protect habitats, the nursery areas, the spawning areas that these fish need
to grow and reproduce successfully so that they can rebuild their populations. If we do
those three things, we know the fisheries will come back.
How do we know? We know because we’ve seen it happening in a lot of different
places. This is a slide that shows the herring population in Norway that was crashing
since the 1950s. It was coming down, and when Norway set limits, or quotas, on its
fishery, what happens? The fishery comes back. This is another example, also happens
to be from Norway, of the Norwegian Arctic cod. Same deal. The fishery is crashing.
They set limits on discards. Discards are these fish they weren’t targeting and they get
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thrown overboard wastefully. When they set the discard limit, the fishery came back.
And it’s not just in Norway. We’ve seen this happening in countries all around the world,
time and time again. When these countries step in and they put in sustainable fisheries
management policies, the fisheries, which are always crashing, it seems, are starting to
come back. So there’s a lot of promise here.
What does this mean for the world fish catch? This means that if we take that
fishery catch that’s on the decline and we could turn it upwards, we could increase it
up to 100 million metric tons per year. So we didn’t have peak fish yet. We still have an
opportunity to not only bring the fish back but to actually get more fish that can feed
more people than we currently are now. How many more? Right about now, we can feed
about 450 million people a fish meal a day based on the current world fish catch, which,
of course, you know is going down, so that number will go down over time if we don’t
fix it, but if we put fishery management practices like the ones I’ve described in place
in 10 to 25 countries, we could bring that number up and feed as many as 700 million
people a year a healthy fish meal.
We should obviously do this just because it’s a good thing to deal with the hunger
problem, but it’s also cost-effective. It turns out fish is the most cost-effective protein on
the planet. If you look at how much fish protein you get per dollar invested compared
to all of the other animal proteins, obviously, fish is a good business decision. It also
doesn’t need a lot of land, something that’s in short supply, compared to other protein
sources. And it doesn’t need a lot of fresh water. It uses a lot less fresh water than, for
example, cattle, where you have to irrigate a field so that you can grow the food to graze
the cattle. It also has a very low carbon footprint. It has a little bit of a carbon footprint
because we do have to get out and catch the fish. It takes a little bit of fuel, but as you
know, agriculture can have a carbon footprint, and fish has a much smaller one, so it’s
less polluting. It’s already a big part of our diet, but it can be a bigger part of our diet,
which is a good thing, because we know that it’s healthy for us. It can reduce our risks of
cancer, heart disease and obesity. In fact, our CEO Andy Sharpless, who is the originator
of this concept, actually, he likes to say fish is the perfect protein. Andy also talks about
the fact that our ocean conservation movement really grew out of the land conservation
movement, and in land conservation, we have this problem where biodiversity is at war
with food production. You have to cut down the biodiverse forest if you want to get the
field to grow the corn to feed people with, and so there’s a constant push-pull there.
There’s a constant tough decision that has to be made between two very important
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things: maintaining biodiversity and feeding people. But in the oceans, we don’t have
that war. In the oceans, biodiversity is not at war with abundance. In fact, they’re
aligned. When we do things that produce biodiversity, we actually get more abundance,
and that’s important so that we can feed people.
Now, there’s a catch.
Didn’t anyone get that? (Laughter)
Illegal fishing. Illegal fishing undermines the type of sustainable fisheries
management I’m talking about. It can be when you catch fish using gears that have been
prohibited, when you fish in places where you’re not supposed to fish, you catch fish
that are the wrong size or the wrong species. Illegal fishing cheats the consumer and
it also cheats honest fishermen, and it needs to stop. The way illegal fish get into our
market is through seafood fraud. You might have heard about this. It’s when fish are
labeled as something they’re not. Think about the last time you had fish. What were you
eating? Are you sure that’s what it was? Because we tested 1,300 different fish samples
and about a third of them were not what they were labeled to be. Snappers, nine out of
10 snappers were not snapper. Fifty-nine percent of the tuna we tested was mislabeled.
And red snapper, we tested 120 samples, and only seven of them were really red
snapper, so good luck finding a red snapper.
Seafood has a really complex supply chain, and at every step in this supply chain,
there’s an opportunity for seafood fraud, unless we have traceability. Traceability is a
way where the seafood industry can track the seafood from the boat to the plate to make
sure that the consumer can then find out where their seafood came from.
This is a really important thing. It’s being done by some in the industry, but not
enough, so we’re pushing a law in Congress called the SAFE Seafood Act, and I’m very
excited today to announce the release of a chef ’s petition, where 450 chefs have signed
a petition calling on Congress to support the SAFE Seafood Act. It has a lot of celebrity
chefs you may know—Anthony Bourdain, Mario Batali, Barton Seaver and others—and
they’ve signed it because they believe that people have a right to know about what they’re
eating.
(Applause)
Fishermen like it too, so there’s a good chance we can get the kind of support we
need to get this bill through, and it comes at a critical time, because this is the way we
stop seafood fraud, this is the way we curb illegal fishing, and this is the way we make
sure that quotas, habitat protection, and bycatch reductions can do the jobs they can do.
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We know that we can manage our fisheries sustainably. We know that we can
produce healthy meals for hundreds of millions of people that don’t use the land, that
don’t use much water, have a low carbon footprint, and are cost-effective. We know that
saving the oceans can feed the world, and we need to start now.
(Applause)
Thank you. (Applause)
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Liz: I didn’t exactly fall in love with the guy. What happened was I dove out of
my marriage and into David’s arms… exactly the same way a cartoon circus
performer…dives off a high platform and into a small cup of water…vanishing
completely.
David: Your underwear, my queen.
Liz: He just folded my delicates.
Woman: Oh my god, baby. You are in so much trouble.
…
Stephen: Thirty-six? My client is simply not interested in a divorce.
Lawyer: Is he serious? Is he really representing himself?
Stephen: One semester of law school right here, baby.
Liz: Great. Well, what would it take to interest your client?
Stephen: OK. So, here is the deal. You have screwed up my life, but what I really want
to know is why couldn’t you go off and find yourself in our marriage? Why
didn’t you just say what you were thinking or feeling?
Liz: I did. You never listened to me.
Stephen: No, no, no, no. You never say, hey, you know what? You suck. I am deeply
unhappy. You just took off. You never gave me a chance to address any of
those problems. That’s not fair. That’s just quitting. I took vows. Till death.
And I take them seriously. I believe this is just a phase for you and I’m willing
to wait it out.
Liz: You are always waiting, Stephen. Waiting for me to come home, to wanna have
kids…to make you some great dinner. I don’t know why we can’t just accept
that we don’t wanna live in unhappiness anymore.
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Stephen: OK, I accept the fact that I am occasionally unreliable, and that I often get
sidetracked, but I thought you liked that about me. I thought it was OK that I
had hopes and dreams.
Liz: Have a dream, Stephen. Great. Fine. Do that. Just pick one.
Stephen: OK, I pick one. I pick you.
Liz: I know this is awful. But I believe with every molecule of my body that you
will find the person that just wants what you want. That will give you what
you want and what you deserve. I’m not her.
Stephen: Well, you obviously know nothing about what I want. My client would like to
submit a song he wrote that he believes is relevant to these proceedings. It
goes something like this…
Liz: Are you kidding?
Stephen: Quitter, quitter, quitter!
Liz: All right. How about I take the blame? I am the one who couldn’t deal with
another weekend roaming some box-shaped superstore buying appliances on
credit and pretending to be a couple that neither one of us ever know how to
be.
Stephen: You wanted that toaster.
Liz: You like faking it, fine. You’re stellar. I’m the failure. I suck at faking it. It was
not my finest hour.
Woman: So, where do things stand now?
Lawyer: We’re prepared to offer half of everything, including the house and my client’s
retirement accounts.
Liz: Take it all then, everything. He still said no. He hates me now.
David: He doesn’t hate you. His heart is broken.
Clip # 2
Richard: Come here. Here is the deal. You’re gonna stay here till you forgive yourself.
You hear me? Everything else will take care of itself.
Liz: Is this where you forgave yourself?
Richard: I’m trying, Elizabeth. I am trying.
Stephen: Hey. I believe this is the song they were supposed to play at our wedding.
Liz: I did love you, Stephen.
Stephen: I know. But I still love you.
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Liz: So love me.
Stephen: But I miss you.
Liz: So miss me. Send me love and light every time you think of me, then drop it. I
won’t last forever. Nothing does.
…
Richard: Bye-bye. (Goodbye Mr. Richard). I’ll see you.
Liz: Now that you are going. Who is gonna kick me ass every day?
Richard: Oh, I’d stay till a monsoon swept me away if I could. Bye-bye.
Liz: But you’ve got bills to pay and houses to build.
Richard: You just keep doing the work and move on with your life, will you?
Liz: The man is getting on a plane and you are still bossing me. I’ve got your
whole lists: move on, use mosquito repellent and… I don’t know. There were
some other things. I wrote them down. Go back to Texas, Richard.
Richard: Well, I ain’t getting any prettier standing here. So I’m off. Hey Groceries.
Believe in love again.
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
Section 2: Food & Obesity
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Drive across America, and you’ll see one fast-food restaurant after another:
McDonald’s, Burger King, Sonic, Taco Bell, KFC, Wendy’s, Hardee’s, Long John Silver’s,
Dairy Queen, Arby’s, Jack in the Box, Popeyes, Subway, Domino’s Pizza, Whataburger.
There’s even a chain that’s aptly named “Fatburger.”
Though some of these fast food places now offer a few low-fat items, the big sales
and profits are in hamburgers, French fries, milkshakes, fried chicken, and greasy pizza —
the very things that the U.S. Surgeon General says are fueling America’s obesity
epidemic. And instead of coming up with restaurants that offer nourishing, expertly
prepared, low-fat meals, competitors to fast-food joints seem to be serving items that are
even more caloric.
Take Cracker Barrel, a chain of 600 restaurants located mostly near interstate
highway exits, whose founder, Dan Evins, died last week. Cracker Barrel gained a loyal
following by serving tasty—but fattening—fare such as biscuits and gravy, muffins, and
country-fried steak. Some entrepreneurs have opened restaurants serving slimming
broiled fish, steamed veggies and the like. And most have gone bankrupt trying. That’s
because the ingredients and technology to mass-produce nutritious food are much more
costly, and it’s hard to find low-paid line cooks who can quickly prepare low-fat, but
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yummy and interesting dishes. And these places fail because—although most Americans
say they want lower-fat meals—they won’t order them when they’re offered.
Some experts believe chains serving healthful fast food will evolve once costs come
down or Americans get used to the idea of ordering, and paying a bit more for, a quick
lentil burger and salad instead of a cheeseburger and fries on the road. But so far, there’s
little evidence that such a fast-but-light food trend has started.
VIDEO WATCHING
Reporter 1: A recent study shows that nearly 6 million children in this country suffer
from food allergies. They can be life threatening. The reactions can vary,
and vary widely. But you got the story of one little boy in a family. This boy
can only eat four foods?
Reporter 2: Oh, it’s just so sad. I’m thinking about this. You and I have 5 sons between
us. What does every mother love? To feed their child. Imagine that if there
are only five foods you can feed that child, you have to watch vigilantly
everything that child is eating, because literally, one wrong bite could land
him in the ER.
Reporter 2: What color is that one?
Landon: That’s a blue digger.
Reporter 2: That’s right.
Landon: That’s a school bus.
Reporter 2: 2-year-old Landon shows his love to imaginary play with his toy trucks. And
he play kitchen. The food Landon pretends to eat may be the closest thing
he gets to eating real food. Because Landon’s body react so violently to
certain foods. There are literally only four things on the planet Landon can
eat safely.
Reporter 2: That’s Landon’s corner.
Mother: Yes, it is.
Reporter 2: So what does Landon have for breakfast?
Mother: He wakes up and he has a 6-oz bottle and he has his yogurt, and we do
strawberry, blueberry and grapes. That’s pretty much what he eats in the
morning, afternoon and in the evening.
Reporter 2: That’s it, and avocado. Those four foods. He used to eat a much wider
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menu, but it kept leading horrible to what looks like a stomach bug. So bad
in fact, he wind up in hospital with dehydration.
Mother: There are things we’ve never seen before came out of a child. They are very
scary. And he starts having a diarrhea, sometimes he will start vomiting as
well. And then he will become life lessen, going to shock.
Reporter 2: In fact, Landon has been hospitalized three times with his mysterious
symptom. He saw 9 different doctors until one finally diagnosed with
FPIES, Food Protein Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome. It’s a rare food
allergy, which unlike most of allergies, doesn’t produce hives for trouble
breathing. And it doesn’t respond to skin test or antihistamines. What’s
more, Landon is a rare case of a rare disease.
Professor: Some children have the same severe reaction, but they don’t have nearly
as many foods. He did have a trial with sweet potatoes and he ended up in
hospital for five days.
Reporter 2: Since then, Landon has had 27 different foods taken off his plate. From
broccoli, to beef, barley, even olive oil. What did he ask for that he can’t
have?
Father: Chicken, sweet potatoes, apples.
Reporter 2: The extreme restrictions dredge the limits of creativity. There’s a lot of
chopping, blending, and shaving. These icy concoctions help dress up
Landon’s four allowable foods into different meals each day.
Mother: Ice is an extra special treat for Landon. We have a snowcap machine. Do you
want to press the button?
Father: We can have the flavors, you know, that add to traditional snowcap. We peel
off strawberries, blueberries.
Landon: That’s mine.
Reporter 2: But that’s about it. Which is why playing with food or even shopping for it
is an act for hope.
Father: Is Landon allowed to eat those?
Landon: No.
Mother: What about oranges? Do you eat oranges?
Landon: No.
Mother: What about lemons?
Landon: No.
Mother: Wait, what’s here?
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Landon: Blueberry!
Mother: Eat some blueberries. Yummy! It’s a big thing for us to make sure that he’s
not afraid of food. So, if we can set some limits that are safe but also
introduce foods to him, or expose him to foods, then maybe one day, if he’s
gonna get better, we won’t have a really hard time getting him to eat.
Professor: We will have them introduce foods after a period of avoiding the food. For
kids like Landon which have terrible terrible reactions we often may have
them wait three years, four years.
Reporter 2: There is no cure. But maybe, just maybe, Landon might out go this disease.
But until then, he gets hypoallergenic yogurt and waits. Cheers! Nice! Such
a small child but huge personality. We just spoke to Landon’s parents last
night and he’s gone from four foods to five. He added salmon. And it takes
two weeks, two and a half weeks, to give him a tablespoon a day to make
sure he doesn’t reject it. So they are celebrating and they think if he’s lucky,
they would be able to add coconut to his diet, which will be the sixth food,
exactly.
Reporter 1: How did they decide which food to add?
Reporter 2: They add more slightly the hypoallergenic ones. But they are all celebrating
by going to the first ever FPIES’s workshop in Chicago in the July. So they
are thrilled.
Reporter 1: That’s so great! What an adorable little boy! I’m never gonna to complain
about my young’s eating habits.
Report 2: No, they can eat whatever they want.
Reporter 1: Thanks so much, Juju.
LECTURE WATCHING
A Vision for Sustainable Restaurants
Restaurants and the food industry in general are pretty much the most wasteful
industry in the world. For every calorie of food that we consume here in Britain today, 10
calories are taken to produce it. That’s a lot. I want to take something rather humble to
discuss. I found this in the farmers’ market today, and if anybody wants to take it home
and mash it later, you’re very welcome to. The humble potato—and I’ve spent a long
time, 25 years, preparing these. And it pretty much goes through eight different forms
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
in its lifetime. First of all, it’s planted, and that takes energy. It grows and is nurtured.
It’s then harvested. It’s then distributed, and distribution is a massive issue. It’s
then sold and bought, and it’s then delivered to me. I basically take it, prepare it, and
then people consume it—hopefully they enjoy it. The last stage is basically waste, and
this is pretty much where everybody disregards it. There are different types of waste.
There’s a waste of time; there’s a waste of space; there’s a waste of energy; and there’s
a waste of waste. And every business I’ve been working on over the past five years, I’m
trying to lower each one of these elements.
Okay, so you ask what a sustainable restaurant looks like. Basically a restaurant
looks like just any other. This is the restaurant, Acorn House. Front and back. So let
me run you through a few ideas. Floor: sustainable, recyclable. Chairs: recycled and
recyclable. Tables: Forestry Commission. This is Norwegian Forestry Commission wood.
This bench, although it was uncomfortable for my mom—she didn’t like sitting on it,
so she went and bought these cushions for me from a local jumble sale—reusing, a job
that was pretty good. I hate waste, especially walls. If they’re not working, put a shelf
on it, which I did, and that shows all the customers my products. The whole business is
run on sustainable energy. This is powered by wind. All of the lights are daylight bulbs.
Paint is all low-volume chemical, which is very important when you’re working in the
room all the time. I was experimenting with these—I don’t know if you can see it—but
there’s a work surface there. And that’s a plastic polymer. And I was thinking, well I’
m trying to think nature, nature, nature. But I thought, no, no, experiment with resins,
experiment with polymers. Will they outlive me? They probably might. Right, here’s a
reconditioned coffee machine. It actually looks better than a brand new one—so looking
good there. Now reusing is vital. And we filter our own water. We put them in bottles,
refrigerate them, and then we reuse that bottle again and again and again. Here’s a great
little example. If you can see this orange tree, it’s actually growing in a car tire, which
has been turned inside out and sewn up. It’s got my compost in it, which is growing an
orange tree, which is great.
This is the kitchen, which is in the same room. I basically created a menu that
allowed people to choose the amount and volume of food that they wanted to consume.
Rather than me putting a dish down, they were allowed to help themselves to as much
or as little as they wanted. Okay, it’s a small kitchen. It’s about five square meters. It
serves 220 people a day. We generate quite a lot of waste. This is the waste room. You
can’t get rid of waste. But this story’s not about eliminating it, it’s about minimizing it.
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In here, I have produce and boxes that are unavoidable. I put my food waste into this
dehydrating, desiccating macerator—turns food into an inner material, which I can store
and then compost later.
I compost it in this garden. All of the soil you can see there is basically my food,
which is generated by the restaurant, and it’s growing in these tubs, which I made out
of storm-felled trees and wine casks and all kinds of things. Three compost bins—go
through about 70 kilos of raw vegetable waste a week—really good, makes fantastic
compost. A couple of wormeries in there too. And actually one of the wormeries was a
big wormery. I had a lot of worms in it. And I tried taking the dried food waste, putting
it to the worms, going, “There you go, dinner.” It was like vegetable jerky, and killed all
of them. I don’t know how many worms [were] in there, but I’ve got some heavy karma
coming, I tell you. (Laughter) What you’re seeing here is a water filtration system. This
takes the water out of the restaurant, runs it through these stone beds—this is going to
be mint in there—and I sort of water the garden with it. And I ultimately want to recycle
that, put it back into the loos, maybe wash hands with it, I don’t know.
So, water is a very important aspect. I started meditating on that and created a
restaurant called Waterhouse. If I could get Waterhouse to be a no-carbon restaurant
that is consuming no gas to start with, that would be great. I managed to do it. This
restaurant looks a little bit like Acorn House—same chairs, same tables. They’re all
English and a little bit more sustainable. But this is an electrical restaurant. The whole
thing is electric, the restaurant and the kitchen. And it’s run on hydroelectricity, so
I’ve gone from air to water. Now it’s important to understand that this room is cooled
by water, heated by water, filters its own water, and it’s powered by water. It literally is
Waterhouse. The air handling system inside it—I got rid of air-conditioning because I
thought there was too much consumption going on there. This is basically air-handling.
I’m taking the temperature of the canal outside, pumping it through the heat exchange
mechanism, it’s turning through these amazing sails on the roof, and that, in turn, is
falling softly onto the people in the restaurant, cooling them, or heating them, as the
need may be. And this is an English willow air diffuser, and that’s softly moving that air
current through the room. Very advanced, no air-conditioning—I love it. In the canal,
which is just outside the restaurant, there is hundreds of meters of coil piping. This
takes the temperature of the canal and turns it into this four-degrees of heat exchange.
I have no idea how it works, but I paid a lot of money for it. (Laughter) And what’s
great is one of the chefs who works in that restaurant lives on this boat—it’s off-grid; it
generates all its own power. He’s growing all his own fruit, and that’s fantastic.
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
There’s no accident in names of these restaurants. Acorn House is the element
of wood; Waterhouse is the element of water; and I’m thinking, well, I’m going to be
making five restaurants based on the five Chinese medicine acupuncture specialties.
I’ve got water and wood. I’m just about to do fire. I’ve got metal and earth to come.
So you’ve got to watch your space for that. Okay. So this is my next project. Five weeks
old, it’s my baby, and it’s hurting real bad. The People’s Supermarket. So basically,
the restaurants only really hit people who believed in what I was doing anyway. What
I needed to do was get food out to a broader spectrum of people. So people—i.e.,
perhaps, more working-class—or perhaps people who actually believe in a cooperative.
This is a social enterprise, not-for-profit cooperative supermarket. It really is about the
social disconnect between food, communities in urban settings and their relationship to
rural growers—connecting communities in London to rural growers. Really important.
So I’m committing to potatoes; I’m committing to milk; I’m committing to leeks and
broccoli—all very important stuff. I’ve kept the tiles; I’ve kept the floors; I’ve kept the
trunking; I’ve got in some recycled fridges; I’ve got some recycled tills; I’ve got some
recycled trolleys. I mean, the whole thing is super-sustainable. In fact, I’m trying and
I’m going to make this the most sustainable supermarket in the world. That’s zero food
waste. And no one’s doing that just yet. In fact, Sainsbury’s, if you’re watching, let’s have
a go. Try it on. I’m going to get there before you.
So nature doesn’t create waste as such. Everything in nature is used up in a closed
continuous cycle with waste being the end of the beginning, and that’s been something
that’s been nurturing me for some time, and it’s an important statement to understand.
If we don’t stand up and make a difference and think about sustainable food, think
about the sustainable nature of it, then we may fail. But, I wanted to get up and show
you that we can do it if we’re more responsible. Environmentally conscious businesses
are doable. They’re here. You can see I’ve done three so far; I’ve got a few more to go.
The idea is embryonic. I think it’s important. I think that if we reduce, reuse, refuse and
recycle—right at the end there—recycling is the last point I want to make; but it’s the
four R’s, rather than the three R’s—then I think we’re going to be on our way. So these
three are not perfect—they’re ideas. I think that there are many problems to come, but
with help, I’m sure I’m going to find solutions. And I hope you all take part.
Thank you very much. (Applause)
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MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Jimmy: Most of us can’t get inside a food factory, but if you could, you wouldn’t see
much, just miles of pipes and stainless steel vats. I am going to take it back to
basics to find out what they are really doing to our food. Inside this barn I’ve
set up my very own food factory. The inside of the barn may look like it’s full
of farmyard junk, but it’s got everything I need to reveal the secrets inside
supermarket food.
Jimmy: Cornflakes—the instant breakfast. Simply open the pack and pour. We take
them for granted and they stay fresh for ages. Cornflakes were only invented
100 years ago. Someone had to discover a recipe. It’s weird, but what I found
out is that to make cornflakes, they have to take out a whole load of goodness
and then artificially stuff it back in. if I make my own cornflakes here in the
barn, we’ll see exactly why it’s so important to do this.
Jimmy: This is the starting place of cornflakes. They are made from maize, which is
more commonly known as corn. If I pull back the leaves on this here, I can
expose these hard, yellow kernels. If I wanted to eat this, I’d have to pick it
fresh and cook it. But for breakfast, we want something that is quick and easy
and that can be stored in our cupboards for weeks.
Jimmy: These are dry corn kernels. The first important secret to making a cornflake is
what not to use. The kernel contains a tiny germ which is the seed. While it’s
growing, it feeds off all the starchy material inside. The outer layer is the bran.
For cornflakes, we don’t want the bran. That’s the thing that help you become
quite regular on the toilet. The bran would spoil the cornflake’s texture. The
next thing to get rid of is the germ. In here are all the vitamins and the proteins,
so we don’t want that. Yes, that’s right. Even though the germ is full of nutrition,
I have to take all of it out. This is because, over time, the oils will go rancid and
spoil the cornflakes in the box. What I’m left with now is, basically, starchy hard
material. This is the bit that we are going to turn into our cornflakes. So, the
only thing you need to make a cornflake, is the pure starch from the kernel. It
would take ages to take the starch by hand. So I’m going to knock up something
that will hopefully let me do it quicker.
Jimmy: I need to build something that can separate the different parts—the germ, the
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
bran and the all-important starch. This is pretty wild, this. Right, well that seems
to have done the trick. Let’s have a look what’s happened. So there’s my bits
of bran. That’s separated out lovely. What have I got here? Little bits of germ
here. And these are the bits that I want. This is what I’m going to turn into my
cornflakes—these little bits of starchy here which are called grits.
Jimmy: I have been grinding my corn for almost an hour and I haven’t got even enough
to make a spoonful of cornflakes. So, I’m going to switch to Plan B and use
some prepared corn grits. That’s about right. But starch is pretty tasteless. So
before I cook them, I have to add a bit of flavoring. This is malt syrup. Good job.
I don’t have to do this every single morning for breakfast. There we are. The
grits are so hard, we have to cook them in a pressure cooker. The factory heat
them under very high pressure for 90 minutes. So I’m going to do the same. It’s
gonna be a while before my cornflakes are ready for milk and sugar.
Clip # 2
Jimmy: I’ve got two of these. These are two liters, aren’t they?
Man 1: Yeah. Right.
Jimmy: How many of these do you reckon the average cow produces a day?
Man 1: The average cow?
Jimmy: The average cow. Think of Daisy in a shed, milking away. How many of these
is she going to churn out?
Man 2: Probably 50.
Jimmy: 50! I wouldn’t mind a cow like that. It would be brilliant.
Man 1: 20 odd.
Woman 1: We think four.
Jimmy: Four?
Man 3: Probably six.
Jimmy: Six? That’s not bad.
Jimmy: It’s actually 10. These are two liters.
Man 1: Two liters of this a day.
Jimmy: So, the average is 20 liters a day. That’s quite a lot.
Man 1: I don’t know that.
Jimmy: As a farmer, I think it’s important to keep farm animals happy. I’m concerned
about the pressures put on dairy cows to produce 20 liters of milk a day. I
was astonished to discover that robots may come to the help of cows.
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Section 3: Food, the Flavour of Life
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Rob: Hello, I’m Rob. With me today is Finn. Hello, Finn.
Finn: Hi Rob!
Rob: In this programme we’re going to be talking about food banks in the UK.
Finn: Em, Yes, food banks. But what exactly are they?
Rob: Well, you can find them all over the country nowadays. They’re part of a
system where people who are struggling financially are given free food to
cook or eat which other people have donated or given for free.
Finn: We mean that people in modern-day Britain are so hard-up—that means
they’ve got so little money that they can’t afford to buy their own food? It
does seem extraordinary, doesn’t it?
Rob: Yeah, it does. Well, today’s question is about the people who use the food
banks. So Finn, do you know how many British people are estimated to
have used them? Is it a) 15,000, b) 240,000, or c) 500,000?
Finn: I’ll say 240,000, Rob.
Rob: Well, we’ll see if you’re right at the end of the programme. Let’s talk now
about why food banks have opened up in the UK.
Finn: Yes, well, I suppose one place to start is the financial crisis of 2008 which
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
made a lot of people redundant—that means they were asked to leave
their jobs by their companies—so they became unemployed.
Rob: Then there were the cuts to the welfare system in 2013 which added to
the problem.
Finn: Rising food prices themselves are another reason. And heating bills in
the winter can be expensive. And people fall into debt. You know, lots of
things.
Rob: A nd remember that it’s not just unemployment, Finn, but underemployment, too. There are some people on what is called zero-hours
contracts and doing part-time work and they don’t earn enough money to
buy some of the essential things in life.
Finn: Em, so there really are a lot of different factors, aren’t there.
Rob: Well, let’s listen to Steph Hagen as she explains how her food bank in
Nottingham works. She uses an expression that means “unlimited access.”
Steph Hagen: People do not go to a food bank because it’s an open door, it’s an open
shop. It’s a case of they go to it because they need to. And also with our
food bank—we are an independent one, and we have limited stocks—so
everybody who comes through our door has no income whatsoever.
Finn: She said “open door.” This means unlimited access.
Rob: And she said she had “limited stocks.” This means “a shortage of goods”—
there’s not enough food for everybody.
Finn: Em, but Rob, surely this food bank system is open to abuse as well? What’s
to stop anyone just turning up and asking for food?
Rob: Well, there are checks in place and there’s a system of referrals. If a doctor
or a social worker thinks someone needs to use a food bank—even for
a short time—they can give them vouchers. Then they take the vouchers
along to the food bank and they get handouts for three days.
Finn: Em, right. So, I see. I’ve heard that everything in food banks is donated—
that means it’s given for free. And churches and individual donors are the
people who provide most of it.
VIDEO WATCHING
A new study finds that healthy foods are three times more expensive than unhealthy
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food. You know what, screw this, I’m going to McDonalds.
Hey guys, Tara here for Dnews—and I don’t know about you guys, but one of the
excuses people always love to give for eating like crap, is that it’s more expensive to eat
healthy than it is to eat unhealthy. Naturally, I assumed it was just that—an excuse. But
apparently, it’s actually true—and according to a new study out of the UK, healthy food
is three times more expensive per calories than less healthy foods. Who knew?
This was a study published recently in PLOS One, that tracked the prices of 94 key
food and beverage items from 2002 to 2012. Now to clarify, these are foods you would
find at any supermarket—so we’re not talking about McDonalds or Taco Bell here,
which are definitely more expensive. These are foods specifically used by the UK’s Office
of National Statistics, to measure the rate of inflation year over year.
Researchers matched the prices of those foods, with their caloric content—and
classified them as either healthy or unhealthy, based on their nutritional value.
What they found, is that not only have the prices of food risen in the UK faster than
the price of other goods, healthy foods specifically have experienced a much sharper
price hike in recent years: about $2.95 for every thousand calories of food, compared to
unhealthy foods which have only risen $1.17 in the same amount of time. So each year,
healthy foods are getting progressively more expensive. And studies from other highincome nations have found similar results.
Obviously, for countries with obesity epidemics, like the US and especially the UK,
where obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths, it’s important that
people realize the effects of unhealthy eating. According to the National Health Service,
diet-related health problems cost an estimated 9 trillion dollars every single year.
But for households that are straddling the poverty line, it can be difficult to
convince people that spending more money now on eating healthy, will actually pay off
in the long run.
So the researchers in this study, are calling on public health officials to address the
rising prices of healthy foods, in hopes that they’ll regulate them—and provide subsidies
to those in need—for the good of the nation’s health.
What do you guys think? Especially those of you on a tight budget—does the price
of food influence how healthy you eat? Let us know your thoughts in the comments
below—and as always, thank you guys for watching!
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
LECTURE WATCHING
Sadly, in the next 18 minutes when I do our chat, four Americans that are alive will
be dead through the food that they eat.
My name’s Jamie Oliver. I’m 34 years old. I’m from Essex in England and for the last
seven years I’ve worked fairly tirelessly to save lives in my own way. I’m not a doctor; I’m
a chef. I don’t have expensive equipment or medicine. I use information, education.
I profoundly believe that the power of food has a primal place in our homes that
binds us to the best bits of life. We have an awful, awful reality right now. America, you’re
at the top of your game. This is one of the most unhealthy countries in the world.
Can I please just see a raise of hands for how many of you have, have children in
this room today? Please put your hands up. Aunties and uncles, you can continue to
put your hands up, aunties and uncles as well. Most of you. OK. We, the adults of the
last four generations, have blessed our children with the destiny of a shorter lifespan
than their own parents. Your child will live a life ten years younger than you because of
the landscape of food that we’ve built around them. Two-thirds of this room, today, in
America, are statistically overweight or obese. You lot, you’re all right, but we’ll get you
eventually, don’t worry, right?
The statistics of bad health are clear, very clear. We spend our lives being paranoid
about death, murder, homicide, you name it; it’s on the front page of every paper, CNN.
Look at homicide at the bottom, for God’s sake. Right?
Every single one of those ones in the red is a diet-related disease. Any doctor, any
specialist will tell you that. Fact: diet-related disease is the biggest killer in the United
States, right now, here today. This is a global problem. It’s a catastrophe. It’s sweeping
the world. England is right behind you, as usual.
I know they were close, but not that close. We need a revolution. Mexico, Australia,
Germany, India, China, all have massive problems of obesity and bad health. Think about
smoking. It costs way less than obesity now. Obesity costs you Americans 10 percent
of your health-care bills, 150 billion dollars a year. In 10 years, it’s set to double: 300
billion dollars a year. Let’s be honest, guys, you haven’t got that cash.
I came here to start a food revolution that I so profoundly believe in. We need it. The
time is now. We’re in a tipping-point moment. I’ve been doing this for seven years. I’ve
been trying in America for seven years. Now it’s the time when it’s ripe—ripe for the
picking. I went to the eye of the storm. I went to West Virginia, the most unhealthy state
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in America. Or it was last year. We’ve got a new one this year, but we’ll work on that next
season.
Huntington, West Virginia. Beautiful town. I wanted to put heart and soul and
people, your public, around the statistics that we’ve become so used to. I want to
introduce you to some of the people that I care about: your public, your children. I want
to show a picture of my friend Brittany. She’s 16 years old. She’s got six years to live
because of the food that she’s eaten. She’s the third generation of Americans that hasn’t
grown up within a food environment where they’ve been taught to cook at home or in
school, or her mom, or her mom’s mom. She has six years to live. She’s eating her liver
to death.
Stacy, the Edwards family. This is a normal family, guys. Stacy does her best, but
she’s third-generation as well; she was never taught to cook at home or at school. The
family’s obese. Justin here, 12 years old, he’s 350 pounds. He gets bullied, for God’s
sake. The daughter there, Katie, she’s four years old. She’s obese before she even gets to
primary school. Marissa, she’s all right, she’s one of your lot. But you know what? Her
father, who was obese, died in her arms, And then the second most important man in
her life, her uncle, died of obesity, and now her step-dad is obese. You see, the thing is,
obesity and diet-related disease doesn’t just hurt the people that have it; it’s all of their
friends, families, brothers, sisters.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Remy: This is me. I think it’s apparent I need to rethink my life a little bit. What’s my
problem? First of all, I’m a rat, which means life is hard. And second, I have
a highly developed sense of taste and smell. Flour, eggs, sugar, em, vanilla
bean… Oh! Small twist of lemon.
Emile: Whoa, you can smell all that? You have a gift.
Remy: This is Emile, my brother. He’s easily impressed.
Django: So you can smell ingredients? So what?
Remy: This is my dad. He’s never impressed. He also happens to be the leader of
our clan. So what’s wrong with having highly developed senses? Whoa, whoa,
whoa! Don’t eat that!
Django: What’s going on here?
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专题听力一 Culture & Life
Remy: Turns out that funny smell was rat poison. Suddenly, Dad didn’t think my
talent was useless. I was feeling pretty good about my gift, until Dad gave
me a job. Clean. Clean. That’s right. Poison checker. Cleanerific. Cleanerino.
Close to godliness, which means clean. You know, cleanliness is close to…
Never mind, move on. Well, it made my dad proud.
Django: Now, don’t you feel better, Remy? You’ve helped a noble cause.
Remy: Noble? We’re, we’re thieves, Dad. And what we’re stealing is, let’s face it,
garbage.
Django: It isn’t stealing if no one wants it.
Remy: If no one wants it, why are we stealing it? Let’s just say we have different
points of view. This much I knew: If you are what you eat, then I only want to
eat the good stuff. But to my dad…
Django: Food is fuel. You get picky about what you put in the tank, your engine is
gonna die. Now shut up and eat your garbage.
Remy: Look, if we’re going to be thieves, why not steal the good stuff in the kitchen,
where nothing is poisoned?
Django: First of all, we are not thieves. Secondly, stay out of the kitchen and away
from the humans. It’s dangerous.
Remy: I know I’m supposed to hate humans, but there’s something about them.
They, they don’t just survive. They discover. They create. I mean, just look at
what they do with food.
Gus Teau: How can I describe it? Good food is like music you can taste, colour you can
smell. There is excellence all around you. You need only to be aware to stop
and savour it.
Clip # 2
Remy: Hey, Emile, Emile! I found a mushroom. Come on, you’re, you’re good at hiding
food. Help me find a good place to put this. He doesn’t understand me, but I
can be myself around him.
Emile: Why are you walking like that?
Remy: I don’t want to constantly have to wash my paws. Did you ever think about how
we walk on the same paws we handle food with? You ever think about what we
put into our mouths?
Emile: All the time.
Remy: When I eat, I don’t want to taste everywhere my paws have been.
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Emile: Well, go ahead. But if Dad sees you walking like that, he’s not going to like it.
Remy: W hat have you got there? Ah, oh, oh… You found cheese? And not just
any cheese. Tomme de chèvre de pays. That would go beautifully with my
mushroom. And, and, and, and, and, oh! This rosemary! This rosemary with
maybe, maybe with a few drops from this sweet grass.
Emile: Well, throw it on the pile, I guess, and then we’ll… you know…
Remy: We don’t want to throw this in with the garbage. This is special.
Emile: But we’re supposed to return to the colony before sundown or, you know, Dad’s
gonna…
Remy: Emile! There are possibilities unexplored here. We, we got to cook this. Now,
exactly how we cook this is the real question. Yeah.
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3
To Fly or Not to Fly: That Is the Question
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. 90 days.
2. No.
3. The “Unclaimed Baggage Center.”
4. 7,000.
5. Less than 0.5%.
6. Yes.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. B 2. A
3. A
4. C 5. D
6. B
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. Everywhere.
2. Around 100 items per day.
3. 22 / 11.
4. It depends on luck or it only happens sometimes.
5. A speaker and a French maid costume.
6. The camera bag.
7. The items may be taken away or sold on EBay. Most of them were shipped to “Lost
Item Warehouse.”
8. Timing.
9. An iPad, a camera, a speaker, a French maid costume, Olaf, a hat, a wallet, etc.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. real regret
2. humanity and mistakes
3. my ego
4. I wasted on
5. reflected on
6. eliminate negative energy
7. no longer
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. The speaker’s plane crashed.
2. First, the pilot lines up the plane with the Hudson River. Afterwards, he turns off
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the engines. Then, he says three words:“Brace for impact.”
3. “Brace for impact.” is used when the aircraft must make an emergency landing
over land or water.
4. First, do not postpone anything in life. Second, to eliminate negative energy from
life. Third, to be a good dad/husband.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Because Dottie loves that Dusty is her best customer and hates what he is doing
to himself.
2. Good / positive.
3. Small problem.
4. Because Dusty’s gearbox is out of production (discontinued).
5. Dusty accelerate the torque over 80% (Dusty speed up to a certain degree).
6. Dusty may crash.
7. A warning light.
8. No.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. point of attack
2. look at a clock
3. self-inspection
4. emergencies
5. topple
6. clipped
7. refurbished
8. fire-fighting vehicle
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9. Sub-paragraph
10. certificate of operation
Part B
略
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Scripts
3
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Millions of Americans return from long-distance trips by air, but their luggage
doesn’t always come home with them. Airline identification tags can come loose, and
amazingly, some people never pick up their luggage at airport baggage-claim carousels.
And passengers leave all kinds of things on planes. The airlines collect the items
and, for 90 days, attempt to find their owners. If they have no luck, they don’t keep
them, since they’re not in the warehouse business. And by law, they cannot sell the
bags, because the airlines might be tempted to deliberately misplace luggage. So once
insurance companies have paid for lost bags and their contents, a unique store in the
little town of Scottsboro, Alabama, buys them—sight unseen.
It’s called the “Unclaimed Baggage Center,” and it’s so popular that this building,
that set up like a department store, is the number-one tourist attraction in all of
Alabama. Each day, clerks bring out 7,000 new items, and veteran shoppers rush to
paw over them. You can find everything from precious jewels to hockey sticks, leather
jackets, surfboards, even half-used tubes of toothpaste.
That’s right—used toothpaste. The Unclaimed Baggage Center has found guns,
illegal drugs—even a live rattlesnake—inside bags. The store has a little museum where
some of its most unusual acquisitions have been preserved. They include highland
bagpipes, a burial mask from an Egyptian pharaoh’s tomb, and a Medieval suit of armor.
Less than one-half of one percent of luggage checked on U.S. carriers is permanently lost
and available to the store. Still, that’s a lot of toothpaste and wedding dresses that never
made it home.
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VIDEO WATCHING
An estimated 43 million people are traveling in this Thanksgiving weekend. That
means a lot of stuff left behind on planes, trains, automobiles, and in hotel rooms. So,
we have Gio Benitez across-country experiment to get some true confessions from all
those lost and found departments and see if it’s getting your stuff back or a lost cause?
It’s the day after Thanksgiving. And in the mad rush of holiday travel, lots of us are
losing more than our minds. We’re losing our stuff left and right in rental cars, buses,
hotel rooms, planes. It’s time for secrets of the lost and found. Come on. We’re at New
York’s Grand Central Terminal, a train station that serves 700,000 a day. But deep in its
bowels lies a treasure trove of lost and found items left behind by weary travelers.
Melissa Gissentanner heads up the department. How many items do you think you
getting once a day? M: On average, 100. Reporter: 100 items per day? Where do you fit
it all? M: As you can see, we’re busting out here. Shopping bags, the lunch bags and tool
bags, backpacks all rolls up here.
Reporter: The place is a pack rat’s dream. There’s everything from the predictable
coats, luggage, cellphones. To the salacious. M: The strangest thing I’ve ever found
here probably be a bag full of adult toys. Reporter: What did you think? M: Wow! I
was thinking whether that person was ever going to come back and be brave enough
to claim it? And they came in yesterday, claimed it, and looked very happy. That’s a
happy customer. Reporter: Melissa says grand central goes the extra mile to reunite
travelers with their property. M: May I have your last name? Reporter: What did you
lose? Customer: My mother’s favorite umbrella. Reporter: But lost and found offices
like Melissa’s are always the rules, says travel industry insider Chris Elliot. This is, the
busiest, time of the year for travel. For some reason, when you’re travelling, your brain
falls out. You left your laptop in a see pocket, the plane lands at a large airport. Kiss
it good-bye. Reporter: So really, what are the odds that you’ll actually get anything
you lose back? To find out, “20/20” set out on a cross country test of lost and found
operations, deliberately losing all sorts of items at cities coast to coast. 22 items in all
from smartphones to watches to wallets. We start in New York riding to the airport
using the App-based car service, Uber. We’re waiting for the Uber driver, he’s about five
minutes away. The driver drops me off, oblivious to the satchel with a brand-new laptop
and cell phone inside that I’ve ditched in the backseat. We’ll see where it ends up. Will
it ends up in lost and found, and back in our hands? Getting them back will be a roll of
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the dice. Since many car services don’t have a formal lost and found procedure. You’re
dealing directly with the owner. So it’s up to the owner to have his or her own system
to recover a lost item. Reporter: But isn’t helping customers find lost valuables part of,
well, customer service? No one gets in the business has, ah, I’m gonna start with a lost
and found system so that I can help my customers. So it’s really an afterthought. You lost
it, so it’s your fault, right? Reporter: On with the journey, wheels down.
We’re in the city of angels. We’re gonna drop some items off all around the city.
I ditched two more items at this swanky hotel on Sunset Boulevard. One of them,
kind of ordinary, drop it off here right by the couch. The other one? Not so much! But
sometimes people leave behind some crazy things like a French maid costume. We’re
gonna leave it in the closet and see if the real maid finds it. One thing the hotel probably
won’t do—give me a call about it. If you’re leaving sexy toys or something like a French
maid costume, it’s gonna be some hesitation to contact you. This is clearly not used for
Normal hotel stay purposes, if you know what I’m saying. Now, we’re off to the famed
la Brea tar pits where the fossils of prehistoric animals lie in the muck. But will we
be able to recover Olaf, the adorable snowman character from Disney’s “Frozen”? Hi,
everyone, I’m Olaf, and I like warm hugs. Reporter: We feel a little guilty leaving Olaf
behind, but before we skip town, we still have to get rid of a couple more items. We’re
going to return this car, we’ve got a wallet inside the glovebox 40 bucks inside. And we’ve
also got that camera. So it’s time to see what happens. We’re still on the road, but
some items, they are already coming back to us. Our camera bag is almost immediately
returned to us by an alert rental car employee. No word though about that wallet. But
let’s say your priced, lost possession does make it to lost and found, you better act fast.
Unclaimed items can end up in the hands of the staff. Employees will take the item
home and they will sell it on Ebay or something like that. Reporter: But the vast majority
of unclaimed property get shipped out for huge Lost Item Warehouse like this one in
Texas, where they eventually end up on the Auction blog. After a certain amount of time,
they’re going to liquidate. Six months is pretty much the cutoff time. Reporter: Wonder
how we felt in Washington, D.C., a city known for its so-called beltway bandits. We’re
back on the road. We tried to smuggle a wallet into the capital building. But it looks
like there is actually some honesty in Washington. We get a call from the capital police.
I found a wallet in the senate. I hope to see you soon bye. Reporter: Thanks, Uncle
Sam. Philadelphia, home of the liberty bell. Here we declare our independence. From
this tourist ID pouch with a couple of Jacksons stuffed inside. But this really is the city
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of brotherly love. We later get a ring, saying our pouch has been recovered. We would
like to get this stuff back to you. Back in New York City, we lose our items in a couple of
more Uber cars. And finally, our grand across-country-lost-item spree is over. So let’s we
count. In ten days on the road, we lost all total 22 items in six different cities. So far only
four items have been recovered. Looks like it’s gonna take some effort on our part to get
the other 18 back. Timing is everything. The moment that you see something is missing
or lost, don’t wait. Reporter: So we hit the phone and computer. Losing stuff is easy.
Getting it back is a journey of its own. In most cases, it was impossible to get a hold of
a live person. Often, our only option was to fill out an online form like this one for an
iPad we left in an airplane. A week later, we receive this discouraging reply. And a bad
news voice mail about an expensive camera I left in a taxi. Voice: I just wanted to let you
know that the driver did not find the camera. Reporter: But our bad lucks starts turning
to good fortune. When I ringed up that Hollywood hotel about those things we left
behind, and bingo! They say they’ve got our items. They even send an express mail, just
in time for the holidays. Our hard works helps increase our recovery rate. To date, we’ve
been able to recover 11 of 22 lost items. Still, half remain at large. I think a lot of people
may say, you know what? Those people don’t even care about my lost item, whatever. I
think it differ, we do care. People shouldn’t give up right away. Don’t give up. Reporter:
File that report. File that report, yeah. Because chances are—It will show up. Reporter:
What Melissa doesn’t know, but we put her to the test, too. Leaving behind a little 20/20
souvenir at grand central, and file a lost and found report our own. You found it. It’s a
“20/20” lost and found Thanksgiving miracle. If only getting all of our other stuff back
was so easy. We’re especially keeping our fingers crossed that poor Olaf makes it out of
the tar pit. No sign of him, last we’ve heard. So, if any of your belongings ever ends up
in lost and found and more importantly, did you get them back? Kinda bummed about
how little we got back there. Let us know on Facebook and Twitter.
LECTURE WATCHING
Ric Elias: Three Things I Learned While My Plane Crashed
Imagine a big explosion as you climb through 3,000 ft. Imagine a plane full of
smoke. Imagine an engine going clack, clack, clack, clack, clack, clack, clack. It sounds
scary. Well I had a unique seat that day. I was sitting in 1D. I was the only one who could
talk to the flight attendants. So I looked at them right away, and they said,“No problem.
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We probably hit some birds.”The pilot had already turned the plane around, and we
weren’t that far. You could see Manhattan. Two minutes later, three things happened
at the same time. The pilot lines up the plane with the Hudson River. That’s usually
not the route. (Laughter) He turns off the engines. Now imagine being in a plane with
no sound. And then he says three words—the most unemotional three words I’ve ever
heard. He says, “Brace for impact.” I didn’t have to talk to the flight attendant anymore.
(Laughter) I could see in her eyes, it was terror. Life was over.
Now I want to share with you three things I learned about myself that day. I learned
that it all changes in an instant. We have this bucket list, we have these things we want
to do in life, and I thought about all the people I wanted to reach out to that I didn’t,
all the fences I wanted to mend, all the experiences I wanted to have and I never did. As
I thought about that later on, I came up with a saying, which is,“I collect bad wines.”
Because if the wine is ready and the person is there, I’m opening it. I no longer want to
postpone anything in life. And that urgency, that purpose, has really changed my life.
The second thing I learned that day—and this is as we clear the George Washing-ton
Bridge, which was by not a lot—I thought about, wow, I really feel one real regret. I’ve
lived a good life. In my own humanity and mistakes, I’ve tried to get better at everything
I tried. But in my humanity, I also allow my ego to get in. And I regretted the time I
wasted on things that did not matter with people that matter. And I thought about my
relationship with my wife, with my friends, with people. And after, as I reflected on that,
I decided to eliminate negative energy from my life. It’s not perfect, but it’s a lot better.
I’ve not had a fight with my wife in two years. It feels great. I no longer try to be right; I
choose to be happy.
The third thing I learned—and this is as your mental clock starts going,“15, 14, 13.”
You can see the water coming. I’m saying,“Please blow up.”I don’t want this thing to
break in 20 pieces like you’ve seen in those documentaries. And as we’re coming down,
I had a sense of, wow, dying is not scary. It’s almost like we’ve been preparing for it
our whole lives. But it was very sad. I didn’t want to go; I love my life. And that sadness
really framed in one thought, which is, I only wish for one thing. I only wish I could
see my kids grow up. About a month later, I was at a performance by my daughter—
first-grader, not much artistic talent...yet. (Laughter) And I’m balling, I’m crying, like
a little kid. And it made all the sense in the world to me. I realized at that point, by
connecting those two dots, that the only thing that matters in my life is being a great
dad. Above all, above all, the only goal I have in life is to be a good dad.
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I was given the gift of a miracle, of not dying that day. I was given another gift, which
was to be able to see into the future and come back and live differently. I challenge you
guys that are flying today, imagine the same thing happens on your plane—and please
don’t—but imagine, and how would you change? What would you get done that you’re
waiting to get done because you think you’ll be here forever? How would you change
your relationships and the negative energy in them? And more than anything, are you
being the best parent you can?
Thank you.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Machine: Wind two-seven zero at five. Runway two-seven clear to land.
Dusty: I don’t know what it was. I wasn’t doing anything different. You know, pylon
turns, a vertical, like we do every day. I mean I feel great, but…
Dot: I got a love-hate relationship with you, Dusty. Love that you’re my best
customer, hate what you’re doing to yourself.
Dusty: Come on, Dot. You saw me at the Red Bulldozer race. I kicked Aston Martin
out there!
Dot: You are not even listening to what I’m saying.
Dusty: And hey, Speed City Airfest is just a few weeks away. And I think if I get a little
more speed coming out of my turns, really work that radial-G, I can definitely
improve my time. Yeah, I’m feeling it. I’m feeling good about my next race.
Dot: Well, no damage to the casing or compressor blades.
Dusty: See? I told you. Just… just a hiccup.
Dot: But there is…
Car: Dusty! Dusty! What happened? Are you okay, Dust?
Dusty: It’s okay.
Car: Was it your fuel? I tested it this morning. I always take a little sip. Gets me
going.
Dusty: It’s okay. I got quite a little scared there. But Dottie here…
Dot: Dusty.
Dusty: And it’s all good news, gave me the all-clear.
Dot: Your reduction gearbox is failing. Your chip detector had a cluster of steel
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shavings on it. Flakes from the gears. That’s what caused the trouble.
Dusty: Well, you can just replace it. Order a new one from A-G Parts. It’ll be here by
the end of the week. Right? … What?
Dot: Your gearbox… It’s… It’s out of production. Long since discontinued. Can’t
even remember the last time I saw one.
Car: But Dottie, come on, can’t you just build Dust a new one?
Dot: No, it’s too complex. It has to be factory.
Dusty: Well, I mean, there has…
Dot: From now on, you have to back off the torque. Keep it under 80%.
Dusty: What? 80%? Dotty, you’ve got me cranked up to 140. I need that to race.
Dot: If you push yourself into the red, your gearbox will fail…
Dusty: No, Dottie!
Dot: And then your engine will seize.
Dusty: Maybe the test that you did was wrong!
Dot: Dusty, listen!
Dusty: But I’ve got a race coming up!
Dot: You’ll crash! You push yourself into the red, you’ll crash. Look, I’m gonna
install a warning light on your panel.
Dusty: A warning light?
Dot: If it comes on, you’ll need to pull power. Slow down.
Dusty: But Dottie, you, you’re saying… I can’t race anymore.
Dot: I’m so sorry.
Clip # 2
Mayday: TMST?
White Car: This Means Serious Trouble.
Blue Car: Transportation Management Safety Team.
TMST: M r. Mayday, were you at the specified point of attack, and applying an
extinguishing agent within three minutes from the time of alarm?
Mayday: W
ell, I… I didn’t have time to look at a clock. Is that guy writing down
everything I say?
TMST: Yes.
Mayday: Well, I… So he just wrote that down?
TMST: Yes.
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Mayday: And that?
TMST: Yes.
Mayday: Oh.
TMST: C
an you provide me with your self-inspection records and emergency
procedure plans?
Mayday: O
h, look, now, we don’t have many emergencies around here. Besides, we
did get the fire out.
TMST: I s that your contingency plan, Mr. Mayday? Every time there’s an incident,
you topple a water tower?
Dusty: This was my fault. I clipped the tower. I flew out last night because I…
Mayday: Dusty… it was an accident.
TMST: I t’s clear this airport has no plans for an emergency, and equipment from
last century. So, unless Mr. Mayday gets refurbished, and acquires a second
fire-fighting vehicle in accordance with CFR Title 14, Volume 3, Chapter
1, Section 139, Sub-paragraph B, I am pulling this airport’s certificate of
operation for non-compliance of rescue and fire-fighting regulations.
Mayday: Oh, Chevy.
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Why Not Go on a Trip?
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Watch the video and answer the following questions.
1. A place that’s not too remote or couples-oriented, less developed countries.
2. Because they’re apt to be jet-lagged and disoriented.
3. Pack as much as one can carry and leave expensive jewelry at home.
4. Credit card numbers.
5. Memorize a few basic phrases and dress according to the local fashion.
6. Isolated areas.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. C 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. D
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. Right along the Vltava River.
2. Old town.
3. The city center.
4. Pick one of the longer cruises.
5. Climb the Petrin Tower, play the maze, or ride a pony.
6. From Charles Bridge.
7. Around the National Theater.
8. Those who are looking for adventures.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. packed bag
2. a deep restlessness
3. routine and boredom
4. intricate daydreams
5. forage
6. unconventional lives
7. documentary photographer
8. wanderers across
9. nomadic
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. An old black and white image of a weathered old man.
2. By train or cars and trucks.
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3. Foster care dropouts, teenage runaways escaping abuse and unforgiving homes.
4. They see them as people of privation and economic failure.
5. Unrealistic.
6. Material comforts.
7. Up to 40%.
8. Those people’s weaknesses, such as drug addiction.
9. People aren’t allowed to sit on the sidewalk, to wrap oneself in a blanket, to sleep
in your own car, or to offer food to a stranger.
10. To inspire people to work together to create a society that assures people’s
dignity in their labor so that they can work to live well, and not only work to
survive. ( 答案灵活 )
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Because he wanted the boys to learn to get along with each other on the road trip
and wanted the family to have some quality time.
2. He would fail to get back to school for his first week of wrestling practice.
3. He did not mean to upset or insult someone by something he would say or do.
4. To explore the real America.
5. She is meant that the place he suggested is going to be disappointing.
6. The previous one had one boy and one girl, and this one has two boys.
7. To take a plane back home.
8. It wouldn’t be worse than the stupid cabin.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. Hot springs
2. a sense of fun
3. take forever
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4. soaked
5. take a bath
6. heated
7. locals use
8. path
9. all the way up
10. Perfect
Part B
略
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Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
How to Travel Alone
Don’t let the lack of a traveling companion stop you from seeing the world.
Sometimes it’s more fun to explore on your own. You will need: research, a room
reservation for the first night, a contact at home, copies of your passport and credit card
information, appropriate clothes, a tour or class, a local newspaper, bar seating and
outdoor cafes, and index cards. Optional: a cellphone with international service and
phrases in a local language.
Step 1: R
esearch your travel destination. Though spontaneity is one of the joys of solo
travel, knowing a bit about where you’re going is key when you don’t have
someone along to help figure out things like transportation. Pick a place that’s
not too remote or couples-oriented. Tip: Less developed countries tend to be good places to meet other solo travelers.
Step 2: C
onsider your hotel options. Less lavish accommodations are more likely to
attract other single travelers who, like you, don’t have someone to split the cost
of a room. On the other hand, you may feel safer in a higher-end hotel. Whatever
you decide, make sure to reserve a room for your first night in town, when you’re
apt to be jet-lagged and disoriented.
Step 3: P
ack only as much as you can easily carry by yourself—preferably in one carry-on
bag to minimize the risk of lost luggage. Leave expensive jewelry at home. Step 4: L
eave your itinerary—or at least a general idea of where you’ll be—with a few
loved ones. Take a copy of your passport with you, and leave them a copy as well
as your credit card numbers. E-mail yourself numbers to call if your cards are lost
or stolen. If you’re traveling abroad, make sure your cell phone has international
service. Step 5: B
lend in with your surroundings. If you’re in a foreign country, memorize a few
key phrases and dress according to local fashion. Consider buying a few items
that will help you look like a native. Postgraduate
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Step 6: T
ake a walking tour, a cooking class, or some other activity; they’re great ways to
meet other travelers. Consult a newspaper about local events, or ask your hotel
to help you make arrangements. Step 7: D
on’t be shy about going to restaurants by yourself and chatting with other
diners and wait staff; a great way to do that is by eating at the bar. Having
breakfast at your hotel and snacking at outdoor cafes are also conducive to
making friends while munching. Though it’s tempting to hide behind a book or scribble in a journal, you’re more
approachable if you forgo those things. Step 8: S
tay safe. Write notes and directions on index cards before you leave your hotel;
if you must take out a map, do it discreetly. Avoid isolated areas and don’t tell
strangers you’re traveling alone. Above all, trust your instincts. If something feels
wrong, get out of the situation. Did you know? According to a survey, 29 percent
of leisure travelers took a solo trip in 2006.
VIDEO WATCHING
Planning a visit to Prague. The Capital of Czech Republic is one of the largest
cities in Central Europe and an extremely popular travel destination. In order to help
you plan your vacation, we’ve produced several video guides at Vidtur.com with great
tips on sightseeing, shopping, night life and family attractions. Although Prague is
especially large, most of its attractions are located centrally right along the Vltava River.
You will find Mala Strana and the Prague Castle located along the steep banks of the
city. This historic neighborhood has buildings dating back to the 13th century as well
as the Baroque Style Saint Nicholas Church. This portion of the city isn’t always easy
to navigate on foot, so check out Vidtur.com for more tips on how to explore this
area. Moving to the east bank of the Vltava, you will find old town, the heart of historic
Prague. This area has numerous must-see attractions, like the Astronomical Clock, the
Jewish Quarter and the Charles Bridge. Make sure you visit the bridge during the day
when you can climb its towers for a nice panoramic view of the city. Be careful in this
part of town. While Prague is not generally a dangerous place, the flock of tourists tends
to attract pick-pocketers. Another great way to explore the Charles Bridge is by taking a
cruise underneath it. Seeing the city from the river gives you a great opportunity to see
the famous monuments and architecture from a different perspective. You could take
a short cruise and explore the city center or pick one of the longer cruises and explore
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several islands across the Vltava in the outskirts of the city. If you plan to visit the city
with your entire family, there are a couple of great things to do with your kids. One of
the best place to visit is the toy museum located next to the Prague Castle where you
can find the second largest collection of toys in the world. If you get a nice day, visit
Petrin Hill, which offers amazing views of the city. Climb the Petrin Tower, play the maze,
or ride a pony. Looking for more ideas on what to do with kids in Prague? Check our
special video guide at Vidtur.com. Finally, let’s talk about Prague’s nightlife. Before you
hit the bars and dance floors, we suggest you visit Charles Bridge one more time, where
you’ll see the beautiful view of the castle, illuminated in orange light. For those looking
for distinguished evening, stay around the National Theater, where you will find nice
restaurants, cocktail bars and classic cafes. For those who are looking for adventure,
heading to the Cisco neighborhood where you will find many unique industrial style
dive bars. Looking to see more of Prague? Check out Vidtur.com for more great videos
about night life, shopping, visiting the city with kids and more.
LECTURE WATCHING
A Glimpse of Life on the Road
As a little girl, I always imagined I would one day run away. From the age of six
on, I kept a packed bag with some clothes and cans of food tucked away in the back
of a closet. There was a deep restlessness in me, a primal fear that I would fall prey to
a life of routine and boredom. And so, many of my early memories involved intricate
daydreams where I would walk across borders, forage for berries, and meet all kinds of
strange people living unconventional lives on the road.
Years have passed, but many of the adventures I fantasized about as a child—
traveling and weaving my way between worlds other than my own—have become
realities through my work as a documentary photographer. But no other experience
has felt as true to my childhood dreams as living amongst and documenting the lives of
fellow wanderers across the United States. This is the nomadic dream, a different kind of
American dream lived by young hobos, travelers, hitchhikers, vagrants and tramps.
In most of our minds, the vagabond is a creature from the past. The word “hobo”
conjures up an old black and white image of a weathered old man covered in coal,
legs dangling out of a boxcar, but these photographs are in color, and they portray a
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community swirling across the country, fiercely alive and creatively free, seeing sides of
America that no one else gets to see.
Like their predecessors, today’s nomads travel the steel and asphalt arteries of
the United States. By day, they hop freight trains, stick out their thumbs, and ride the
highways with anyone from truckers to soccer moms. By night, they sleep beneath the
stars, huddled together with their packs of dogs, cats and pet rats between their bodies.
Some travelers take to the road by choice, renouncing materialism, traditional jobs
and university degrees in exchange for a glimmer of adventure. Others come from the
underbelly of society, never given a chance to mobilize upwards: foster care dropouts,
teenage runaways escaping abuse and unforgiving homes.
Where others see stories of privation and economic failure, travelers view their
own existence through the prism of liberation and freedom. They’d rather live off of the
excess of what they view as a wasteful consumer society than slave away at an unrealistic
chance at the traditional American dream. They take advantage of the fact that in the
United States, up to 40 percent of all food ends up in the garbage by scavenging for
perfectly good produce in dumpsters and trash cans. They sacrifice material comforts in
exchange for the space and the time to explore a creative interior, to dream, to read, to
work on music, art and writing.
But there are many aspects to this life that are far from idyllic. No one loses their
inner demons by taking to the road. Addiction is real, the elements are real, freight trains
maim and kill, and anyone who has lived on the streets can attest to the exhaustive list
of laws that criminalize homeless existence. Who here knows that in many cities across
the United States it is now illegal to sit on the sidewalk, to wrap oneself in a blanket,
to sleep in your own car, to offer food to a stranger? I know about these laws because
I’ve watched as friends and other travelers were hauled off to jail or received citations
for committing these so-called crimes.
Many of you might be wondering why anyone would choose a life like this, under
the thumb of discriminatory laws, eating out of trash cans, sleeping under bridges,
picking up seasonal jobs here and there. The answer to such a question is as varied
as the people that take to the road, but travelers often respond with a single word:
freedom. Until we live in a society where every human is assured dignity in their labor so
that they can work to live well, not only work to survive, there will always be an element
of those who seek the open road as a means of escape, of liberation and, of course, of
rebellion.
Thank you.
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MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Husband: The four of us are gonna take a little trip.
Wife: Paris?
Husband: Hmm. No. Much better. We are driving to Walley World.
Wife: What?
Husband: This family is in a rut. We gotta shake things up, right? Spend a little
quality time. And of cource, wouldn’t hurt for the boys to learn to get
along a little better.
Wife: Uh, by locking them in a car together?
Husband: Yeah.
Younger Son: This is some bullshit right here.
Wife: Hey, language.
Younger Son: Well, it is. I am gonna miss the first week of wrestling practice.
Husband: We will find a wrestling range along the way.
Younger Son: That’s not even a thing.
Elder Son: And, Dad, no offense, I just don’t wanna do my first big road trip to some
corporate theme park, you know? I’d like to explore the real America, like
Jack Kerouac or the Merry Pranksters.
Younger Son: Don’t say weird shit.
Elder Son: Ah, ow.
Husband: Kevin, bullying. Guys, come on. My trip to Walley World when I was a kid
was the best time I ever had.
Wife: So you just wanna redo your vacation from 30 years ago? Don’t you think
that’s kind of a letdown?
Husband: No, no, no. We’re not redoing anything. This will be completely different.
For one thing, the original vacation had a boy and a girl. This one has two
boys. And I’m sure that there will be lots of other differences.
Elder Son: I’ve never even heard of the original vacation.
Husband: Doesn’t matter. The new vacation will stand out itself, OK? Come on,
honey. What do you say? We can drive out and fly back.
Wife: Oh, what the heck, heh? Couldn’t be as bad as that stupid cabin, right,
honey?
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Husband: That’s the spirit.
Wife: Alright.
Younger Son: Oh.
Elder Son: Are we gonna drive all that way in your little car, dad?
Husband: Not exactly.
Clip # 2
Husband: Hey, look at that. Hot springs up ahead. We’ve always wanted to do that.
Wife: Oh, honey. We don’t wanna be late to Audrey’s.
Husband: So we’re a few minutes late. We are on vacation. Right? Come on. Have a
sense of fun.
Wife: OK!
Younger Son: Oh no. Look at the line.
Wife: This is gonna take forever.
Husband: Come on, guys. How often do we get soaked in hot water?
Elder Son: Every time we take a bath.
Husband: No. This is different. OK? This is natural. This water was heated in mother
nature’s bowels.
Younger Son: Oh, gross!
Husband: Got to be another way in. I’m gonna ask this gentlemen. I bet he know.
Excuse me, sir? Hi there.
Stranger: Hi.
Husband: Hey, we were wondering is there another entrance to the hot springs?
Like a secret entrance the locals use.
Stranger: The line gets pretty long this time of the year?
Husband: Yeah. Yes, you bet.
Stranger: Yeah, I will tell you what you will do. Do you see that dirt road? That path
there on the left?
Husband: Yep.
Stranger: If you just follow it there, all the way up, it will take you to the hot springs.
Husband: Alright. Perfect! Thank you.
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Section 1: Animals & Conservationists
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. He uses his breath.
2. Z
ookeepers stuff up the tubes full of paint and ask the sloth bears to exhale
through it. And that sprays paint onto the canvas.
3. N
ontoxic, water-based paint. Many use their paws or claws. Apes will use
paintbrushes.
4. P
ainting is a choice. If an animal does not want to do a painting session...
zookeepers will stop right away. They will choose other animal(s) and give them
an opportunity to do it.
5. Music.
6. Everything from tablet computers to toys in the enclosures.
7. Yes.
Ⅱ. 略
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VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. C 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. C
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. No.
2. While individual animals are killed, the species thrives.
3. An overgrown lacrosse stick.
4. In the cliffs.
5. For about 60 seconds.
6. They gather up the lost birds and set them free.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Rewatch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. a far-sighted people
2. rich and beautiful natural
3. illegal wildlife products
4. profitable
5. brutal slaughter
6. elephant population
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. T
he home is where we learn from our parents and grandparents, teach our
children, and share our stories and hopes for the future. (It is where many of our
ideas and values are first kindled.)
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
2. I t is mass destruction and trafficking of iconic endangered species / Wildlife
protection.
3. T
hree rhinos were killed every single day, 20,000 elephants are being killed every
year / 54 elephants are killed every single day. In 25 years.
4. The poorest people.
5. C
hina will take steps to halt the domestic trade in ivory / ban on ivory carving
imports.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. The bird / Blu.
2. Doctor of Ornithology.
3. He shakes his tail feathers, counter-clockwise, thus referring to Blu’s dominance.
4. Because Blu is the last male of his kind.
5. Because he’s too domesticated.
6. Goodbye.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. I’m trying to escape
2. awesome
3. to understand
4. I am a companion
5. this whole nightmare will be over
6. has given me love and affection
7. tries to strangle me
8. I often eat alone
9. Do you have a favorite bird
10. That makes sense
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11. it’s the brains I’m attracted to
12. big, round intelligent
Part B
略
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Section 2: Animals & Ecology
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. Birding (Bird watching).
2. Researching birds and finding out how the bird populations are developing.
3. The population is reducing.
4. North American birds are shifting their winter ranges farther north.
5. It helps scientists identify bird species at risk and suggests ways to protect their
habitats and breeding grounds.
6. B
ecause the park is a refuge for birds, and is for people who want to enjoy their
beauty.
Ⅱ.略
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VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. B 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. D
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. They noticed blood in his urine.
2. New York City.
3. He ate a stone from his cage.
4. Cancer treatment; Rehabilitation and dermatology; 24-hour emergency room
5. 15 to 20 cases.
6. T
hey would have taken out the bad kidney, and in most cases, they would put the
animal down.
7. A small blood vessel has ruptured.
8. They are going to destroy that area with a laser.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. not the most exciting story from the sea
2. we take the ocean for granted
3. Part of the problem
4. have no idea
5. earthquakes and volcanoes
6. there are beautiful sights
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. He wants you to think that you’re standing at the edge of a very unfamiliar world.
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
2. Because it’s got all sorts of working parts.
3. They use the lights for attracting mates and attracting prey and communicating.
4. W
e’re not familiar with what exists from the first 200 or 300 feet and all the way
down to the bottom.
5. P
roviding scientists with this first view of animals like this, in the world where
they belong.
6. 40,000-mile long.
7. Drive a robot around the bottom of the ocean in real time.
8. Bacteria.
9. The worms retract down into their shells.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Because they are going to live here.
2. Because it’s a zoo.
3. Totally scary.
4. T
he estate is selling the property with the stipulation that whoever comes on
board and buys the property is going to care and maintain these endangered
animals.
5. Because his daughter love the animals in the zoo.
6. 7.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie Clip # 2 and then fill in the blanks with
the exact words you hear.
1. It’s a zoo
2. rescue them
3. Our life is here
4. home-school
5. A new start
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6. We bought a zoo
7. start over
8. used to wear that sometimes
9. kind of adopted it
10. It’s time
11. we’re keeping
Part B
略
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Section 3: Smog & Environment
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. It could undermine the last 50 years of gains in global health.
2. Decreases in agricultural productivity, and malnutrition, particularly on children.
3. It left 70,000 people dead.
4. 250,000.
5. Outdoor air pollution.
6. A phase-out of coal power plants / expansion of renewable energy / investment in
health systems / a commitment to a strong global climate treaty.
7. Health care professionals
Ⅱ.略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. B 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. D 7. B
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. Hot and sunny.
2. Ozone.
3. People with asthma, children and the elderly.
4. S
ome of them are because of climate of geography; others have less traffic or
fewer industrial sources of pollution.
5. The weather and topography.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. 25 years ago
2. university education
3. the occasional vehicle
4. completely different prospect
5. coal and diesel
6. advisory
7. urban area dependent on
8. greenhouse gases
9. lifted out of poverty
10. an unsustainable path of growth and development
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. a. The basic structural change of the economies and societies.
b. The climate transformation.
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
2. The growth in the economy and in the population.
3. Cities, energy and land.
4. By regulating coal.
5. a. We have to invest strongly in energy.
b. We have to use it (the energy) much more efficiently.
c. We have to make it (the energy) clean.
6. T
hey hold water; they take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere; they are
fundamental to the tackling of climate change.
7. We’ve lost a forest area the size of Portugal.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Because they can go back home for the first time.
2. Blue sky, and grass.
3. To go back to the Earth.
4. To keep something as a secret.
5. Remain in space.
6. 1) Take control of everything.
2) Do not return to Earth.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. so many stars
2. I know that guy
3. social gathering
4. put seeds in the ground
5. like pizza
6. Define “dancing.”
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7. speed and rhythm match harmoniously
8. we had a pool
Part B
略
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Section 4: Save the Environment, Save Us
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. The tribal members need to relocate because of rising sea level.
2. A 2,000-foot-long sea wall.
3. $ 60 million.
4. The US government and foundations.
5. Caused it to disappear five years ago.
6. Take them away / cause them to reduce in number (disappear).
Ⅱ.略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. D 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. D
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. T
o ensure industries complying with environmental laws and prevent pollution.
2. I t is a mobile system equipped with a weather station and global positioning
devices.
3. A methane detector and an ultraviolet detector.
4. Several miles.
5. Once they have detected a pollution source.
6. Plumes of hydrocarbons, including benzene.
7. P
inpoint pollution sources and record images to document the magnitude of
pollution.
8. Uncombusted hydrocarbon.
9. An air pollution control device.
10. Habitat classification.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. losing the planet
2. expanded our knowledge
3. billions of
4. measures
5. distance
6. small and rocky
7. light
8. habitable or not
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. An astronomer.
2. Clues as to the origins of life.
3. Private spaceflight companies.
4. a. C
olonizing Martian vistas more difficult than colonizing the deserts on earth.
b. A
ir on Mars is thinner and of less oxygen than air in the driest, highest places
on earth.
5. They are not opposed to one another. (They are the two sides of a same goal.)
6. We could also preserve the habitability of the earth.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. To report hail weather in California.
2. Highly unusual.
3. A forecast model.
4. Priority access to the mainframe for two or three days.
5. Hurricane specialist with NASA.
6. Extreme weather occurring in this area/huge tornadoes.
7. It was shredded by a tornado.
8. The two tornadoes joined and formed one large tornado.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. scared
2. no choice
3. freeze to death
4. get worse
5. caught outside
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6. getting this information
7. the government
8. keep warm
9. by the minute
10. supplies
11. unnecessary
12. wasted enough time talking about this
Part B
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Section 1: Animals & Conservationists
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Francois began his artistic career two years ago. The sloth bear has a unique way to
paint, using his breath. His keeper, Stacey Tabellario, says “although it might look odd,
it’s actually a very natural behavior.”
“They’ve got big, big lungs, and they can suck things up and then in the same breath
they can exhale a huge amount of air. So we took this natural behavior of the exhale. We
stuffed up one of those tubes full of paint and we ask them to exhale through it. And
that expels all of the paint onto the canvas, making these really cool paintings.”
Animal artists come in all shapes and sizes at the Smithsonian’s National Zoo. They
use a variety of techniques to create masterpieces with nontoxic, water-based paint.
Many use their paws or claws. Apes pick up a brush. Others like this guerrilla carefully
choose colors for their canvas. But like humans, not every animal wants to paint, says
small-mammals keeper Kenton Kerns.
“Painting is absolutely a choice. So it’s very clear to us if an animal does not want to
do a painting session... and if that’s the case, we will stop that right away. We will choose
other animal and give them the opportunity to do it.”
Tabellario says 24-year-old Francois seems to enjoy expressing his inner artist. “When
I set up the materials for a painting activity, he comes and sits next to them and waits
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until we are ready to start painting. He does that every time. I also see where his eyes
go, that he does see the paint come out of the tube and land on the canvas.”
Music is also part of the arts enrichment program. Tabellario, who is the zoo’s
Enrichment and Training Committee chair, says physically and mentally stimulating
activities are an integral part of the daily care. Trainers have a lot of tools—everything
from tablet computers to toys in the enclosures. The program offers other benefits as
well, says Kerns.
“Every interaction between keeper staff and their animals creates some sort of bond.
And hopefully, especially with the enrichment sessions like this create a stronger bond.”
The one-of-a-kind works of art created by the animals are popular with zoo visitors
and are sold at the zoo’s fund-raising events. VIDEO WATCHING
In Iceland, millions of fat-beaked birds form the world’s largest colony of
Atlantic puffins. Sixty percent of the world’s population breeds there; some end up on
dinner plates. And local conservationists aren’t upset. Natalie Pawelski explains.
On the bird world scale of cuteness, puffins rank pretty high up there. And in
Iceland’s Westman Islands, one of the biggest puffin colonies in the world, locals love
these colorful, chubby birds—on the wing or on the menu. It’s weird to eat something
that looks like a beanie baby.
Oh, I was thinking that it was this cute little bird.
But in the interest of journalism...
Tastes like chicken. Actually, it doesn’t taste like chicken.
Actually, it tastes like liver. But more important, puffins are an example of what
conservationists call “a sustainable hunt.” While individual animals are killed, the species
thrives.
In the 1890s, puffin feathers became fashionable. Hunters here in the Westman
Islands used big nets to catch hundreds of the birds at once. In just a few years, they
almost wiped out the entire puffin population. Using big nets has been illegal ever since.
Since then, puffin hunters go after individual birds, with sort of overgrown lacrosse stick. They follow strict traditions. For example, if the puffin has fish in its beak, it’s
going home to feed its young, so you don’t kill it. If the puffin looks you in the eye, you
don’t kill it. And if the puffin cries—and yes, they tell me puffins really can cry—you
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
don’t kill it.
So plenty of puffins escape to make more puffins.
You look at them as good birds. They are kind and good, until they bite you.
Gisli Oskarsson is a biology teacher and cameraman, known as “the puffin man.” He
studied and filmed the birds for years.
Twenty-five percent of the Atlantic puffin is here, on these tiny islands you see
here around you. And this is the only area where their population is growing. They’re
decreasing on both sides of the Atlantic.
Puffin parents dig nesting burrows into the cliffs, and spend their days fishing for
their families.
They can dive down to 57 meters at least. And they stay under water for about 60
seconds.
Each year as Iceland’s brief summer draws to a close, some young puffins trying
to make their way to the sea are confused by the lights of the Westman Island’s only
town. Children gather up the lost birds and set them free, so they can end up the next
generation of puffin parents, or maybe as somebody’s dinner.
LECTURE WATCHING
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Never before have we had so many different ways to talk to one another. In the
distant past, written documents would be carried by hand across thousands of miles
from China to Western Europe. Today, we access knowledge from all over the world,
through our mobile phones, and the tap of a key.
Wherever you are watching this programme—whether in this hall, at work, with
your friends, or at home with your families, 谢谢,很高兴和你见面。
Thank you for welcoming me into your homes.
Many of the most important conversations we have in our lives, take place in the
family home.
The home is where we learn from our parents and grandparents, teach our own
children, and share our stories and hopes for the future. It is where many of our ideas
and values are first kindled.
In that spirit, there is one subject I believe we have to discuss, around our family
tables and across the generations.
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It concerns the future, and I know the Chinese are a far-sighted people. It concerns
particularly the environment, and I know that protecting China’s rich and beautiful
natural heritage is important to all Chinese families. It is the mass destruction and
trafficking of iconic endangered species; and it is time to talk about the growing human
demand for illegal wildlife products that drives the trade and makes it profitable.
Today, we face an unprecedented surge in the brutal slaughter of iconic animals by
poachers.
In South Africa, for example, one rhino was killed every month until 2005. But last
year, three rhinos were killed every single day.
In the 33 years since I was born, we have lost around 70% of Africa’s elephant
population. Of those that are left, 20,000 are being killed every year—that is 54
elephants killed every single day.
At this rate, children born this year—like my daughter Charlotte—will see the last
wild elephants and rhinos die before their 25th birthdays.
Those who suffer the most from this loss are some of the poorest people on our
planet.
They are the families who feel powerless as the wildlife around them disappear,
who face being trapped in poverty forever without the income that should be brought in
by tourism, a cornerstone of the economy in many developing nations.
They are the children whose parents risk their lives in the fight against poachers.
In the last few days, three rangers and one member of the Armed Forces were killed by
poachers in one incident in Central Africa; leaving behind 14 children between them. It
is these children’s future that is blighted so tragically by the illegal wildlife trade, and it
is their birth right that is stolen.
There is no hiding from these facts today. On our phones, laptops and our TV
screens, we can see the images and read the reports that lay bare the truth of this crisis.
That knowledge brings responsibility—the responsibility to do everything in our
power to reverse the march towards the eradication of these fine animals.
The good news is that we are far from powerless in this struggle. We can turn the
tide of extinction.
We know where the animals we are trying to protect live.
We know many of the roads, the airports and ports criminals use to transport their
cargo from killing field to market place.
And over the last few years we have seen a ground swell of action by governments
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
to improve their laws and work across borders to fight the traffickers.
Only last month, President Xi announced that China will take steps to halt the
domestic trade in ivory, adding to the ban on ivory carving imports he announced in
February.
But we know the illegal wildlife trade cannot be solved by governments alone.
The spotlight falls back on all of us, and on the choices we have to make to play our
part in addressing this problem.
We have to accept the truth that consumers are driving the demand for animal body
parts, for art, for trinkets, for medicine.
Only we as consumers can put the wildlife traffickers out of business, by ending our
demand for their products.
I know we can do this.
The desire to possess animal trophies, or ornaments made from ivory, has been felt
on every continent for centuries.
I know this topic is sensitive for many families.
For example, until 100 years ago my ancestors were among those who had little
concern about acquiring ivory, without the knowledge of the threats of extinction,
corruption, and violence that the ivory trade would lead to.
My rejection of ivory today is not a judgment of past generation. It is an acceptance
of the world as I find it today and the world I want my children, George and Charlotte,
to inherit.
Likewise, those doctors and medical practitioners in China that are speaking out
against the use of endangered species in medicine, they are not judging previous
generations who did not have the facts that you do today. They are just accepting the
truth that all credible evidence and scientific research shows, for example, that rhino
horn cannot cure cancer.
We have a responsibility to act on the facts we have today. By doing so we are
honouring the generations that have come before us and we are protecting those that
are yet to come.
I do not think that any of us would stand and watch an elephant or rhino being
killed—or a ranger being gunned down—because we wanted a bracelet or an ornament
to impress someone else as a gift.
But that is what the demand for wildlife products means in practice.
The decisions we make as consumers affect the lives of ordinary people thousands
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of thousands of miles away, in countries we may never visit.
If we buy illegal wildlife products, we are contributing to the extinction of whole
species.
But there is good news, and if you remember one thing, I want you to remember
this: we can win this battle.
Each generation decides what it values.
Each generation can determine what we consider to be beautiful on the one hand,
or unacceptable or immoral on the other.
We can act in solidarity with those fighting poaching and trafficking in their
communities.
I am absolutely convinced that China can become a global leader in the protection
of wildlife.
Your influence in the world means you can change the face of conservation in this
century.
This would be a contribution that would go down in history, one that your great
grandchildren would speak of with great pride.
The greatest inheritance we can pass on to the next generation is a safe and
sustainable environment: the priceless endowment of nature.
Let us not tell our children the sad tale of how we watched as the last elephants,
rhinos and tigers died out, but the inspiring story of how we turned the tide and
preserved them for all humanity.
And in so doing, let us show the world that by working together we can stand up to
the great challenges our planet and our families will face in the generations to come.
谢谢!
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Linda: Are you all right?
Tulio: I’m not really built for this weather.
Linda: Oh, are you looking for some books?
Tulio: Books? No, no. I’ve come six thousand miles looking for him.
Linda: Doctor of Ornithology?
Tulio: Ooh, he’s magnificent.
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Blu: Linda, a little help here. Linda!
Linda: Wow, you’re actually communicating.
Tulio: Yes, I introduced myself and shook my tail feathers, counter-clockwise, thus
referring to his dominance.
Blu: I did not get that at all.
Linda: So, Dr. Monteiro.
Tulio: No Dr. please, just call me Tulio. You know, your Macaw is a very special bird. In
fact, as far as we know, Blu is the last male of his kind.
Linda: Really?
Tulio: Yes. Recently we found a female. And our hope is to bring the two of them
together to save their species.
Linda: Well, sure, when can she come over?
Tulio: Oh, no, no, no, she is in Brazil. Blu must come to Rio de Janeiro.
Linda: Rio, Brazil? Oh, no, no, no, no, no, no, no. I never let Blu out of my sight. He
needs me. Oh, no. You... you misunderstand.
Tulio: It’s all arranged. You’ll be with him every step of the way. And I’ll be with you.
Linda: Look, I know you’re doing your job. But... I can’t... well, Blu’s very particular...
and we have our little routine here and we’re not big on travel. Heck, he doesn’t
even fly.
Tulio: Of course he can fly. He’s a perfect specimen.
Linda: What are you doing?
Tulio: Don’t worry, their natural instincts always take over.
Linda: Wait, no!
Tulio: Well, almost always.
Linda: Blu!
Blu: What kind of doctor are you?
Linda: Are you okay?
Tulio: Perhaps he’s too domesticated.
Linda: It was very nice of you to step in, and squawk around and throw my bird, but
now it is time for you to go.
Tulio: I’m very sorry. I’m very sorry, but wait, wait, Linda, Linda. This could be our last
chance.
Linda: Have a safe flight.
Tulio: Linda, please listen to me! If we don’t do this, his whole species will be gone.
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Just think about it.
Clip # 2
Blu: Excuse me! Please, I’m trying to sleep.
Jewel: I’m sorry, sleepy head, I’m trying to escape.
Blu: Escape, why? This cage is awesome.
Jewel: This cage...? Oh, what was I thinking? I wouldn’t expect a pet to understand.
Blu: Pet? Did you just call me a pet? For the record, I am not a pet. I am a companion.
And you know what? Do what you want. Cause’ tomorrow morning Linda will
come for me, and this whole nightmare will be over.
Jewel: Incredible, you’d rather be with a... a human than with your own kind.
Blu: Well, that human has given me love and affection for the past 15 years, whereas
my own kind tries to strangle me after 15 seconds.
Jewel: Yah, it’s because of them, I’ve lost everything. You can’t trust them!
Blu: Of course, you can trust humans. Jewel? Jewel? Hi, there!
Another Scene
Tulio: It’s nice of you to join me for dinner. I often eat alone. Because of course my
work.
Linda: I thought I was the “bird-mad” until I met you.
Tulio: Yes, right. Do you have a favorite bird?
Linda: Well, obviously I’m a Blue Macaw kind of gal.
Tulio: That makes sense. They are very handsome birds.
Linda: Actually, it’s the brains I’m attracted to. I’m not so impressed by fancy feathers.
Tulio: I know exactly what you mean. My favorite bird is the spotted owl. I’ve always
been mesmerized by those big, round intelligent eyes.
Chef: Chicken rolls? Lambada.
Linda: Oh, chicken hearts. Oh, Gosh!
Tulio: Hello.
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Section 2: Animals & Ecology
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Huntley Meadows Park in Fairfax County, Virginia, is home to a wide variety of
birds. That’s where Ana Arguelles and her husband, Jeff Wneck, who live next to the
588-hectare wetlands, as they prepare to go bird watching at the park, Argüelles says
they have been taking part in the annual count for several years. “I want to keep seeing
birds in the future, and this is the way I feel I can help.”
Early on New Year’s Day, they are joined by other volunteers, carrying binoculars
and bird books. Birding is the second most popular hobby in the United States. Ray
Smith has traveled around the world on birdwatching expeditions. “They’re pretty.
They’re fun to watch. They’re interesting to know about. ”
He uses a telescope and binoculars to get close-up views. Arguelles tallies the
number of species the group has identified. Ruth Goetz spots an egret, which is not
usually seen in the park during winter. “It’s just amazing the variety of birds you find
here.” She and her tweleve-year-old son, Joel, are attending their first Christmas bird
count. “I think that it’s an important part of researching birds and finding out how the
bird populations are doing, and I think it’s also fun.”
The day gets even more exciting when a rarely-seen merlin and another bird chase
each other. Smith takes a photo of the small falcon using his telescope and a camera
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phone. “I think it was an adult.” The merlin is a rare sight at Huntley Meadows and one
of the world’s fastest birds. “It’s powerful. You know, the bird has character. It really gets
you going.”
Bird count data show the population of merlins and other birds is decreasing.
Audubon Chief Scientist Gary Langham says that’s primarily because of habitat
destruction. “Just in the last 40 years, almost all species of birds’ populations have
decreased somewhere between 40 and 80 percent.”
The data also show North American birds are shifting their winter ranges farther
north. Langham believes that’s because of rising temperatures due to climate change.
“There’s going to be significant range shifts over the coming years in response to a
warming planet.”
The information collected over more than a century of counts helps scientists
identify bird species at risk and suggests ways to protect their habitats and breeding
grounds. Arguelles says that’s important because people and wildlife rely on the same
ecosystems. “If we protect the wildlife in natural environments, we are protecting
ourselves.” She appreciates that Huntley Meadows Park is a refuge for birds, and for
people who want to enjoy their beauty.
VIDEO WATCHING
Animal ER: Inside Prestigious Hospital with Four-Legged Patients
For many of us, the prospect of receiving top-notch medical care is little more than
a pipe dream. But for the lucky patients you’re about to meet, somebody else is covering
the cost. They may be fluffy, scaly or feathery, but these animals are all in need of urgent
care, and their owners are willing to foot the bill. Would you go this far to save your
pets? Here’s ABC’s Gio Benitez. “He’s very sweet. He loves people, especially women.
Pretty girls. Just loves them. It’s amazing.”
Reporter: It was a little over a year ago that Ted and Lisa started to notice problems
with Fred, their 5-year-old boxer. “Back in August of 2013, he just started to see
strawberry color blood, which obviously wasn’t right.”
Reporter: Fred, for the last year, has had blood in his urine.
“He has an unknown cause for kidney bleeding. And it’s just progressively gotten
much worse.”
“What’s his heart rate? It was probably around 100, maybe 110.”
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Reporter: Desperate for answers, Ted and Lisa drove five hours from their home
in Massachusetts in hopes that the animal medical center in New York City could solve
their mystery. At the center, you can expect typical pets like birds, dogs and cats. But
they also treat chameleons like this one that ate a few stones from his cage. They had a
horse come in so that it can be cat scanned. And earlier this year, they did surgery on an
otter. For Ted and Lisa, surgery is nothing new.
“He had a surgery back in January. And it was rough. They split him because they
thought he had bladder stones that were causing the bleeding.”
Reporter: $58 billion will be spent nationwide on pets this year. With close to $100
million alone being spent on just pet insurance.
“Oh, my lord. With the first surgery, it was like a $4,500 thing. This, I don’t know for
sure, but their estimate is $6,000 to $8,000. Random visits to the cardiologist and stuff—
we’re pushing over 15 grand, I’ll bet.”
Reporter: Pet hospitals have evolved over the years and as you can see, they offer
many of the same things that human hospitals do. Like cancer treatment, rehabilitation
and even dermatology. The animal medical center here even has a 24-hour emergency
room.
“All the trauma, all the cats falling out of builds, they come through this room.”
Reporter: We go and tour the E.R. with Dr. Richard Goldstein, chief medical officer.
“We see over 45,000 cases a year.”
Reporter: Really?
“It’s well over 100 a day. And, you know, some of them are minor, but many of them
are pretty severe. The injured or sick. You never know. When you come in the morning,
you never know what’s going to happen in the day.”
Reporter: As we walk to one of the emergency operating rooms, a team is working
on a young puppy who had an unfortunate accident.
“That puppy was playing with a larger dog. They got into a little fight.”
Reporter: The dog’s jaw is fractured, so, they will remove the broken tooth and
place a splint inside her mouth. How long will she stay here?
“She’ll go home today. ”
Reporter: Today? After all that, she’s going home today?
“Usually if you get a fracture stable, they’ll be leaving the same day.”
Reporter: My jaw’s hurting just thinking about it.
Reporter: But like any other hospital, there are not always happy endings. What is it
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like for you to see that little face staring back at you?
“It’s great. It is great. It’s wonderful. You learn to see the successes when you can,
especially at this level of medicine. Not every dog is going to leave here. Not every cat is
going to leave here. And not every story is going to have a happy ending. But you learn
to take satisfaction out of doing the best you can for all of them.”
Reporter: Doctor Allison Bran and her husband Doctor Whiz are heading up Fred’s
surgical team and they are hoping for a happy ending.
“The condition that he has is very, very rare. And it’s something that we probably
have seen more of this than anyone in the world at this point and that’s only probably
15 to 20 cases.”
Reporter: In the past, they would have taken out the bad kidney, which is very
invasive and in most cases, they would just put the animal down. This might be Fred’s
only chance.
“Medication has failed, so, not only is this a minimally invasive alternative, this is
kind of a last option to try and get this bleeding to stop.”
Reporter: The doctors hope a new procedure only done in humans will help Fred
out.
“We started on humans I guess about 20 years ago. It’s become sort of a standard
with very good success.”
Reporter: This doctor is so sure of this, because it is his technique that the team will
be executing. After the technicians anesthetized Fred, we scrubbed up and went in for
surgery. After going into the bladder, the doctors will need to figure out which kidney is
bleeding, and then go inside the kidney to help clot the bleeding. This is estimated to be
close to an eight-hour procedure, but by hour two, there seems to be a slight problem.
“Is it possible that the condition the doctors went in thinking it was actually is
something else? ”
“Yes.”
Reporter: As you can see, no blood is pumping out of his kidney. It is absolutely
bright yellow and actually healthy looking urine. The doctor Bran decides to look along
the edge of the bladder.
“There you go, you see, right there.”
Reporter: That blood sort of oozing out there. See it? Right here. What could that
be? Hidden behind a small clot, a small blood vessel has ruptured and been causing all
that massive bleeding that Fred has been dealing with for the last year.
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“What are they going to do?”
“They’re going to destroy that area with something like a laser.”
Reporter: That small fissure in his bladder is even rarer than if his kidney was
bleeding.
“That’s it. It’s done.”
“Hold that word for that.”
“I thought we weren’t going to find anything. If you are just patient and take your
time to look, you find something underneath everything.”
Reporter: After that quick and successful treatment, Fred will spend the next few
hours in recovery.
“Hi, it’s Dr. Bran calling. Animal Medical Center. Just give me a call when you get a chance.”
Reporter: A few hours later, Ted and Lisa were able to come and pick up Fred.
“They did a good job. We are happy.”
Reporter: And take him home. The final bill is $4,600.
“Come on, Fred. Your 15 minutes of fame are over.”
Reporter: For “Nightline,” I’m Gio Benitez in New York.
LECTURE WATCHING
Life in the Deep Down Ocean
David Gallo: This is Bill Lange. I’m Dave Gallo. And we’re going to tell you some
stories from the sea here in video. We’ve got some of the most incredible video of Titanic
that’s ever been seen, and we’re not going to show you any of it. (Laughter)
The truth of the matter is that the Titanic—even though it’s breaking all sorts of
box office records—it’s not the most exciting story from the sea. And the problem, I
think, is that we take the ocean for granted. When you think about it, the oceans are 75
percent of the planet. Most of the planet is ocean water. The average depth is about two
miles. Part of the problem, I think, is we stand at the beach, or we see images like this
of the ocean, and you look out at this great big blue expanse, and it’s shimmering and
it’s moving and there’s waves and there’s surf and there’s tides, but you have no idea
for what lies in there. And in the oceans, there are the longest mountain ranges on the
planet. Most of the animals are in the oceans. Most of the earthquakes and volcanoes are
in the sea, at the bottom of the sea. The biodiversity and the biodensity in the ocean is
higher, in places, than it is in the rainforests. It’s mostly unexplored, and yet there are
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beautiful sights like this that captivate us and make us become familiar with it.
But when you’re standing at the beach, I want you to think that you’re standing at
the edge of a very unfamiliar world. We have to have a very special technology to get into
that unfamiliar world. We use the submarine Alvin and we use cameras, and the cameras
are something that Bill Lange has developed with the help of Sony. Marcel Proust said,
“The true voyage of discovery is not so much in seeking new landscapes as in having
new eyes.” People that have partnered with us have given us new eyes, not only on what
exists—the new landscapes at the bottom of the sea—but also how we think about life
on the planet itself.
Here’s a jelly. It’s one of my favorites, because it’s got all sorts of working parts. This
turns out to be the longest creature in the oceans. It gets up to about 150 feet long. But
see all those different working things? I love that kind of stuff. It’s got these fishing
lures on the bottom. They’re going up and down. It’s got tentacles dangling, swirling
around like that. It’s a colonial animal. These are all individual animals banding together
to make this one creature. And it’s got these jet thrusters up in front that it’ll use in a
moment, and a little light. If you take all the big fish and schooling fish and all that, put
them on one side of the scale, put all the jelly-type of animals on the other side, those
guys win hands down.
Most of the biomass in the ocean is made out of creatures like this. Here’s the X-wing
death jelly.(Laughter) The bioluminescence—they use the lights for attracting mates and
attracting prey and communicating. We couldn’t begin to show you our archival stuff
from the jellies. They come in all different sizes and shapes.
Bill Lange: We tend to forget about the fact that the ocean is miles deep on average,
and that we’re real familiar with the animals that are in the first 200 or 300 feet, but we’re
not familiar with what exists from there all the way down to the bottom. And these
are the types of animals that live in that three-dimensional space, that micro-gravity
environment that we really haven’t explored. You hear about giant squid and things like
that, but some of these animals get up to be approximately 140, 160 feet long. They’re
very little understood.
DG: This is one of them, another one of our favorites, because it’s a little
octopod. You can actually see through his head. And here he is, flapping with his
ears and very gracefully going up. We see those at all depths and even at the greatest
depths. They go from a couple of inches to a couple of feet. They come right up to the
submarine—they’ll put their eyes right up to the window and peek inside the sub.
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This is really a world within a world, and we’re going to show you two. In this case,
we’re passing down through the mid-ocean and we see creatures like this. This is kind of
like an undersea rooster. This guy, that looks incredibly formal, in a way. And then one
of my favorites. What a face! This is basically scientific data that you’re looking at. It’s
footage that we’ve collected for scientific purposes. And that’s one of the things that Bill’s
been doing, is providing scientists with this first view of animals like this, in the world
where they belong. They don’t catch them in a net. They’re actually looking at them
down in that world. We’re going to take a joystick, sit in front of our computer, on the
Earth, and press the joystick forward, and fly around the planet.
We’re going to look at the mid-ocean ridge, a 40,000-mile long mountain range. The
average depth at the top of it is about a mile and a half. And we’re over the Atlantic—
that’s the ridge right there—but we’re going to go across the Caribbean, Central
America, and end up against the Pacific, nine degrees north. We make maps of these
mountain ranges with sound, with sonar, and this is one of those mountain ranges. We’re
coming around a cliff here on the right. The height of these mountains on either side of
this valley is greater than the Alps in most cases. And there’s tens of thousands of those
mountains out there that haven’t been mapped yet.
This is a volcanic ridge. We’re getting down further and further in scale. And
eventually, we can come up with something like this.
This is an icon of our robot, Jason, it’s called. And you can sit in a room like
this, with a joystick and a headset, and drive a robot like that around the bottom of
the ocean in real time. One of the things we’re trying to do at Woods Hole with our
partners is to bring this virtual world—this world, this unexplored region—back to the
laboratory. Because we see it in bits and pieces right now. We see it either as sound, or
we see it as video, or we see it as photographs, or we see it as chemical sensors, but we
never have yet put it all together into one interesting picture.
Here’s where Bill’s cameras really do shine. This is what’s called a hydrothermal
vent. And what you’re seeing here is a cloud of densely packed, hydrogen-sulfiderich water coming out of a volcanic axis on the sea floor. Gets up to 600, 700 degrees
F, somewhere in that range. So that’s all water under the sea—a mile and a half, two
miles, three miles down. And we knew it was volcanic back in the ‘60s, ‘70s. And then
we had some hint that these things existed all along the axis of it, because if you’ve got
volcanism, water’s going to get down from the sea into cracks in the sea floor, come in
contact with magma, and come shooting out hot. We weren’t really aware that it would
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be so rich with sulfides, hydrogen sulfides. We didn’t have any idea about these things,
which we call chimneys.
This is one of these hydrothermal vents. Six hundred degree F water coming out of
the Earth. On either side of us are mountain ranges that are higher than the Alps, so the
setting here is very dramatic.
BL: The white material is a type of bacteria that thrives at 180 degrees C.
DG: I think that’s one of the greatest stories right now that we’re seeing from
the bottom of the sea, is that the first thing we see coming out of the sea floor after
a volcanic eruption is bacteria. And we started to wonder for a long time, how did
it all get down there? What we find out now is that it’s probably coming from inside
the Earth. Not only is it coming out of the Earth—so, biogenesis made from volcanic
activity—but that bacteria supports these colonies of life. The pressure here is 4,000
pounds per square inch. A mile and a half from the surface to two miles to three miles—
no sun has ever gotten down here. All the energy to support these life forms is coming
from inside the Earth—so, chemosynthesis. And you can see how dense the population
is. These are called tube worms.
BL: These worms have no digestive system. They have no mouth. But they have two
types of gill structures. One for extracting oxygen out of the deep-sea water, another one
which houses this chemosynthetic bacteria, which takes the hydrothermal fluid—that
hot water that you saw coming out of the bottom—and converts that into simple sugars
that the tube worm can digest.
DG: You can see, here’s a crab that lives down there. He’s managed to grab a tip
of these worms. Now, they normally retract as soon as a crab touches them. Oh! Good
going. So, as soon as a crab touches them, they retract down into their shells, just
like your fingernails. There’s a whole story being played out here that we’re just now
beginning to have some idea of because of this new camera technology.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Benjamin: Listen, what… I mean, what would we do with 18 acres?
Stevens: I’m gonna be honest with you. The Rosemoor Property has some challenges.
Benjamin: Well, what doesn’t?
Stevens: True, but this situation… I want to offer the word “unique.”
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Benjamin: Wait a second. Is that it?
Stevens: Yes.
Benjamin: Rosie.
Stevens: And…
Benjamin: Look. You don’t have to take a picture, Rosie.
Rosie: Why not?
Benjamin: ‘Cause we are gonna live here.
Stevens: Mr. Mee, we have to talk, okay? Let’s not rush into things. Let’s not… whoa,
whoa, whoa, Mr. Mee, right now, I think we are jumping the gun.
Benjamin: This is exactly what we’ve been looking for.
Stevens: Well, let’s not get ahead of ourselves. Let’s… let’s just take it all in first. Don’t
take a gift that’s not given to you yet now. All right?
Benjamin: This place is perfect. Why didn’t you mention it earlier?
Stevens: Well, that’s a little bit complicated.
Benjamin: W
ell, complicated is okay. Complicated can be great. We love complicated,
right? What so complicated about this place?
Stevens: Well, you see, it’s a… it’s a…
Benjamin: What is it?
Stevens: It has complications to it, Mr. Mee. And… it’s a zoo.
Benjamin: A zoo?
Stevens: It’s a zoo.
Rosie: Yay!
Stevens: Yay … It was a fully function… whoo, okay.
Benjamin: Man. Totally scary.
Stevens: This was a fully functioning zoo until two years ago. Then it was shut down.
The estate’s been maintaining it for now, you know, just to keep it up, keep
it going, you know?
Benjamin: W
ell, I mean… could I… you know, but the property and then relocate the
animals?
Stevens: Well, actually, the estate is selling the property with the stipulation that
whoever comes to board and buys the property is going to care and maintain
these endangered animals.
Benjamin: Oh, come on.
Stevens: And then there’s the remaining staff on board and, you know. If no one buys
this property soon, these animals will probably have to be…
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Benjamin: W
ell, thanks. I mean, I don’t know anything about animals and zoos. I
mean… it’s a…
Stevens: It is.
Benjamin: It is what it is.
Stevens: It is what it is. Sometimes you don’t know what it is until you see what it is.
You know? Once you see what it is, then you can figure out, is it what it is?
You understand?
Benjamin: No, but we can move on.
Stevens: Yeah.
Benjamin: It’s just… it’s just too bad.
Stevens: Yeah.
Benjamin: S
o we keep on looking. Right, Rosie? Oh, God! Great, I keep her home from
school one day and she gets eaten!
Rosie: Ring around Rosie. Hey, you want some food? Are you hungry? I think so.
Benjamin: Boy, it’s a shame we… we can’t just…
Rosie: You must like it. I like your feathers. I like yours on your head. And I like
your… I’m gonna live here. I’m gonna keep you. You look like my brother
Dylan.
Benjamin: They’re gonna… they’re gonna get all your crackers.
Duncan: I said “human” interaction. This is what happens when people have a, you
know, what occur in their lives. They wake up one day and they say, “I’m
gonna quit my job and try something completely different with my life.” But
then they wake up another day. And they say to themselves, “Thank God my
older brother didn’t let me blow Dad’s inheritance by buying a broken-down
zoo in the country, nine miles from the nearest target store.”
Benjamin: But maybe my older brother didn’t see this place.
Duncan: Gracias, Lupe.
Benjamin: L
ook. This is… This is simple destiny. The place makes 75% of its revenue in
the summertime. If I can get an inspection set for the end of June, right? I’ll
be open by July. It’s only February right now. It’s a lot of work, but I think I
can do it. Duncan, you should have seen Rosie.
Duncan: Look, do… I’m begging you, do what other people do. Go to Vegas. Loose a
little bit of money. Or do what I did, when Sheila left me.
Benjamin: Start handicapping horses?
Duncan: Well, now, that was a little misguided.
Benjamin: G
o into the commercial shrimping business and call myself captain Dunk.
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Start cliff diving in Acapulco at the age of 38.
Duncan: I miss Sheila, man.
Benjamin: I know, man. I know.
Duncan: All right. Forget that. Forget all that. Don’t do what I did. Travel the stages of
grief. Yet, stop just before zebras get involved.
Benjamin: I t’s only two zebras. And a lion. And a jaguar. And 47 other species, 7 of
which are endangered. And all of them are saved the second we make this
deal. The kids are gonna be so psyched.
Duncan: Really? Psyched?
Benjamin: Yeah.
Duncan: Are they really gonna be psyched?
Clip # 2
Dylan: You are freaking kidding me! It’s a zoo!
Benjamin: W
ell, yeah. Look, these animals need somebody to rescue them.
Dylan: The… The animals need to be… Dad, my friends are here! Our life is here!
Benjamin: W
hoa! Man, you got expelled! All right? What am I gonna do? What am I
supposed to… What, I’m gonna home-school you?
Dylan: No!
Benjamin: Right. So what did we talk about? A new place. A new start.
Dylan: This is what you want. It’s not what I want!
Benjamin: What?
Dylan: It’s a zoo. I’m moving to a zoo.
Rosie: We bought a zoo!
Benjamin: Y
es, we did. We did buy a zoo. Give me some fork. All right. Let’s let this shirt
start over! Okay, two more left. A good one. Oldie but a goodie. What do you
think?
Rosie: Mommy used to wear that sometimes.
Benjamin: S
he did. This was a… It started out as mine, but she kind of adopted it. But
it’s got rips and everything everywhere. Tough to give some of these thing
away, right? Keep it?
Rosie: It’s time. Let that sweatshirt start over.
Benjamin: Let it start over. Okay, this is it. the last item.
Rosie: Never. That, we’re keeping.
Benjamin: Okay.
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Section 3: Smog & Environment
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
The impact of climate change is so great that it could undermine the last 50 years of
gains in global health, according to the Lancet Commission report.
Weather extremes made worse by climate change are potentially catastrophic and
unacceptable, says Commission’s project leader Nicolas Watts, who spoke to VOA via
Skype.
“In terms of drought, we often see corresponding decreases in agricultural
productivity, which then in turn has a profound impact on malnutrition, particularly for
children, and floods we often see a rise in the rates of infectious diseases, cholera and
diarrheal diseases that happen as a result of a breakdown in sanitation.”
Increasingly, it’s just hotter, which can be deadly. An extreme heatwave in 2003 left
70,000 people dead across Europe. “And those sorts of events are expected to increase
in frequency and severity as time goes on.”
The World Health Organization warns that unless dramatic action is taken to reduce
global warming emissions by 2030, approximately 250,000 people will die each year
from the effects of climate change.
Outdoor air pollution is linked to some three million deaths worldwide, 1.2 million
in China alone. Watts says a shift from coal-fired power plants to renewable energy can
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greatly reduce that danger.
“We see immediate declines in hospital admissions and in health care costs, which
reduces the burden of already struggling health budgets. But there are also benefits
to be found outside of the energy, you can decrease the amount the reliance on cars
and motor vehicles, and try to encourage active transport like cycling and walking, you
reduce the carbon emission from that sector, but you also decrease the rates of diabetes
and obesity.”
Among its recommendations, the Commission supports a phase-out of coal power
plants, expansion of renewable energy, investment in health systems and a commitment
to a strong global climate treaty. Watts says public health is at the core of a new global
agreement.
“Most of what you want to do to respond to climate change is good for public
health, and it is actually a much brighter future.”
Watts says health care professionals can be advocates in the battle against climate
change, he says what is good for the planet is good for patient care.
VIDEO WATCHING
Hi everybody and welcome to [email protected] CNN, today from San Francisco’s historic
Coit Tower atop Telegraph Hill. I’m James Hattori. This month marks the start of smog
season, and well what we have behind us today is a little of our typical fog, six of the ten
smoggiest metro areas in the U.S. are right here in California. That’s according to the
latest list put out this week by the American Lung Association. Natalie Pawelski reports
on the best and worst of the list and what it means to your health. From coast to smoggy coast, half of all Americans are living dangerously in places
where air pollution levels, the report says, can be hazardous to your health. There actually has been an increase of about 18 percent in the areas that are rated
an F, which is unhealthy. For the third year in a row, the four smoggiest cities are in California: LA,
Bakersfield, Fresno and Visalia. Houston, Texas came in fifth. Atlanta ranked sixth,
followed by Merced, California; Knoxville, Tennessee; Charlotte, North Carolina and
Sacramento. All these cities who were F’s were at ground level ozone. Note most on
the list are hot and sunny. Start with the pollution most cities have, nitrogen oxides and
hydrocarbons from tailpipe emissions and smokestack pollutants, mix in the heat and
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sunlight, and you get ozone. That’s the main ingredient in smog. Ozone is especially
dangerous for people with asthma, children and the elderly. Because ozone is an irritant. It’s like getting a sunburn on your airways and that
affects everyone. But some Americans are breathing relatively freely in cities that earned an A,
suffering no smog alerts from 1998 to 2000. That list includes Bellingham, Washington;
Colorado Springs, Colorado; Duluth, Minnesota; Fargo, North Dakota; and Flagstaff,
Arizona. Also on that clean list, Honolulu, Laredo, Texas; Lincoln, Nebraska; McAllen,
Texas; Salinas, California; and Spokane, Washington. Some of these cities are relatively
low smog because of climate of geography. Others have less traffic or fewer industrial
sources of pollution. You can’t do anything about the weather and the topography. What you have to
address are the sources of hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Cleaning up the sources of that pollution from the plants that power our homes
and businesses to the tailpipes on America’s increasingly crowded roads will not be easy. LECTURE WATCHING
We are at a remarkable moment in time. We face over the next two decades two
fundamental transformations that will determine whether the next 100 years is the best
of centuries or the worst of centuries.
Let me illustrate with an example. I first visited Beijing 25 years ago to teach at the
People’s University of China. China was getting serious about market economics and
about university education, so they decided to call in the foreign experts. Like most
other people, I moved around Beijing by bicycle. Apart from dodging the occasional
vehicle, it was a safe and easy way to get around. Cycling in Beijing now is a completely
different prospect. The roads are jammed by cars and trucks. The air is dangerously
polluted from the burning of coal and diesel. When I was there last in the spring, there
was an advisory for people of my age—over 65—to stay indoors and not move much.
How did this come about? It came from the way in which Beijing has grown as a city.
It’s doubled over those 25 years, more than doubled, from 10 million to 20 million. It’s
become a sprawling urban area dependent on dirty fuel, dirty energy, particularly coal.
China burns half the world’s coal each year, and that’s why, it is a key reason why, it is
the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases. At the same time, we have to recognize
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that in that period China has grown remarkably. It has become the world’s second
largest economy. Hundreds of millions of people have been lifted out of poverty. That’s
really important. But at the same time, the people of China are asking the question:
What’s the value of this growth if our cities are unlivable? They’ve analyzed, diagnosed
that this is an unsustainable path of growth and development. China’s planning to scale
back coal. It’s looking to build its cities in different ways.
Now, the growth of China is part of a dramatic change, fundamental change, in the
structure of the world economy. Just 25 years ago, the developing countries, the poorer
countries of the world, were, notwithstanding being the vast majority of the people, they
accounted for only about a third of the world’s output. Now it’s more than half; 25 years
from now, it will probably be two thirds from the countries that we saw 25 years ago as
developing. That’s a remarkable change. It means that most countries around the world,
rich or poor, are going to be facing the two fundamental transformations that I want to
talk about and highlight.
Now, the first of these transformations is the basic structural change of the
economies and societies that I’ve already begun to illustrate through the description
of Beijing. Fifty percent now in urban areas. That’s going to go to 70 percent in 2050.
Over the next two decades, we’ll see the demand for energy rise by 40 percent, and
the growth in the economy and in the population is putting increasing pressure on our
land, on our water and on our forests.
This is profound structural change. If we manage it in a negligent or a shortsighted
way, we will create waste, pollution, congestion, destruction of land and forests. If
we think of those three areas that I have illustrated with my numbers—cities, energy,
land—if we manage all that badly, then the outlook for the lives and livelihoods of
the people around the world would be poor and damaged. And more than that,
the emissions of greenhouse gases would rise, with immense risks to our climate.
Concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are already higher than they’ve
been for millions of years. If we go on increasing those concentrations, we risk
temperatures over the next century or so that we have not seen on this planet for tens
of millions of years. We’ve been around as Homo sapiens—that’s a rather generous
definition, sapiens—for perhaps a quarter of a million years, a quarter of a million.
We risk temperatures we haven’t seen for tens of millions of years over a century. That
would transform the relationship between human beings and the planet. It would lead
through changing deserts, changing rivers, changing patterns of hurricanes, changing
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sea levels, hundreds of millions of people, perhaps billions of people who would have
to move, and if we’ve learned anything from history, that means severe and extended
conflict.
And we couldn’t just turn it off. You can’t make a peace treaty with the planet. You
can’t negotiate with the laws of physics. You’re in there. You’re stuck. Those are the
stakes we’re playing for, and that’s why we have to make this second transformation,
the climate transformation, and move to a low-carbon economy. Now, the first of
these transformations is going to happen anyway. We have to decide whether to do
it well or badly, the economic, or structural, transformation. But the second of the
transformations, the climate transformations, we have to decide to do. Those two
transformations face us in the next two decades. The next two decades are decisive for
what we have to do. Now, the more I’ve thought about this, the two transformations
coming together, the more I’ve come to realize that this is an enormous opportunity.
It’s an opportunity which we can use or it’s an opportunity which we can lose. And let
me explain through those three key areas that I’ve identified: cities, energy and land.
And let me start with cities. I’ve already described the problems of Beijing: pollution,
congestion, waste and so on. Surely we recognize that in many of our cities around the
world.
Now, with cities, like life but particularly cities, you have to think ahead. The cities
that are going to be built—and there are many, and many big ones—we have to think of
how to design them in a compact way so we can save travel time and we can save energy.
The cities that already are there, well established, we have to think about renewal
and investment in them so that we can connect ourselves much better within those
cities, and make it easier, encourage more people, to live closer to the center. We’ve
got examples building around the world of the kinds of ways in which we can do that.
The bus rapid transport system in Bogotá in Colombia is a very important case of how
to move around safely and quickly in a non-polluting way in a city: very frequent buses,
strongly protected routes, the same service, really, as an underground railway system,
but much, much cheaper and can be done much more quickly, a brilliant idea in many
more cities around the world that’s developing.
Now, some things in cities do take time. Some things in cities can happen much
more quickly. Take my hometown, London. In 1952, smog in London killed 4,000
people and badly damaged the lives of many, many more. And it happened all the time.
For those of you live outside London in the U.K. will remember it used to be called “The
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Smoke.” That’s the way London was. By regulating coal, within a few years the problems
of smog were rapidly reduced. I remember the smogs well. When the visibility dropped
to more than a few meters, they stopped the buses and I had to walk. This was the
1950s. I had to walk home three miles from school. Again, breathing was a hazardous
activity. But it was changed. It was changed by a decision. Good decisions can bring
good results, striking results, quickly.
We’ve seen more: In London, we’ve introduced the congestion charge, actually
quite quickly and effectively, and we’ve seen great improvements in the bus system, and
cleaned up the bus system. You can see that the two transformations I’ve described, the
structural and the climate, come very much together. But we have to invest. We have to
invest in our cities, and we have to invest wisely, and if we do, we’ll see cleaner cities,
quieter cities, safer cities, more attractive cities, more productive cities, and stronger
community in those cities—public transport, recycling, reusing, all sorts of things that
bring communities together. We can do that, but we have to think, we have to invest, we
have to plan.
Let me turn to energy. Now, energy over the last 25 years has increased by about 50
percent. Eighty percent of that comes from fossil fuels. Over the next 20 years, perhaps it
will increase by another 40 percent or so. We have to invest strongly in energy, we have
to use it much more efficiently, and we have to make it clean. We can see how to do that.
Take the example of California. It would be in the top 10 countries in the world if it was
independent. I don’t want to start any—(Laughter) California’s a big place. (Laughter) In
the next five or six years, they will likely move from around 20 percent in renewables—
wind, solar and so on—to over 33 percent, and that would bring California back to
greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 to where they were in 1990, a period when the
economy in California would more or less have doubled. That’s a striking achievement.
It shows what can be done. Not just California—the incoming government of India is
planning to get solar technology to light up the homes of 400 million people who don’t
have electricity in India. They’ve set themselves a target of five years. I think they’ve got
a good chance of doing that. We’ll see, but what you’re seeing now is people moving
much more quickly. Four hundred million, more than the population of the United
States. Those are the kinds of ambitions now people are setting themselves in terms
of rapidity of change. Again, you can see good decisions can bring quick results, and
those two transformations, the economy and the structure and the climate and the low
carbon, are intimately intertwined. Do the first one well, the structural, the second one
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on the climate becomes much easier.
Look at land, land and particularly forests. Forests are the hosts to valuable plant
and animal species. They hold water in the soil and they take carbon dioxide out of
the atmosphere, fundamental to the tackling of climate change. But we’re losing our
forests. In the last decade, we’ve lost a forest area the size of Portugal, and much more
has been degraded. But we’re already seeing that we can do so much about that. We can
recognize the problem, but we can also understand how to tackle it. In Brazil, the rate of
deforestation has been reduced by 70 percent over the last 10 years. How? By involving
local communities, investing in their agriculture and their economies, by monitoring
more carefully, by enforcing the law more strictly.
And it’s not just stopping deforestation. That’s of course of first and fundamental
importance, but it’s also regrading degraded land, regenerating, rehabilitating degraded
land. I first went to Ethiopia in 1967. It was desperately poor. In the following years, it
suffered devastating famines and profoundly destructive social conflict. Over the last
few years, actually more than a few, Ethiopia has been growing much more rapidly.
It has ambitions to be a middle-income country 15 years from now and to be carbon
neutral. Again, I think it’s a strong ambition but it is a plausible one. You’re seeing
that commitment there. You’re seeing what can be done. Ethiopia is investing in clean
energy. It’s working in the rehabilitation of land. In Humbo, in Southwest Ethiopia, a
wonderful project to plant trees on degraded land and work with local communities on
sustainable forest management has led to big increases in living standards.
So we can see, from Beijing to London, from California to India, from Brazil to
Ethiopia, we do understand how to manage those two transformations, the structural
and the climate. We do understand how to manage those well. And technology is
changing very rapidly. I don’t have to list all those things to an audience like this, but
you can see the electric cars, you can see the batteries using new materials. You can see
that we can manage remotely now our household appliances on our mobile phones
when we’re away. You can see better insulation. And there’s much more coming.
But, and it’s a big but, the world as a whole is moving far too slowly. We’re
not cutting emissions in the way we should. We’re not managing those structural
transformations as we can. The depth of understanding of the immense risks of climate
change are not there yet. The depth of understanding of the attractiveness of what
we can do is not there yet. We need political pressure to build. We need leaders to
step up. We can have better growth, better climate, a better world. We can make, by
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managing those two transformations well, the next 100 years the best of centuries. If we
make a mess of it, we, you and me, if we make a mess of it, if we don’t manage those
transformations properly, it will be, the next 100 years will be the worst of centuries.
That’s the major conclusion of the report on the economy and climate chaired by exPresident Felipe Calderón of Mexico, and I co-chaired that with him, and we handed
that report yesterday here in New York, in the United Nations Building to the SecretaryGeneral of the U.N., Ban Ki-moon. We know that we can do this.
Now, two weeks ago, I became a grandfather for the fourth time. Our daughter—
(Baby cries)—Our daughter gave birth to Rosa here in New York two weeks ago. Here
are Helen and Rosa. (Applause) Two weeks old. Are we going to look our grandchildren
in the eye and tell them that we understood the issues, that we recognized the dangers
and the opportunities, and still we failed to act? Surely not. Let’s make the next 100
years the best of centuries.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Captain: Prepare for landing. We’re here everybody. Yay Captain, Captain, it’s so
beautiful. No, nothing, I was pleased to do this. It’s all about you people. It’s
not about me. How? How did you find it? We can go back home! For the
first time! Oh what’s it like now? No no no, don’t tell me. I want to see for
myself. Wait, that doesn’t look like Earth. Where’s the blue sky? Where’s the
grass? I know that song. They’re, um, dancing. Yes, dancing. You made it
somehow, little guy? You didn’t give up, did you? Okay, then, come on. Wait
a minute.
WALL-E: EVE, EVE… EVE. Pathetic. EVE. EVE!
Robot: Foreign contaminant.
Captain: There you go, little guy. You came a long way for a drink of water. Just
needed someone to look after you, that’s all… We have to go back. Auto,
come down here.
Auto: Aye, aye, sir.
WALL-E: EVE.
Eve: WALL-E.
Captain: Auto, EVE found the plant. Fire up the holo-detector.
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Auto: Not necessary, Captain. You may give it to me.
Captain: You know what? I should do it myself.
Auto: Captain. Sir, I insist you give me the plant.
Captain: Auto, get out of my way.
Auto: We cannot go home.
Captain: What’re you talking about? Why not?
Auto: That is classified, Captain. Give me the plant.
Captain: What do you mean “classified”? You don’t keep a secret from the captain.
Auto: Give me the plant.
Captain: Tell me what’s classified.
Auto: The plant.
Captain: Tell me Auto! That’s an order.
Auto: Aye, aye, sir.
Screen: Buy N Large is your superstore. We got all you need. Just cut it off, will you?
Hey there, autopilots. Got some bad news. Operation cleanup has, well,
failed. Wouldn’t you know, rising toxicity levels have made life unsustainable
on Earth.
Captain: Unsustainable? What?
Screen: Darn it all, we’re going to have to cancel Operation Recolonize. So just stay
the course. Rather than try to fix this problem, it will be easier for everyone
to remain in space.
Captain: Easier?
Screen: Mr. President? Sir, sir, time to go. Okay, I’m giving Override Directive A 113.
Go to full Autopilot. Take control of everything and do not return to Earth.
Repeat. Do not return to Earth. Let’s get the heck out of here.
Auto: Now, the plant.
Captain: No, wait a minute. Computer when was that message sent out to the Axiom?
Computer: Message received in the year 2110.
Captain: That’s… That’s nearly 700 years ago! Auto things have changed! We’ve got to
go back.
Auto: Sir, orders are “do not return to Earth.”
Captain: But life is sustainable now. Look at this plant. Green and growing. It’s living
proof he was wrong.
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Auto: Irrelevant, Captain.
专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Captain: What? It’s completely relevant! Out there is our home. Home Auto. And
it’s in trouble. I can’t just sit here and do nothing. That’s all I’ve ever
done. That’s all anyone on this blasted ship has ever done. Nothing!
Auto: On the Axiom you will survive.
Captain: I don’t want to survive. I want to live!
Auto: Must follow my directive.
Captain: Ah! I’m the captain of the Axiom. We are going home today. Go-4? Hey,
that’s not… This is munity! EVE, arrest him. EVE, you are to put this
plant straight in the holo-detector. No!
EVE: Huh?
WALL-E: EVE?
Eve & Captain: WALL-E?
Captain: WALL-E the plant! Over here, throw it!
WALL-E: EVE!
Auto: Give me the plant.
EVE: No! WALL-E!
Auto: All communications are terminated. You are confined to quarters.
Captain: No! Munity! Munity!
Clip # 2
Woman: Oh, so many stars. Oh. Hey! Hey! That’s... what’s -his-name!
Man: Hey! What the...
Woman: Look! Look at that.
Man: Hey. I know that guy. It’s, uh, WALL-E. Hey, WALL-E! It’s your buddy John.
Woman: Hi, WALL-E!
Man: Hi.
Woman: Hi.
Captain: Define “hoedown.”
Computer: Hoedown, a social gathering at which lively dancing would take place.
Captain: Auto, Earth is amazing! These are called “farms.” Humans would put seeds
in the ground, pour water on them, and they grow food, like pizza.
Auto: Good night, Captain.
Captain: Psst! Computer. Define “dancing.”
Computer: Dancing, a series of movements involving two partners where speed and
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rhythm match harmoniously with music.
WALL-E: Uh-huh. Uh... EVE.
EVE: Home.
Computer: The lido deck is now closing. The lido deck is now closing.
Man: Stop that.
Woman: Make me.
Man: I didn’t know we had a pool.
Robot: No splashing. No diving.
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Section 4: Save the Environment, Save Us
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
No matter how climate talks turn out in paris. The world faces the prospect of
“climate refugees.” Some island nations are already looking to move their people to
higher ground. They are even buying land elsewhere.
A native tribe in the United States faces a similar choice as sea levels rise. Ashley
Ohaire reports from Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula.
Fawn Sharp, the president of the Quinault Indian Tribal still remembers the night
last year when the sea spilled into her coastal village.
“I received a phone call from a tribal elder who lives not far from here, right next to
the ocean. The ocean breached into his backyard and took out his small house.”
The army corps repaired the 2,000 feet sea wall that protects this community, but it
wasn’t the first time the ocean broke through and Shawn says it wouldn’t be the last.
“It will happen. It is not a question of ‘if,’ but ‘when,’ so we have taken
comprehensive effort to relocate our entire village, our court house, our [alarm
enforcement] facilities.” The school, hundreds of homes, the relocation plan will cost
$ 60 million, money the tribe does not have. They are asking the U.S. Government
for help and approaching foundations. About 1,000 tribal members live in this small
community where the Quinault River flows into the Pacific. Half of them make the living
finishing, a livelihood that is under threat. With this year’s mild winter and drought, the
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river was warmer and shallower that ever before recorded.
Shane Underwood takes me through the Quinault seafood plant. He is the
manager here. We walked pass large Bins of Chinook and Coho salmon caught right
here on the Quinault River. “Everybody processes the salmons and get ready for
market,” “How the fish look this year? Has it been a good year?” “No. Hasn’t been a
great year at all due to all the low water conditions we experienced over the summer.
I’ve never seen it as low as it has been.” Underwood said tribal fishermen were bringing
in half as much salmons as they normally would be catching this time of the year, so
the tribe closed down finishing altogether to give the remaining fish a break. To make
matters worse, the glacier that fed the Quinault River and kept the cool melted away five
years ago. Stretches of the river got so dry this summer that when one tribal member
was walking through a particularly low patch, he stubbed his toe on what turned out to
be a baby mastodon jaw. It probably had been submerged since the last Ice Age. Shane
Underwood takes me out onto the tier behind the fishing plant. He points across the
river toward a tribal member in small [aluminum] skiff pulling the net out up the water.
“That fishing ground over there, that ground belongs to my dad. My brother fishes that
ground, and he has a family of 10 people in his household that he has to support. His
sole source of income is fishing.” Shane Underwood’s 23-year-old son, David, comes
out to join us. He is wearing a notorious [B.I.G.] T-shirt and a baseball cap. He’s been
fishing since he was seven, and he is worried. “Climate change could take all our salmon
away.” I asked David about the plan to relocate this tribe because of sea level rise. He
says that it’s hard to explain to non-native people what is like to live in the same place
for thousands of years. “This won’t be the same for anybody who lives anywhere else.
We would pretty much be lost, you know. I mean, I don’t ever wanna have to leave
this place, but if the ocean keeps rising, we are going to have to, I hope and pray that
something’s done about climate change. I really do,” David. David Underwood’s best
hope is Paris where international leaders gather this month. Fawn Sharp, the president
of the Quinault will be attending those climate talks. She says it’s hard to stay optimistic
when year after year leaders have failed to reach global accord, but she is going to Paris
with an open mind. “You are coming together to contend with the seemingly impossible,
but you are part of the solution and it’s that collective will to make a difference to solve
these crisis, that’s the only way it’s going to happen.” Shawn says should be pushing
developed nations to help not only her people but other indigenous peoples around the
world who are on the front lines of climate change.
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VIDEO WATCHING
Forensic scientists, engineers and regulatory specialist at EPA’s national enforcement
investigation center develop innovative technologies to ensure industries complying
with environmental laws and prevent pollution. Experts use these new tools to assess
air and water quality, monitor contaminants, gather data and test samples to analyze
potential pollutants and understand the threat to human health and the environment.
Carol Rushin, “We are getting complaints from communities. But where do you
start looking? And so this these sorts of devices are going to be critical for us and for the
communities to be able to know what they’re being exposed to.”
Technology now allows environmental regulators and scientists to detect and
identify health risks within a matter of hours instead of weeks. Here are three tools
scientists use to get a clear understanding of what’s happening in the environment when
they’re called to respond to a potential problem or known violation of the law.
GMAP is a mobile system equipped with a weather station and global positioning
devices. GMap is used to assess oil and gas production facilities and other industrial
sources like refineries in shipping terminals. It has a methane detector and an ultraviolet
detector for benzene and other hydrocarbons. Ken Garing, “Basically the air is drawn
in through the mast. It goes into some instrumentation inside the vehicle. There is
three tools on the very top of this that are helping us get these calculations. GPS is the
most important of those.” Investigators can drive through a community and identify
sources of emissions and began estimating health risks. They can cover several miles in
a few hours using GMAP , and then bring in other instruments once they’ve detected a
pollution source.
Martha Hamre, “We are able to screen various areas to locate places that we might
want to go. Do a more in-depth inspection. It’s a way to get real-time information about
particular chemicals of concern.”
While the human eye can’t see invisible toxic gas emissions, the infrared camera can
spot these plumes of hydrocarbons, including compounds like benzene which cause
cancer.
Matthew Schneider, “These equipment that are used to detect fugitive emissions of
industrial chemicals that leak from various sources, whether it be tanks or from valves or
pumps or connectors.” From a distance, the I-R cameras can record leaks as dark cloud
like images. Once investigators detect pollution using GMAP, environmental regulators
use the I-R camera to pinpoint the pollution source and record images to document the
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magnitude of the emissions.
Matthew Schneider, “What you see here are flares. And this black plume is actually
uncombusted hydrocarbon coming from the flare. It’s actually an air pollution control
device. It’s supposed to achieve a 98-percent control efficiency, and using the infrared
camera technology we can actually see when a flare is not being operated appropriately.”
For a big-picture analysis, environmental investigators turned to geospatial
technologies to target, evaluate, and monitor pollution.
This includes everything from aerial and satellite imagery analysis, senses and
hydrography data, to soil surveys meteorological data and habitat classification.
Tom Norris, “So, it is an efficiency tool. It helps us focus our resources and helps us
get some immediate information that can be used to help protect the community.”
NEIC scientist constantly look for new ways to improve EPA’s ability to monitor and
measure pollution to protect the environment and keep people safe.
LECTURE WATCHING
We’re at a tipping point in human history, a species poised between gaining the
stars and losing the planet we call home.
Even in just the past few years, we’ve greatly expanded our knowledge of how Earth
fits within the context of our universe. NASA’s Kepler mission has discovered thousands
of potential planets around other stars, indicating that Earth is but one of billions of
planets in our galaxy. Kepler is a space telescope that measures the subtle dimming of
stars as planets pass in front of them, blocking just a little bit of that light from reaching
us. Kepler’s data reveals planets’ sizes as well as their distance from their parent star.
Together, this helps us understand whether these planets are small and rocky, like
the terrestrial planets in our own Solar System, and also how much light they receive
from their parent sun. In turn, this provides clues as to whether these planets that we
discover might be habitable or not.
Unfortunately, at the same time as we’re discovering this treasure trove of potentially
habitable worlds, our own planet is sagging under the weight of humanity. 2014 was the
hottest year on record. Glaciers and sea ice that have been with us for millennia are now
disappearing in a matter of decades. These planetary-scale environmental changes that
we have set in motion are rapidly outpacing our ability to alter their course.
But I’m not a climate scientist, I’m an astronomer. I study planetary habitability as
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influenced by stars with the hopes of finding the places in the universe where we might
discover life beyond our own planet. You could say that I look for choice alien real
estate.
Now, as somebody who is deeply embedded in the search for life in the universe, I
can tell you that the more you look for planets like Earth, the more you appreciate our
own planet itself. Each one of these new worlds invites a comparison between the newly
discovered planet and the planets we know best: those of our own Solar System.
Consider our neighbor, Mars. Mars is small and rocky, and though it’s a bit far from
the Sun, it might be considered a potentially habitable world if found by a mission like
Kepler. Indeed, it’s possible that Mars was habitable in the past, and in part, this is why
we study Mars so much. Our rovers, like Curiosity, crawl across its surface, scratching for
clues as to the origins of life as we know it. Orbiters like the MAVEN mission sample the
Martian atmosphere, trying to understand how Mars might have lost its past habitability.
Private spaceflight companies now offer not just a short trip to near space but the
tantalizing possibility of living our lives on Mars.
But though these Martian vistas resemble the deserts of our own home world,
places that are tied in our imagination to ideas about pioneering and frontiers,
compared to Earth Mars is a pretty terrible place to live. Consider the extent to which
we have not colonized the deserts of our own planet, places that are lush by comparison
with Mars. Even in the driest, highest places on Earth, the air is sweet and thick with
oxygen exhaled from thousands of miles away by our rainforests.
I worry—I worry that this excitement about colonizing Mars and other planets
carries with it a long, dark shadow: the implication and belief by some that Mars will be
there to save us from the self-inflicted destruction of the only truly habitable planet we
know of, the Earth. As much as I love interplanetary exploration, I deeply disagree with
this idea. There are many excellent reasons to go to Mars, but for anyone to tell you that
Mars will be there to back up humanity is like the captain of the Titanic telling you that
the real party is happening later on the lifeboats. (Laughter) (Applause)
Thank you.
But the goals of interplanetary exploration and planetary preservation are not
opposed to one another. No, they’re in fact two sides of the same goal: to understand,
preserve and improve life into the future. The extreme environments of our own world
are alien vistas. They’re just closer to home. If we can understand how to create and
maintain habitable spaces out of hostile, inhospitable spaces here on Earth, perhaps we
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can meet the needs of both preserving our own environment and moving beyond it.
I leave you with a final thought experiment: Fermi’s paradox. Many years ago, the
physicist Enrico Fermi asked that, given the fact that our universe has been around for
a very long time and we expect that there are many planets within it, we should have
found evidence for alien life by now. So where are they? Well, one possible solution to
Fermi’s paradox is that, as civilizations become technologically advanced enough to
consider living amongst the stars, they lose sight of how important it is to safeguard the
home worlds that fostered that advancement to begin with. It is hubris to believe that
interplanetary colonization alone will save us from ourselves, but planetary preservation
and interplanetary exploration can work together.
If we truly believe in our ability to bend the hostile environments of Mars for
human habitation, then we should be able to surmount the far easier task of preserving
the habitability of the Earth.
Thank you.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Staff Member at the Weather Center: L.A. Weather Center.
Tommy: It’s Tommy. I am on the beach.
Staff Member at the Weather Center: I am in the middle of something. Tommy, what
do you need?
Tommy: There is hail the size of golf balls coming down here.
TV Reporter 1: A low-pressure system along the coast of California is creating a cyclonic
system across the L.A. Basin.
Jeff (Boss of the Weather Center): Yeah.
Staff Member at the Weather Center: Boss, turn on the Weather Channel right away. I
think we have to issue a tornado warning.
Jeff: What are you talking about.
TV Reporter 2: Palmdale and Lancaster are reporting wind speeds in excess of 75...
Jeff: Hold on a second.
TV Reporter 2: Conditions highly unusual for California.
Jack: We are building a forecast model, we need... What?
Jason: Priority access to the mainframe for two days, maybe three.
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专题听力二 Nature & Environment
Tom: Oh, is that it? Anything else?
Jack: We need it immediately.
Tom: I would say that you’ve lost your mind, but you’ve been this way for the
past 20 years.
Jack: Tom. This is important.
Janet: What is this forecast model that you are building, if you don’t mind my
asking?
Tom: Janet Tokada. This is Jack Hall. Janet is a hurricane specialists with NASA.
Jack is a paleoclimatologist, and I have absolutely no idea what he’s up
to. Booker, what’s going on here?
Booker: They just issued a tornado warning in Los Angeles.
TV reporter 1: Breaking news as we prepare to go live to Los Angeles. Mixed reports
are coming in about some extreme weather occurring in this area. Okay,
we are now going live to our Fox affiliate in Los Angeles.
Lisa: We have live coverage now from our Fox 11 chopper. Are you there, Bart?
Bart: Yes. I am here. These tornadoes are forming so fast.
Helicopter Pilot: Bart!
Bart: W hat? Oh! Oh, my god. Lisa, are you getting this on camera? This
tornado just came and erase the Hollywood sign. The Hollywood sign is
gone. It’s just shredded.
Lisa: Bart, what can you see? Is anyone hurt?
Bart: I wouldn’t be surprised. There is so much damage here. And there are
people down there taking pictures.
Jeff: Hey, what the hell are you guys doing? Go for cover. You can’t stay here.
Get out of here.
Tommy: W hat you are seeing are two actual tornadoes striking Los Angeles
International Airport. Wait, wait. It looks like they’ve joined and formed
one large tornado.
Tommy’s Friend: Tommy! Oh, my god.
Tommy: Holy shit.
Reporter 1: I’d like to urge all our viewers stay away from...
Staff Member at the Weather Station: Jeff, where are you?
Jeff: I am on Yucca and Vine. I am on my way now.
Staff Member at the Weather Station: Jeff, you are on TV. You’re in the middle of it.
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Jeff: God. Oh, my god.
Staff Member at the Weather Station: You’ve got to get out of there, man.
Reporter 1: The bus just got dropped on top of that Porsche. Oh, my god. I hope no
one was in that car.
Lisa: For our national audience just joining us now, we are going live to
downtown Los Angeles right now. Tommy?
Tommy: I f you look over there behind me, that’s a tornado. Yes, a twister in Los
Angeles. It’s one of many tornadoes that are destroying our city. There’s
another one. That’s the Los Angeles skyline. It’s unbelievable. It’s huge.
I’ve never seen anything like it.
Woman: What’s happening?
Tommy: It looks like some sort of huge, horrific, terrifying nightmare, only this is the
real thing.
Clip # 2
Sam: Excuse me, Sir. You are making a mistake.
Policeman: What, listen, Sir. We are all scared here, but we’ve got no choice.
Sam: That’s not it.
Policeman: Get ready to go.
Sam: If these people go outside, they will freeze to death.
Policeman: OK. What is this nonsense?
Sam: Not nonsense. All right. Look, this storm is gonna get worse. And the people
who are caught outside, they will freeze to death.
Onlooker: Where are you getting this information.
Sam: My father is a climatologist. He works for the government.
Onlooker: So what do you suggest we all do?
Sam: We stay inside. We keep warm. We wait it out.
Policeman: T
he snow is getting deeper by the minute. We are trapped here without
food, supplies...
Sam: It’s a risk. Yeah.
Policeman: An unnecessary risk.
Sam: No. No. No. It’s not.
Policeman: We’ve wasted enough time talking about this. Come on. People, let’s go.
Sam: Look, look. Just look for a second
...
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Music: Language Without Boundaries
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. No, he doesn’t.
2. Earworm.
3. Can’t hear music.
4. More than likely they will get a glass of French wine.
5. No, they won’t.
6. Music with a fast tempo.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. B 2. C 3. A 4. C 5. A 6. C
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. Since its debut last summer.
2. Its bouncy tune, simple lyrics, and outlandish settings.
3. It delivers a concept of simple happiness.
4. Healthy choices.
5. Because everyone can keep themselves healthy and happy.
6. The audience probably never would understand what they intend to do.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. an ambassador for
2. a union address
3. east and west
4. frankly, openly and honestly
5. press upon
6. that soft power exchange
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. The ability to attract and persuade.
2. East and west are like freshman roommates.
3. He thinks sinophobia is not just misinformed, but also misleading and ultimately
dangerous.
4. The relationship between the east and the west needs to be and can be fixed via
pop culture.
Ⅲ. 略
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MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Yes, it is.
2. No, they didn’t.
3. Negative/bad/impatient.
4. The composer of a show is kind of like the playmaker in basketball, who makes
everyone else look good.
5. People with close relationship, such as loves, good friends, etc.
6. She changes her mind and gives Troy and Gabriella a chance.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. closed practice
2. leaves the gym
3. my fault
4. shows up
5. in my book
6. not just a guy
7. team leader
8. the entire school
9. completely focused
10. come along all the time
11. not a singer
12. I could be both
Part B
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Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Rob: Hello. I’m Rob...
Neil: ...and I’m Neil. Hello.
Rob: Hello, Neil! Er, Neil, what’s that, what’s the tune are you humming, there?
Neil: Was I humming? Oh, I just woke up this morning with it in my head. It’s that song—
you know (hums a song).
Rob: N o, no, no idea, no idea what you’re talking about, then Neil, but it’s very
annoying, so could you just stop it please?
Neil: But there’s my problem. I can’t stop humming it out loud. It just keeps repeating
in my head (more humming). Did you know there’s a name for that, Rob? When a
song keeps repeating in your head?
Rob: There’s a name? No, I don’t know what it is—I’m sure you’re gonna to tell me,
though.
Neil: You’re right! It’s an earworm.
Rob: Woo, an earworm, that sounds nasty—is there a cure for that?
Neil: No, I don’t think so! In this programme we’re talking about music—and how it
influences us.
Rob: But first, Neil, can you answer this question: If a person has musical anhedonia,
does it mean they... a) hate music, b) can’t enjoy music, or c) can’t hear music?
Neil: Well, um, “anhedonia” sounds like an illness, so I’m going to go for c) can’t hear
music.
Rob: Yes, OK, OK, you have certainty which I could hear music. We’ll find out if you’re
wrong or right later on. Now let’s listen to Professor Charles Spence telling us how
music affects what we choose to eat and drink.
(Charles Spence, Professor of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University)
Imagine you’re, you’re going to the bar and you’re thinking about a glass of wine.
There’s French music playing behind the counter—more than likely you’ll go for
a glass of French wine. German music behind the counter—your likelihood of
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choosing German wine goes way, way up. If they’re playing classical music you
might be tempted to spend that little bit more.
Neil: What’s the likelihood of you spending more, Rob?
Rob: Q uite likely, actually Neil—and likelihood means the chance of something
happening. I love a good glass of wine.
Neil: Em, me too. But why do we spend more when there’s classical music playing?
Rob: Good question. Well, it makes us feel a bit classy—that’s stylish and sophisticated.
Neil: Em, I’m guessing hip-hop doesn’t have the same effect. Am I right?
Rob: You’re always right, Neil. So, the professor is saying that bars and restaurants use
music to manipulate their customers.
Neil: And that means to control or influence them. Argh! Earworms! They’re messing
with our minds!
Rob: I know, I know, and it doesn’t stop there. Restaurants also use the tempo—or
speed — of the music to change people’s behaviour. A fast tempo gets customers
in and out quickly at busy times. On the other hand, if there aren’t many
customers, the restaurant might want to keep people in the place for longer. So
they put on music with a slow tempo to create a more relaxed atmosphere.
VIDEO WATCHING
Well, it may have been a night for the music industry’s top stars at the AMA’s, but for
Chinese fans, it was a home-grown band that stole the show. The song “Little Apple,” has
been topping the charts across China for months. It was written and performed by the
Chopstick Brothers and has become such a hit that the Brothers were asked to perform
it at the American Music Awards in Los Angeles.
Our Hollywood reporter met up with the singers after rehearsals and asked them
the origin of the song and how they think Americans will react to the hit single.
Is America ready for the Chopsticks Brothers? The Chinese dual—Xiao Yang and
Wang Taili—are the creative team behind “Little Apple,” a song that’s become a sensation
in China since its debut last summer. With its bouncy tune, simple lyrics, and outlandish
settings, the music video for “Little Apple” is a viral hit and has been played 823 million
times on China’s major music and video streaming sites. The origin of the song is as
simple as the beat.
“In the spring of 2012, I finished writing ‘Little Apple.’ It didn’t take me very long to
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write it because the process was fun. Of course, we changed the notes several times but
I liked to dance with it because the song delivers a concept of simple happiness.”
Making it onto prime time on the American Music Awards with such A-list stars
as Taylor Swift, Mary J. Blige and One Direction is a big deal, and not just for the
Chopsticks Brothers. This is the first time a Chinese song will be showcased on the
global stage. And the ingenious inspiration for the song came from healthy choices.
“I keep a very healthy lifestyle. An apple a day, keeps the doctor away. So I have
one apple every day. That’s why I thought about having ‘Little Apple’ as the title. ‘Little
Apple’ keeps us healthy and happy. Our co-workers, families, boyfriends, girlfriends...
everybody can be our ‘Little Apple.’ I think that was a good name.”
Becoming number one in China is not an easy task and the Chopstick Brothers will
not rest on their laurels. Coming to the United States to do the American Music Awards
has been a lot of work.
“The challenge is very big. AMA has a very professional and top-notch choreography
team. ‘Little Apple’ might not be something they’ve never done before. When the
producer got our song and music video, he said the audience probably never would
understand what we want to do here. It’s refreshing but very challenging. Plus we’re
very new to this stage and it’s our first time performing for Western audiences. We were
under lots of pressure. But we had lots of good chemistry with our choreographers.
They found a way to make our dance moves very exaggerated and straightforward,
which made them more powerful.”
LECTURE WATCHING
I never thought I would be addressing you, the esteemed members of the Oxford
Union, without a guitar or an Erhu, without my crazy stage hair, costumes. But I did
perform in the O2 Arena in London last week. I am not sure if any of you were able to
make that. But, er, in many ways, that was similar to what I’m talking about today, that
is, introducing Chinese pop music here. See, I am actually an ambassador for Chinese pop, whether I like it or not, both
music and movies. And today I’m here to give you the state of a union address. It’s not
the Oxford Union. It’s the union of east and west. I wanna frankly, openly and honestly
talk about how we’ve done a good job or how we’ve done a bad job of bringing Chinese
pop to the west. And I also want to press upon all of you here today the importance
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of that soft culture, that soft power exchange and how each of us is involved in that
exchange.
Soft power, a term I am sure you are all familiar with. This point coined by
Rhodes Scholar and Oxford alumnus Joseph Nye is defined as the ability to attract and
persuade. Shashi Tharoor called it, in a recent TED Talk, the ability for a culture to tell a
compelling story and influence others to fall in love with it. I like that definition. But I want to put it in collegiate term for all you students in the audience: the way
I see it, east and west are kinda like freshman roommates. You don’t know a lot about
each other but suddenly you are living together in the same room. And each one is
scared that the other’s gonna steal his shower time or wants a party when the other
wants to study. It has the potential to be absolute hell, doesn’t it? We all had horror stories of THAT
roommate. We’ve all heard about those stories. I know a lot of students here in Oxford
have your own separate bedrooms. But when I was a freshman at Williams College, I
was not fortunate.
(You are kidding me. Woo-hoo! All right, all right! Great. )
Well, I had a roommate, and he was THAT roommate. Let’s just call him Frank. So
Frank was my roommate and Frank liked nothing more than to smoke weed. And he did
it every day. And Frank had a two-foot long bong under his bed that was constantly being
fired up. For those Chinese speakers in the audience, Frank would “ 火力全开 ” on that
bong every day. Alright, so, I guess I was kinda of the opposite of Bill Clinton who “tried marijuana
but didn’t inhale.” See, I didn’t try marijuana but I did inhale, every single day, second
hand. And strangely enough every time I dwelt into our bedroom, I mysteriously end up
late for class. I don’t know how it happened. It was like “Dude, it is already ten o’clock?” So, how many of you have lived with a Frank, or could be a Frank Gat? Having a
roommate can be a recipe for disaster, but it also has the potential for being the greatest
friendship you’ve ever had. See, Frank, he didn’t make it the second year. And I got two
new roommates second year, Stephen and Jason. And in this day, the three of us are the
best friends. So going back to my analogy, of east and west as roommates. Do we want to be
Frank, or do we want to be Stephen and Jason? And I think, in this day in the age
of 2013, we should all be striving for the latter, should we…I mean, assuming, I’m
assuming that we all agree that this is the goal we should all be striving for.
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Now let’s look at, we, where we are in reality. Recent headlines in the media
include, Foreign Policy Magazine: China’s victim complex. Why are Chinese leaders so
paranoid about the United States? Or the AFP, the Agence France-Presse, human rights
in China worsening, US finds. Bloomberg says, on the cover of its magazine, “Yes, the
Chinese Army is spying on you.”
And it’s such a great, it’s such a great one that I just want to show you the cover of
the magazine. Alright? Yes. Be very afraid! OK, is it shown to you right? OK. So there’s
actually an extremely high amount of negativity and fear and anxiety about China,
sinophobia, that I think is not just misinformed, but also misleading and ultimately
dangerous, very dangerous. And what about how westerners are viewed by Chinese? Well, we have terms for
westerners. The most common of which are “gweilo” in Cantonese, which means “the
old devil,” “lao wai,” meaning the old outsider in mandarin, “ang moh,” which means
the “red hairy one” in Taiwanese. The list goes on and on. So are these roommates
headed for a best friend relationship? I think we need a little help. And as China rises
to be global power, I think it’s more important than ever for us to be discerning about
what we believe, because after all, I think that’s the purpose of higher education. And that’s why we are all here: to be able to think for ourselves and make our own
decisions. China’s not just those headlines, the burgeoning economy of the unique
politics. It’s not just the world’s factory or the next big superpower, it’s so much more.
A billion people with rich culture, amazing stories and as a product of both of those
cultures, I want to help foster understanding between the two, and help create that
incredible relationship.
Because knowing both sides of the coin, I really think that there is a love story
waiting to be told, waiting to unfold. And I am only half-joking when I said love story
because I believe it is, the stories that will save us, will bring us together. And my thesis
statement for today’s talk is that, the relationship between the east and west needs to be
and can be fixed via pop culture. That’s a big fat plan. And I am gotta trying to back it up!
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Miss Darbus: Any last-minute sign-ups?
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Troy: We should go.
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Miss Darbus: No? Good. Done.
Gabriella: I’d like to audition. Miss Darbus.
Miss Darbus: T
imeliness means something in the world of theater, young lady. The
individual auditions are long long over and there are simply no other
pairs.
Troy: I’ll sing with her.
Miss Darbus: Troy Bolton? Where is your sports posse or whatever it’s called?
Troy: Team.
Miss Darbus: Ah.
Troy: But I’m here alone. Actually, I’m here to sing with her.
Miss Darbus: Y
es, well, we take these shows very seriously here at East High. I called for
the pairs audition, and you didn’t respond. Free period is now over.
Troy: She has an amazing voice.
Miss Darbus: Perhaps the next musicale.
Troy: So you’re a composer? You wrote the song Ryan and Sharpay just sang?
And the entire show? Well, that’s really cool. I can’t wait to hear the rest
of the show. So, why are you afraid of Ryan and Sharpay? I mean, it is your
show.
Kelsi: It is?
Troy: Isn’t the composer of a show kind of like the playmaker in basketball?
Kelsi: Playmaker?
Troy: You’re the one who makes everyone else look good. And without you
there is no show. You’re the playmaker here, Kelsi.
Kelsi: I am? Do you wanna hear how the duet’s supposed to sound?
Chorus: It’s hard to believe that I couldn’t see you were always there beside me.
Thought I was alone with no one to hold, but you were always right
beside me. This feeling’s like no other. I want you to know that I’ve never
had someone that knows me like you do, the way you do. And I’ve never
had someone as good for me as you, no one like you. So lonely before I
finally found what I’ve been looking for.
Troy: Wow, that’s nice.
Miss Darbus: B
olton, Montez—you have a callback. Kelsi, give them the duet from the
second act.
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Clip # 2
Gabriella: I’ve been rehearsing with Kelsi.
Troy: Me, too. And, by the way, er, I missed practice. So if I get kicked off the team
it’ll be on your conscience.
Gabriella: Hey, I wasn’t the one who told you…
Troy: Gabriella, chill. Hey, that’s travelling. No, that’s really bad travelling.
Jack: Miss! I’m sorry, this is a closed practice.
Troy: Dad, come on, practice is over.
Jack: Until the last player leaves the gym. Team rule.
Gabriella: Oh, I’m sorry, sir.
Troy: Dad, this is Gabriella Montez.
Jack: Ah, your detention buddy.
Gabriella: I’ll see you later, Troy. And nice meeting you, Coach Bolton.
Jack: You as well, Miss Montez.
Troy: Dad, detention was my fault, not hers.
Jack: You haven’t missed practice in three years. That girl shows up...
Troy: That girl is named Gabriella. She’s very nice.
Jack: Helping you miss practice doesn’t make her very nice. Not in my book or
your team’s.
Troy: Dad, she’s not the problem. She’s just a girl.
Jack: But you’re not just a guy, Troy. You’re the team leader. And what you do
affects not only this team, but the entire school. And without you completely
focused, we’re not gonna win next week. The championship games—they
don’t come along all the time. They’re something special.
Troy: Yeah, well, lot of things are special, Dad.
Jack: But you’re a playmaker… not a singer, right?
Troy: Did you ever think maybe I could be both?
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Sports & Outdoors
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. To catch the morning waves.
2. Through music and movies.
3. The museum preserves the history of surfing.
4. It has changed with big prizes and product endorsements.
5. The U.S. Open of Surfing Competition.
6. “The stoke” is the feeling you get when you are riding a great wave.
7. Because you tap into the energy in a way of the planet, the wind and the tides and
distant storms, and you are getting the energy where it is sunny.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. D 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. B
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.
2. Because he repeatedly risked his body for the game.
3. 8 years.
4. Years of depression and erratic behavior.
5. He shot his girlfriend.
6. By analyzing the brain tissue.
7. No.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. climate change
2. firmly believe
3. two billion people
4. rely on the water
5. water supply
6. risk of instability
7. underneath the summit
8. altitude
9. with a hammer
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. T
o go to Mt. Everest, recover all the bodies of the mountaineers and bring them
down the mountain.
2. Big pools of melting ice.
3. H
e put on the iPod, listened to some music and got himself as aggressive as
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possible—controlled aggression this time.
4. Because it’s the most frightening and panicky feeling that you can have.
5. a. J ust something that has worked in the past so well, doesn’t mean it’s going to
6
work in the future.
b. The question each of us need to ask ourselves: what radical tactical shift we can
take in our relationship to the environment.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. To survive the wave.
2. Because the window for the swells closes in 12 weeks.
3. The physical, the mental, the emotional and the spiritual.
4. To surf Mavericks.
5. Susan helps him.
6. Because he arrives 20 minutes early.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. Four pillars
2. Congratulations
3. observe a girl
4. silly teen crush
5. sees the world
6. shared with you
Part B
略
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Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
The surfers come out early to catch the morning waves. High school teacher Matt
Grayson surfs nearly every day. “Oh, I’m just getting out away from it all, get in the water
and it is all blue and clean, and it just takes away all your problems.”
At Huntington Beach, they have been surfing for almost a century, but the sport got
under way in earnest in the 1950s, and was popularized through music and movies, like
the 1959 film Gidget, based on a popular novel.
The International Surfing Museum preserves the history of surfing, from Hawaiians
George Freeth and Duke Kahanamoku, to modern competitors with their fast and
advance skills.
Australian-born Pete Townend, who was world pro-surfing champion in 1976. He
says the sport has also changed with big prizes and product endorsements. “There are a
lot of young surfers today making a million dollars a year. That is pretty good money to
just go surfing in perfect waves with beautiful girls all around, right?”
The U.S. Open of Surfing Competition, held last month in Huntington Beach,
brought top surfers from as far away as Japan and Brazil. It is a worldwide sport today,
says spokeswoman Jennifer Lau. “Surfing is something that is appealing and it is a
spiritual thing. You either have what we call the stoke, or you do not, and it is really
about what keeps you alive.” She says “the stoke” is the feeling you get when you
are riding a great wave. “Surfing is the perfect way to get in touch with nature,” says
longtime surfer Josh Harrison.
“Because you are tapping into the energy, really, of the world, in a way of the planet,
of the wind and the tides and distant storms, and you know, you are getting that energy
here where it is sunny,” he said. Harrison says that every day each new wave brings
another challenge.
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VIDEO WATCHING
Just the facts: CTE stands for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. It’s a brain disease
known to affect athletes and anyone else who’s had repeated hits to the head. CTE can
affect someone’s memory, mood or behavior. It can cause depression, and CTE gets
worse over time. This disease is only diagnosed after someone dies.
A quote at baseball reference.com says Ryan Freel made it fun to watch if you care
about baseball, but hard to watch if you care about him. The outfielder and baseman
repeatedly risked his body for the game. A year after his suicide, his family released
information that shows he’s the first Major Leaguer diagnosed with CTE. It’s hoped that
can help doctors better understand brain injuries.
Ryan Freel played baseball without fear. Diving after balls and crashing into walls.
In his eight-year Major League Baseball career, Freel estimated that he’d suffered ten
concussions, but his family says the real number may be even higher. After Freel took
his own life last year, his family gave permission for a team of researchers at Boston
University to examine his brain for signs of CTE, or Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy,
the form of brain damage found in football players like Mike Webster, Dave Duerson,
Junior Seau and dozens of others.
On Sunday, Freel’s family announced that Ryan did suffer from CTE, making him
the first Major League baseball player to receive that diagnosis, and possibly explaining
the years of depression and erratic behavior leading up to this death.
Important cases like Ryan Freel make a difference, because it is showing us that you
don’t need to have the kind of hits that we see in football or in hockey or in other real
collision sports. You just need a lot of brain trauma, it seems.
And another high profile suicide, one year ago this month, Kansas City Chiefs player
Jovan Belcher shot his girlfriend before driving to the team’s practice facility and turning
the gun on himself.
Now, the Belcher family tell the Kansas City “Star” that they too, suspect CTE, and
on Friday, Belcher’s body was exhumed so his brain could be examined. CTE can only
be diagnosed after death by analyzing brain tissue. But experts say examining a brain
one year after interment may or may not work.
Our brains are really important to us. And we can’t keep hitting them the way that
we have been. So, that doesn’t mean stop playing these great sports, it means trying to
reduce the amount of head trauma from an early age all through every level of the play.
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LECTURE WATCHING
Last year when I was here, I was speaking to you about a swim which I did across
the North Pole. And while that swim took place three years ago, I can remember it as if it
was yesterday. I remember standing on the edge of the ice, about to dive into the water,
and thinking to myself, I have never ever seen any place on this earth which is just so
frightening. The water is completely black. The water is minus 1.7 degrees centigrade,
or 29 degrees Fahrenheit. It’s flipping freezing in that water. And then a thought came
across my mind: If things go pear-shaped on this swim, how long will it take for my
frozen body to sink the four and a half kilometers to the bottom of the ocean? And then
I said to myself, I’ve just got to get this thought out of my mind as quickly as possible.
And the only way I can dive into that freezing cold water and swim a kilometer is by
listening to my iPod and really revving myself up, listening to everything from beautiful
opera all the way across to Puff Daddy, and then committing myself a hundred percent—
there is nothing more powerful than the made-up mind—and then walking up to the
edge of the ice and just diving into the water.
And that swim took me 18 minutes and 50 seconds, and it felt like 18 days. And I
remember getting out of the water and my hands feeling so painful and looking down at
my fingers, and my fingers were literally the size of sausages because—you know, we’re
made partially of water—when water freezes it expands, and so the cells in my fingers
had frozen and expanded and burst. And the most immediate thought when I came out
of that water was the following: I’m never, ever going to do another cold water swim in
my life again.
Anyway, last year, I heard about the Himalayas and the melting of the—(Laughter)
and the melting of the glaciers because of climate change. I heard about this lake, Lake
Imja. This lake has been formed in the last couple of years because of the melting of
the glacier. The glacier’s gone all the way up the mountain and left in its place this
big lake. And I firmly believe that what we’re seeing in the Himalayas is the next great,
big battleground on this earth. Nearly two billion people—so one in three people on
this earth—rely on the water from the Himalayas. And with a population increasing
as quickly as it is, and with the water supply from these glaciers—because of climate
change—decreasing so much, I think we have a real risk of instability. North, you’ve got
China; south, you’ve India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, all these countries.
And so I decided to walk up to Mt. Everest, the highest mountain on this earth, and
go and do a symbolic swim underneath the summit of Mt. Everest. Now, I don’t know if
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any of you have had the opportunity to go to Mt. Everest, but it’s quite an ordeal getting
up there. 28 great, big, powerful yaks carrying all the equipment up onto this mountain—
I don’t just have my Speedo, but there’s a big film crew who then send all the images
around the world. The other thing which was so challenging about this swim is not just
the altitude. I wanted to do the swim at 5,300 meters above sea level. So it’s right up in
the heavens. It’s very, very difficult to breathe. You get altitude sickness. I feels like you’ve
got a man standing behind you with a hammer just hitting your head all the time.
That’s not the worst part of it. The worst part was this year was the year where they
decided to do a big cleanup operation on Mt. Everest. Many, many people have died on
Mt. Everest, and this was the year they decided to go and recover all the bodies of the
mountaineers and then bring them down the mountain. And when you’re walking up
the mountain to attempt to do something which no human has ever done before, and,
in fact, no fish—there are no fish up there swimming at 5,300 meters—When you’re
trying to do that, and then the bodies are coming past you, it humbles you, and you also
realize very, very clearly that nature is so much more powerful than we are.
And we walked up this pathway, all the way up. And to the right hand side of us was
this great Khumbu Glacier. And all the way along the glacier we saw these big pools of
melting ice. And then we got up to this small lake underneath the summit of Mt. Everest,
and I prepared myself the same way as I’ve always prepared myself, for this swim which
was going to be so very difficult. I put on my iPod, I listened to some music, I got myself
as aggressive as possible—but controlled aggression—and then I hurled myself into that
water.
I swam as quickly as I could for the first hundred meters, and then I realized very,
very quickly, I had a huge problem on my hands. I could barely breathe. I was gasping
for air. I then began to choke, and then it quickly led to me vomiting in the water. And it
all happened so quickly: I then—I don’t know how it happened—but I went underwater.
And luckily, the water was quite shallow, and I was able to push myself off the bottom
of the lake and get up and then take another gasp of air. And then I said, carry on. Carry
on. Carry on. I carried on for another five or six strokes, and then I had nothing in my
body, and I went down to the bottom of the lake. And I don’t know where I got it from,
but I was able to somehow pull myself up and as quickly as possible get to the side of
the lake. I’ve heard it said that drowning is the most peaceful death that you can have.
I have never, ever heard such utter bollocks. (Laughter) It is the most frightening and
panicky feeling that you can have.
I got myself to the side of the lake. My crew grabbed me, and then we walked as
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quickly as we could down—over the rubble—down to our camp. And there, we sat
down, and we did a debrief about what had gone wrong there on Mt. Everest. And my
team just gave it to me straight. They said, Lewis, you need to have a radical tactical
shift if you want to do this swim. Every single thing which you have learned in the past
23 years of swimming, you must forget. Every single thing which you learned when
you were serving in the British army, about speed and aggression, you put that to one
side. We want you to walk up the hill in another two days’ time. Take some time to rest
and think about things. We want you to walk up the mountain in two days’ time, and
instead of swimming fast, swim as slowly as possible. Instead of swimming crawl, swim
breaststroke. And remember, never ever swim with aggression. This is the time to swim
with real humility.
And so we walked back up to the mountain two days later. And I stood there on the
edge of the lake, and I looked up at Mt. Everest—and she is one of the most beautiful
mountains on the earth—and I said to myself, just do this slowly. And I swam across the
lake. And I can’t begin to tell you how good I felt when I came to the other side.
But I learned two very, very important lessons there on Mt. Everest, and I thank my
team of Sherpas who taught me this. The first one is that just because something has
worked in the past so well, doesn’t mean it’s going to work in the future. And similarly,
now, before I do anything, I ask myself what type of mindset do I require to successfully
complete a task. And taking that into the world of climate change—which is, frankly, the
Mt. Everest of all problems—just because we’ve lived the way we have lived for so long,
just because we have consumed the way we have for so long and populated the earth
the way we have for so long, doesn’t mean that we can carry on the way we are carrying
on. The warning signs are all there. When I was born, the world’s population was 3.5
billion people. We’re now 6.8 billion people, and we’re expected to be 9 billion people
by 2050.
And then the second lesson, the radical, tactical shift. And I’ve come here to ask you
today: what radical tactical shift can you take in your relationship to the environment,
which will ensure that our children and our grandchildren live in a safe world and a
secure world, and most importantly, in a sustainable world? And I ask you, please, to go
away from here and think about that one radical tactical shift which you could make,
which will make that big difference, and then commit a hundred percent to doing it.
Blog about it, tweet about it, talk about it, and commit a hundred percent, because very,
very few things are impossible to achieve if we really put our whole minds to it.
So thank you very, very much.
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MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Blond: Right, keep it moving. Pleasure Pizza. Okay.
Jay: Hey, Blond, I’ll be right back. Hold on, hold on.
Blond: Hey, dude, where are you going now?
Jay: I’ll be right back.
Blond: You’re killing me here!
Jay: Hi, sir.
Frosty: Okay, here’s the deal. I’m gonna train you for one thing and for one thing only:
to survive that wave. All right? You want to know why? Because I don’t want it
on my conscience. That’s it. No questions, no arguing, end of story. I teach you
what you need to know, and it’s over. You got it?
Jay: Got it.
Frosty: Now, the reason... no one knows about this wave... is because it only happens
on big northwest swells. And the window for those swells closes in 12 weeks. So
you got 12 weeks. Meet me in my shed tomorrow morning, 6:30 a.m. Not 6:31
or 6:32.
Jay: Yes! Yes! Yes!
Jay: Hey. Ooh.
Frosty: Don’t bother with that. We’re not surfing. Paddleboards. All right. Unh. A few
things we need to establish before we begin. First... thou shalt not ding Frosty’s
board or damage thy neighbor’s car.
Jay: Yes, sir. Sorry, sir.
Frosty: Second, this little, uh, program... is all about building what I like to call... the
four pillars of a solid human foundation. Understand?
Jay: Yes, sir.
Frosty: How could you? I haven’t even told you what they are. Steady rhythm. Drive and
glide. The four pillars of the human foundation... are the physical, the mental,
the emotional and the spiritual. Though I admit to being a little bit wobbly in
that department.
Jay: I’m not sure I understand, sir.
Frosty: You know what a thesis is?
Jay: Uh, an idea.
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Frosty: Exactly. An idea which attempts to explain something. Lays it out to be proved
or disproved. So here’s our thesis: It’s 36 miles across the bay from Santa Cruz
to Monterey. The day that you can paddle that far will be the day you’re ready to
surf Mavericks. Not a moment sooner.
Jay: Frosty, that’s impossible.
Frosty: Oh, more so than you know. So the physical will represent the sheer strength
needed to make the paddle. So you’re gonna be doing this from now on,
every day...12 weeks. And the mental will be... tied to your own research. The
calculation of the tides and swells... and, of course, your ability to navigate them
all. So, Monterey equals Mavericks. Deal?
Jay: Deal.
Frosty: G ood. All I need is for your mom to sign me a permission slip accepting
responsibility... for anything that’s gonna happen along the way.
Jay: Whoa. Frosty. Hey, Frosty, what if she doesn’t sign it?
Frosty: Deep breaths, steady rhythm. Drive and glide.
Jay: Hey, Sophie. What’s up, girl? Come here, Sophie.
Susan: Shh. Sophie. What are you—? What are you doing here? My parents are asleep.
Jay: C an you sign me a permission slip with my mom’s signature on it? My
handwriting blows.
Susan: Heh. A permission slip? For what?
Jay: Okay, I haven’t told this to anyone, so you have to promise to keep it a secret.
Susan: Okay, promise.
Jay: I t’s Mavericks. I mean, it’s real. Maybe the biggest wave in the world. I’ve seen it
with my own eyes, it’s right up the coast. Frosty’s gonna train me to surf it.
Susan: Mavericks? No one believes that.
Jay: I swear, it’s like nothing you’ve ever seen before. And if I ask my mom for
permission... it’ll just give her an excuse to act like my mom for once and she’ll
probably say no. You look great.
Susan: Thanks.
Jay: I would’ve asked you at school, but I know you don’t like... being seen in public
with younger men, so...
Sonny: Hey, Blondie.
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Blond: All right, fellas. Come on, race you to the pool.
Music: You gotta keep ‘em separated.
Blond: Ow!
People: Yeah! Sick! Get some!
Blond: Whoo! Yeah! Yeah, man, get up.
Bells: Hey. Hollybra’s having a party tonight. You clowns going?
Blond: Yeah, sounds good to me. Jay?
Jay: No, I got school and stuff.
Bells: Dude.
Blond: We all got school, dude. That’s no excuse.
Bells: Heard that. Haven’t been to class all week.
Blond: Yeah. The dude actually wonders why, he’s a second-year sophomore! So what
kind of stuff you got going?
Jay: Just trying to make sense of everything.
Blond: We’re in high school, dude.
Music: Man, you disrespecting me? Take him out. You gotta keep ‘em separated.
Jay: Hey, Frosty.
Frosty: Hey. It’s 20 to 4.
Jay: You told me to be here at 4.
Frosty: Exactly.
Jay: So, we ready to go?
Frosty: Does it look like it? Tell you what, we’ll be ready... when you clean up that
driveway. That’s what you get for being 20 minutes early.
Clip # 2
Mom: What are you doing?
Jay: Four pillars of a solid human foundation.
Mom: I made you coffee, your clothes are in the dryer…
Jay: I’m swallowing water.
Frosty: Well, you better grow gills. You got two more minutes.
Jay: Three pages.
Frosty: Congratulations. You eaten?
Jay: It’s good. Oh. Thank you.
Brenda: You’re welcome.
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Frosty: Is this some sort of a joke?
Jay: No, sir.
Frosty: So I ask you to write an essay... and you observe a girl.
Jay: You never told me what to observe.
Frosty: Oh, come on, Jay. Really? I’m training you to survive Mavericks, not some, uh...
silly teen crush.
Brenda: Roque, go to bed.
Roque: Good night, Daddy.
Jay: I just thought—
Frosty: What did you think? What did you think, Jay?
Jay: Nothing.
Frosty: If you didn’t think, you’re wasting my time.
Brenda: Frosty.
Frosty: Okay? And that’s not something I got a lot of these days. You know what? It’s
not your fault. You’re 15. You’re just a kid.
Brenda: J ay, um, will you excuse us for a moment? For heaven’s sake, Frosty, not
everyone sees the world through your eyes. Okay? He chose to examine
something that meant the world to him. Something personal... which he
opened up and shared with you, entrusted... to you.
Frosty: Brenda, I’m not concerned with his feelings. I’m concerned with the objective.
The point of writing an essay is to put your thoughts down on paper and see
the gaps and reflect.
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Love or Not? Believe in Yourself
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Watch the video and answer the following questions.
1. A special kind of chemistry.
2. Aspects of 48 couples, relationships and sex lives.
3. To test how similar or different the couples were in the specific area of the genome.
4. Immune system function.
5. From an evolutionary perspective.
6. Opposites attract.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ. D
irections: Watch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. It is about developing your relationships.
2. Patience.
3. It is blatant but useful.
4. Casually seeing many people at the same time.
5. Keep things very casual.
6. G
etting to know a potential romantic partner from a different cultural background
takes more time than you may think.
7. The focus is primarily on completing a task together.
8. Casualness mitigates awkwardness.
9. The guy should not get mad.
10. D
on’t break appointments (don’t miss meetings) and remember to arrive on
time and be yourself.
Ⅲ.Directions: Rewatch the video and decide if the statements below
are true (T) or false (F).
1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. came across this study
2. stuck out to me
3. the rumor
4. invited the entire lab
5. skeptical about
6. to try
7. not particularly well
8. it made
9. are we still together
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10. let’s come back to it
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. “To Fall in Love With Anyone, Do This,” in The New York Times.
2. I t’s about a psychological study designed to create romantic love in the laboratory,
7
and her own experience trying the study herself one night last summer.
3. T
wo strangers take turns asking each other 36 increasingly personal questions and
then they stare into each other’s eyes without speaking for four minutes.
4. a. I f you could wake up tomorrow having gained any one quality or ability, what
would it be?
b. When did you last cry in front of another person? By yourself?
5. Her own experiences with romantic love.
6. Are you guys still together?
7. You should expect people to start asking about your relationship.
8. When she was 29 and was going through a really difficult breakup.
9. To be known, to be seen, and to be understood.
10. Yes.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. A guy who doesn’t want to get married.
2. They were hanging out, and talking about websites.
3. P
eople want to get married to celebrate the relationship, to solidify the commitment, to declare your love for one another to the world.
4. H
er ex-boyfriend Richard. He came to tell Monica that he still loves her and wants
to marry her.
5. What he said or where he said it.
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Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. a regular family like everybody else
2. something was missing
3. so wonderfully weird
4. I can’t wait to share my life with you forever
5. has slowed way down
6. do you take this man to be your husband
7. do you take this woman to be your wife
8. pronounce you husband and wife
Part B
略
172
UNIT
Scripts
7
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
True romance requires a special kind of chemistry, literally. This study is one
of the first studies that give us a specific mechanism to define romantic chemistry.
Evolutionary psychologist Christine Garver-Apgar gave 48 romantically involved couples
questionnaires that measured aspects of their relationship and sex lives. She also took
DNA samples to test how similar or different the couples were in the specific area of
the genome. If their genes in this area were very similar there was a greater chance of
trouble in paradise. Women were less sexually satisfied with their partners. They were
more sexually attracted to men outside of their current relationship particularly when
they were nearing ovulation. And they actually reported having more extra pair sexual
partners during the course of their relationship. The section of the genome GarverApgar study is involved with immune system function. As she wrote in the journal
Psychological Science partnering with someone whose immune system is genetically
different than yours make sense from an evolutionary perspective. You may ensure that
your children have an immunological advantage. So they maybe buffered by a wider
variety of pathogens and toxins. While that may not be the most romantic spin on what’s
usually considered a matter of the heart, it does support the old saying that opposites
attract.
VIDEO WATCHING
Welcome back to Local Laowai, the show that gives you everything you need to
know for a smooth transition to life in China. I’m Donny Newman.
So, your first date went really well. Now where do you go from here? Let me start
off this episode on developing your relationships with the Chinese colloquialism—“You
can’t eat hot Tofu if you in a hurry.”
Now, ignore the double entendre associated with Tofu here which I invite you all
to google. This is a phrase that implores patience and patience when it comes to crossPostgraduate
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cultural relationships is exactly what I’ll be telling you to excise on today’s episode. And
here is why.
Keep it Casual
So, here is a blatant but useful generalization: dating in China intimates the
intention to marry. It’s not true for everybody but the vast majority of people here
experience courtship without dating as is known in the West.
Now by dating, I’m specifically talking about casually seeing many people at
the same time. Now in the West, it’s a perfectly acceptable practice but here being
romantically involved with more than one person can be misconstrued as being
unreliable or even cheating.
M: Hey! Nice to see you!
W: Yeah, long time no see.
M: Yeah, um, what do you want to eat?
W: Roast chicken.
M: Roast chicken, okay. Sounds good.
W: Go.
W: Roast chicken.
M: It’s pretty good. What do you think?
W: Yes, it’s delicious.
M: Well, let’s get you a cab.
W: Okay, let’s go.
W: Roast chicken.
Waiter: Hi, Donny. Back already?
W: You always come here?
M: Um, it’s really good chicken. Try some.
W: With who?
M: No, just…
W: Okay, I got it. You take all of this. By yourself!
M: Oh! Wait! Wait! Wait!
I can still taste that chicken. So this is why for budding cross-cultural relationships,
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I recommend to keep things very casual. Add too much romance, you could quickly find
your relationship tumbling into areas for which you have not been ready.
So, by consciously keeping things casual, you can get to know the person without
those added pressures and expectations getting in the way. And believe me, getting to
know a potential romantic partner from a different cultural background takes more time
than you may think. For example, I have no idea my friend Lin like live music until she
invited me here. There she is now!
M: Hey!
W: Hey! What’s up, Donny!
M: I’ve never seen this rocker side of you before.
W: Well, I guess you know now.
M: Yeah.
W: It’s your first time to this club. What do you think of this place?
M: This place is awesome. It’s definitely gonna be a very interesting night. Of course
there are plenty of other places you can take a casual date. Here are some tips to do
just that.
How to Date Casually
A Plan to do things with a goal is more than just sitting down and talking to the
other person, which can turn to something that feels like an interview. Instead, plan to
do things you otherwise normally do, like looking for a new piece of furniture or finding
a book, or if you know the other person likes music…
W: Oh! A music shop!
W: N
ow, for all you students out there, a study date at the café is a great casual out.
And that’s not to say a coffee appointment on a Sunday afternoon isn’t appropriate
for us working folks as well. This way, the focus is primarily on completing the task
together and only secondarily on getting to know one another. That’s mitigating any
awkwardness that may arise from a direct formal date like dinner and drinks.
Building Trust
Trust is another thing that would take time to develop with the potential romantic
partner from a different cultural background. Remember, especially for you outside the
big cities, you may very well be the first foreigner to ever speak to a Chinese person.
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While new and exciting are great things, there may be some apprehension involved
when you first get to know somebody.
So, to build trust, no.1, don’t break appointments and remember to arrive on time.
W: Yeah, you need to be on time but the girl can be late. But if you are a guy, you can’t
get mad.
M: Really? Okay, do you have other tips for us?
W: Y
eah, one more, be yourself. Even though you are a foreigner, we can tell when you’re
faking it.
M: T
hat’s actually a really good point. There’s so no need to try to be somebody you
aren’t. You are already unique enough in their eyes.
W: Oh, I think the concert is starting soon.
M: Yeah, I think you’re right. Well, have fun out there and remember the hottest Tofu
takes time to heat up.
W: Huh?
LECTURE WATCHING
I published this article in The New York Times “Modern Love” column in January
of this year—“To Fall in Love With Anyone, Do This.” And the article is about a
psychological study designed to create romantic love in the laboratory and my own
experience trying the study myself one night last summer.
So the procedure is fairly simple: Two strangers take turns asking each other 36
increasingly personal questions and then they stare into each other’s eyes without
speaking for four minutes.
So here are a couple of sample questions.
No. 12: If you could wake up tomorrow having gained any one quality or ability,
what would it be?
No. 28: When did you last cry in front of another person? By yourself?
As you can see, they really do get more personal as they go along.
No. 30, I really like this one: Tell your partner what you like about them; be very
honest this time, saying things you might not say to someone you just met.
So when I first came across this study a few years earlier, one detail really stuck
out to me, and that was the rumor that two of the participants had gotten married six
months later, and they’d invited the entire lab to the ceremony. So I was of course very
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skeptical about this process of just manufacturing romantic love, but of course I was
intrigued. And when I got the chance to try this study myself, with someone I knew but
not particularly well, I wasn’t expecting to fall in love. But then we did, and—
And I thought it made a good story, so I sent it to the Modern Love column a few
months later.
Now, this was published in January, and now it is August, so I’m guessing that some
of you are probably wondering, are we still together? And the reason I think you might
be wondering this is because I have been asked this question again and again and again
for the past seven months. And this question is really what I want to talk about today.
But let’s come back to it.
So the week before the article came out, I was very nervous. I had been working on
a book about love stories for the past few years, so I had gotten used to writing about
my own experiences with romantic love on my blog. But a blog post might get a couple
hundred views at the most, and those were usually just my Facebook friends, and I
figured my article in The New York Times would probably get a few thousand views. And
that felt like a lot of attention on a relatively new relationship. But as it turned out, I had
no idea.
So the article was published online on a Friday evening, and by Saturday, this had
happened to the traffic on my blog. And by Sunday, both the Today Show and Good
Morning America had called. Within a month, the article would receive over 8 million
views, and I was, to say the least, underprepared for this sort of attention. It’s one thing
to work up the confidence to write honestly about your experiences with love, but it is
another thing to discover that your love life has made international news—
And to realize that people across the world are genuinely invested in the status of
your new relationship.
And when people called or emailed, which they did every day for weeks, they always
asked the same question first: Are you guys still together? In fact, as I was preparing this
talk, I did a quick search of my email inbox for the phrase “Are you still together?” and
several messages popped up immediately. They were from students and journalists and
friendly strangers like this one. I did radio interviews and they asked. I even gave a talk,
and one woman shouted up to the stage, “Hey Mandy, where’s your boyfriend?” And I
promptly turned bright red.
I understand that this is part of the deal. If you write about your relationship in an
international newspaper, you should expect people to feel comfortable asking about it.
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But I just wasn’t prepared for the scope of the response. The 36 questions seem to have
taken on a life of their own. In fact, The New York Times published a follow-up article for
Valentine’s Day, which featured readers’ experiences of trying the study themselves, with
varying degrees of success.
So my first impulse in the face of all of this attention was to become very protective
of my own relationship. I said no to every request for the two of us to do a media
appearance together. I turned down TV interviews, and I said no to every request for
photos of the two of us. I think I was afraid that we would become inadvertent icons for
the process of falling in love, a position I did not at all feel qualified for.
And I get it: People didn’t just want to know if the study worked, they wanted to
know if it really worked, that is, if it was capable of producing love that would last, not
just a fling, but real love, sustainable love.
But this was a question I didn’t feel capable of answering. My own relationship was
only a few months old, and I felt like people were asking the wrong question in the first
place. What would knowing whether or not we were still together really tell them? If
the answer was no, would it make the experience of doing these 36 questions any less
worthwhile? Dr. Arthur Aron first wrote about these questions in this study here in 1997,
and here, the researcher’s goal was not to produce romantic love. Instead, they wanted
to foster interpersonal closeness among college students, by using what Aron called
“sustained, escalating, reciprocal, personalistic self-disclosure.” Sounds romantic, doesn’t
it? But the study did work. The participants did feel closer after doing it, and several
subsequent studies have also used Aron’s fast friends protocol as a way to quickly create
trust and intimacy between strangers. They’ve used it between members of the police
and members of community, and they’ve used it between people of opposing political
ideologies. The original version of the story, the one that I tried last summer, that pairs
the personal questions with four minutes of eye contact, was referenced in this article,
but unfortunately it was never published.
So a few months ago, I was giving a talk at a small liberal arts college, and a student
came up to me afterwards and he said, kind of shyly, “So, I tried your study, and it didn’t
work.” He seemed a little mystified by this. “You mean, you didn’t fall in love with the
person you did it with?” I asked.
“Well...” He paused. “I think she just wants to be friends.”
“But did you become better friends?” I asked. “Did you feel like you got to really
know each other after doing the study?” He nodded.
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“So, then it worked,” I said.
I don’t think this is the answer he was looking for. In fact, I don’t think this is the
answer that any of us are looking for when it comes to love.
I first came across this study when I was 29 and I was going through a really difficult
breakup. I had been in the relationship since I was 20, which was basically my entire
adult life, and he was my first real love, and I had no idea how or if I could make a life
without him. So I turned to science. I researched everything I could find about the
science of romantic love, and I think I was hoping that it might somehow inoculate me
from heartache. I don’t know if I realized this at the time—I thought I was just doing
research for this book I was writing—but it seems really obvious in retrospect. I hoped
that if I armed myself with the knowledge of romantic love, I might never have to feel as
terrible and lonely as I did then. And all this knowledge has been useful in some ways.
I am more patient with love. I am more relaxed. I am more confident about asking for
what I want. But I can also see myself more clearly, and I can see that what I want is
sometimes more than can reasonably be asked for. What I want from love is a guarantee,
not just that I am loved today and that I will be loved tomorrow, but that I will continue
to be loved by the person I love indefinitely. Maybe it’s this possibility of a guarantee that
people were really asking about when they wanted to know if we were still together.
So the story that the media told about the 36 questions was that there might be a
shortcut to falling in love. There might be a way to somehow mitigate some of the risk
involved, and this is a very appealing story, because falling in love feels amazing, but it’s
also terrifying. The moment you admit to loving someone, you admit to having a lot
to lose, and it’s true that these questions do provide a mechanism for getting to know
someone quickly, which is also a mechanism for being known, and I think this is the
thing that most of us really want from love: to be known, to be seen, to be understood.
But I think when it comes to love, we are too willing to accept the short version of the
story. The version of the story that asks, “Are you still together?” and is content with a yes
or no answer.
So rather than that question, I would propose we ask some more difficult questions,
questions like: How do you decide who deserves your love and who does not? How
do you stay in love when things get difficult, and how do you know when to just cut
and run? How do you live with the doubt that inevitably creeps into every relationship,
or even harder, how do you live with your partner’s doubt? I don’t necessarily know
the answers to these questions, but I think they’re an important start at having a more
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thoughtful conversation about what it means to love someone.
So, if you want it, the short version of the story of my relationship is this: A year
ago, an acquaintance and I did a study designed to create romantic love, and we fell in
love, and we are still together, and I am so glad.
But falling in love is not the same thing as staying in love. Falling in love is the
easy part. So at the end of my article, I wrote, “Love didn’t happen to us. We’re in love
because we each made the choice to be.” And I cringe a little when I read that now, not
because it isn’t true, but because at the time, I really hadn’t considered everything that
was contained in that choice. I didn’t consider how many times we would each have
to make that choice, and how many times I will continue to have to make that choice
without knowing whether or not he will always choose me. I want it to be enough
to have asked and answered 36 questions, and to have chosen to love someone so
generous and kind and fun and to have broadcast that choice in the biggest newspaper
in America. But what I have done instead is turn my relationship into the kind of myth I
don’t quite believe in. And what I want, what perhaps I will spend my life wanting, is for
that myth to be true.
I want the happy ending implied by the title to my article, which is, incidentally, the
only part of the article that I didn’t actually write.
But what I have instead is the chance to make the choice to love someone, and the
hope that he will choose to love me back, and it is terrifying, but that’s the deal with
love.
Thank you.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Chandler: O
kay, okay, here she comes! How do I look? Do I look like a guy who doesn’t
want to get married?
Joey: Yeah! And also, a little like a French guy. I never noticed that before.
Monica: Hi guys!
Joey: Hey!
Chandler: Hey!
Monica: What are you up to?
Chandler: O
h, just hanging out, talking about uh, websites. Yeah, we saw this really
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interesting website about marriage and how totally unnecessary it is and how
it’s just a way for the government to keep tabs on you.
Joey: Yeah, Big Brother.
ell, that’s a little crazy. Although I am, you know, glad to hear that you’re
Monica: W
branching out on what you look at on the Internet.
Chandler: Y
eah, well… You know, it just got me thinking though, why would anybody
ever want to get married huh?
hy?! To celebrate your relationship! To solidify your commitment! To
Monica: W
declare your love for one another to the world!
Chandler: Eh…
Monica: Okay well that’s good to know.
Joey: The Mr. Bowmont’s here!!!
Waitress: Hey Monica, there’s a customer who wants to complement the chef, should I
let him in?
Monica: Sure, I love this part!
Waitress: Come on in.
Richard: Hi!
Monica: Richard!
Richard: Actually, I’m not here to complement the chef.
h… Oh, that’s okay I hate when people come back to complement the chef.
Monica: O
Like I have nothing better to do! So what’s up?
Richard: Well, it was great seeing you the other night.
Monica: Oh, good to see you too. Did you come down here to tell me that?
Richard: No! I came here to tell you something else. I came here to tell you I still love
you.
Monica: What uh—what did you—what?!
Richard: I still love you. And I know I probably shouldn’t even be here telling you this,
I mean you’re with Chandler a guy I really like, and if you say he’s straight
I’ll believe you! After seeing you the other night I knew if I didn’t tell you I’d
regret it for the rest of my life. Letting you go was the stupidest thing I ever
did.
Monica: You know you’re really not supposed to be back here!
Richard: Well yeah, I’m sorry. I know this is the wrong time and the wrong place, but I
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had to tell you! I wanna spend my life with you. I wanna marry you. I wanna
have kids with you.
Monica: Oh God…Why don’t they put chairs back here?!
Richard: I know this is crazy but am I too late?
Monica: What the… Yes you’re too late! Where was all this three years ago?!
Richard: Well I know I was an idiot! And I tried to forget you, I really did! You know
after we had lunch last year I spent six months in Africa trying to get you out
of my head!
Monica: What were you doing in Africa?
Richard: Working with blind kids.
hhh! What are you doing to me?! Oh look, I-I… I’m sorry but umm, this Monica: O
this-this-this is not going to happen.
Richard: Okay that’s fine, I’ll walk away. And I’ll never bother you again, but only if
you tell me Chandler’s willing to give you everything I am.
ell he is! Yeah, I mean marriage is all he talks about! My goodness, in fact,
Monica: W
I’m the one that’s making him wait!
Richard: You are?
Monica: Yeah!
Richard: Why?
Monica: Why? Because of the government.
Monica: You wanted it to be a surprise.
Chandler: Oh my God.
handler… In all my life… I never thought I would be so lucky as to…fall in
Monica: C
love with my best…my best… There’s a reason why girls don’t do this!
Chandler: O
kay! Okay! Okay! Oh God, I thought… Wait a minute, I-I can do this. I
thought that it mattered what I said or where I said it. Then I realized the
only thing that matters is that you, you make me happier than I ever thought
I could be. And if you’ll let me, I will spend the rest of my life trying to make
you feel the same way. Monica, will you marry me?
Monica: Yes.
Monica: I knew you were likely to take a wife!
Joey: Can we come in yet?! We’re dying out here!
Monica: Come in! Come in! We’re engaged!!!
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Rachel: Ohhh, this is the least jealous I’ve ever been!
Phoebe: Oh no wait no, this is wrong! Ross isn’t here!
Monica: Oh…
Rachel: Oh hell, he’s done this three times! He knows what it’s about!
Joey: Yeah!
Clip # 2
Joey: Who has the rings? Okay.
Phoebe: When I was growing up, I didn’t have a normal mom and dad or a regular
family like everybody else. And I always knew that something was missing. But
now I’m standing here today, knowing that I have everything I’m ever gonna
need. You are my family.
Mike: Phoebe, you are so beautiful. You’re so kind. You’re so generous. You’re so
wonderfully weird. Every day with you is an adventure. And I can’t believe how
lucky I am. And I can’t wait to share my life with you forever.
Phoebe: Oh, wait! Oh, I forgot. ... and uhm... I love you. And you have nice eyes.
Mike: I love you too.
Ross: uh Joey?
Joey: Yeah?
Ross: Chappy’s heart rate has slowed way down.
Joey: Okay. Phoebe, do you take this man to be your husband?
Phoebe: I do.
Joey: Oh…Mike, do you take this woman to be your wife?
Mike: I do.
Joey: I now pronounce you husband and wife.
Phoebe: I got married! Could someone get me a coat? I’m frigging freezing.
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专题听力三 Love & Passion
Section 1: Education Matters
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. The development of heightened mental skills.
2. To sort colors and shapes in a series of simple cognitive exercises.
3. D
ifferent patterns of brain activity in the frontal part of the brain associated with
the tasks.
4. No.
5. A kind of cognitive reserve from their lifetime of enhanced mental activity.
6. A functional, protective role in the brain.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video “IELTS Reading” and choose the best
answers to the following questions.
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. C
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch the video “IELTS Lexical Resources” carefully and
answer the following questions.
1. A test that opens the doors around the world.
2. The range and accuracy of the vocabulary use in a person’s writing.
3. When you are learning English vocabulary, learn synonyms.
4. Don’t learn one word at a time. Learn word combinations or collocations.
5. Use the correct word formation.
6. No.
7. The testee’s ability to express and develop ideas precisely and effectively.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. the trends manager
2. how videos go viral
3. Web video
4. creative things
5. on the Internet 6. over 48 hours
7. only a tiny percentage
8. becomes a cultural moment
9. tastemakers
10. unexpectedness
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and fill in the following outline.
1. tastermaker
2. 23 million
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专题听力三 Love & Passion
3. to share a rainbow
4. the tastemaker
5. new and interesting things
6. “Friday”
7. Post a joke about the video on Twitter
8. took a point of view
9. Community participation
10. doing something new with it
11. a looped animation
12. 50 million
13. 4 million
14. the creativity it inspires
15. unexpectedness
16. bicycle fines
17. 5 million
18. anyone has access and the audience defines the popularity
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Liz has made up her mind to study as hard as she could.
2. To write 1,500 words on the importance of the free market and the free world.
3. The offer of The New York Times scholarship is $12,000, every year for 4 years.
4. T
he applicants are required to attach a brief essay describing what they believe to
be the most significant in academic achievement and how they have overcome any
challenges or obstacles.
5. To mail the application document for the NYT scholarship.
6. B
ecause after her 18th birthday, Liz can tell the truth that she is homeless and no
one can take her away or tell her what she can do or can not do.
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Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. not conducive to what you want for yourself
2. spending their time dwelling on that frustration
3. that have come together to make it, what it is
4. to see how all the little tiny things come together to make the final product
5. I was very accepting. I was very accepting.
6. I can’t go to college or anything without it.
7. finished the top of class of 150
8. can’t do just to her accomplishment
9. My parents showed me what the alternative was
10. Eating out of dumpsters
11. any sense of security was pulled out from under me
12. reached a point where I just thought
13. if I could have my family back
14. lay that burden down, put it in the rest, then I can go on
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Section 2: Test & School
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
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LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. The new federal education law.
2. To cut down unnecessary testing.
3. Deemphasize test scores.
4. There’s too much testing.
5. Test scores remain linked to accountability measures.
6. Not supporting it.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.D irections: Watch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. People who apply to graduate school are trying to relive their college years.
2. No.
3. The differences between the graduate and undergraduate student experiences.
4. Graduate students are expected to produce original research and analysis.
5. Yes. It’s a fairly specific educational goal.
6. Undergraduate students.
7. It’s because transferring to another program or school is difficult.
8. Like relationships with senior colleagues and supervisors.
9. H
aving good judgment about which issues are worth bringing into class or an
office visit.
10. N
o. It’s because they have a heavier and more complex academic workload, live
off campus or have family or work obligations.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video and decide if the statements below
are true (T) or false (F).
1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. we’re enthralled to
2. go through a track
3. implicitly
4. organic
5. explore our talents
6. have become obsessed with
7. Certain sorts of college
8. Maybe they go later
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. Four years ago.
2. A crisis of human resources.
3. It’s because innovation means doing something that people don’t find very easy
for the most part.
4. a. To reconstitute our sense of ability and intelligence / linearity;
b. Conformity.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. The House Cup.
2. Because Ron has red hair and a hand-me-down robe.
3. Because he thinks his wizarding family is better than Ron’s.
4. She read Hogwarts: A History.
5. a) The Dark Forest is strictly forbidden to all students.
b) The third-floor corridor on the right-hand side is out of bounds.
6. Every wizard who went bad.
7. Plenty of courage; not a bad mind; talented; a thirst to prove himself.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. Made it
2. that assessment
3. I were to transfigure
4. We got lost
5. find your seats
6. appreciate the subtle science
7. bewitch the mind
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8. in possession of abilities
9. our new celebrity
10. asked you to find me
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Section 3: School Education
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
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LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. He often skipped school and even got into fights.
2. Close to 700 suspensions a year.
3. First talk to a teacher, then a parent may get involved and eventually, a support
group if needed.
4. Last year.
5. While suspending a student should never be a first option, taking the option away
completely is not the solution either.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. C 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. D
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. They are throwing up buildings.
2. Do a much better job educating its population.
3. Getting more children into the education system.
4. There are not enough schools.
5. Families hardly had any education.
6. Go all the way through college.
7. Because she had absolutely no practical experience.
8. Educated Brazilians.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. have otherwise been unconnected
2. a drug movement
3. don’t have electricity
4. drop out of school
5. an idea
6. a real laptop
7. being ordered at this moment
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. Children.
2. 650.
3. The Minister of Defense.
4. Because it’s not just opening it up, it’s opening it up to the rest of the world.
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5. Children teaching parents.
6. A collaborative model of learning.
7. Give One, Get One.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the TV series clip and answer the following questions.
1. Partner science project.
2. Because his last science project didn’t go so well.
3. Because he takes his science very seriously.
4. Watching a banana rot.
5. The solar system.
6. Chris and Greg’s project is taken by Caruso. He also handed in the project as his
own.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch the same clip and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. the closest to the Sun
2. four moons
3. it is a science project
4. great the way it is
5. somebody else for a partner
6. You know what
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Section 1: Education Matters
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Previous studies have shown that bilingualism seems to favor the development
of heightened mental skills. The new research provides evidence of that cognitive
advantage among older, bilingual adults, according to lead author Brian Gold, a
neuroscientist at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. “What is the functional
basis of this advantage? Is it because they activate different parts of their brain that are
typically used for doing cognitive-controlled tasks? Or is it because they use the brain
more efficiently?”
Subjects were instructed to sort colors and shapes in a series of simple cognitive
exercises. Gold and colleagues used a brain imaging technique to compare how well
three groups: bilingual seniors, monolingual seniors and younger adults, switched
among these mental tasks. Results showed different patterns of brain activity in the
frontal part of the brain associated with the tasks.
“We found that seniors who are bilingual are able to activate their brain with a
magnitude closer to young subjects. So they do not need to expend as much effort, and
yet they still out-perform their monolingual peers, suggesting that they use their brain
more efficiently.”
Gold says knowing a second language made no difference for the young adults who
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outperformed both older groups. He adds the older bilinguals appear to have built up
a kind of cognitive reserve from their lifetime of enhanced mental activity. He says his
research confirms a previous study on bilingualism among Alzheimer’s patients. That
study showed that bilinguals developed more atrophy from the brain-wasting disease,
but that they were able to function at the same cognitive level as patients with less
atrophy.
“Suggesting, you know, the fact that they are at the same cognitive level. Somehow
their bilingualism is helping them to compensate for that more brain atrophy. This
finding that we had is consistent with that because it basically says that bilinguals as
seniors are able to do more with less.”
Gold says the study confirms bilingualism can play a functional, protective role
in the brain. Gold says his next step is to explore whether learning a second language
or immigrating to another country as an adult can provide some of the same mental
advantages as lifelong bilingualism.
The study is published in the Journal of Neoroscience.
VIDEO WATCHING
IELTS Reading
So you have decided to take the IELTS exam. Great choice. It’s the test that opens
doors around the world. These are the key details of the IELTS Reading Test. The test
includes 40 questions spread over three articles. You have a total of 60 minutes for the
Reading Test. Unlike the LELTS Listening, there is no additional time to transfer answers.
So write these directly onto your answer sheet as you proceed through the test. Read the
instructions very carefully. Be familiar with the different question types.
Here is some advice to prepare for the Reading Test: practice reading skills, such as
skimming. Skimming means looking over an article or a paragraph to identify the key
themes or general ideas. This includes paying attention to titles, subtitles, key words,
and topic sentences.
Scanning. Scanning is when you are looking for specific information, perhaps a
number or a name, or a date. If you know the specific type of answer you need to find,
you don’t need to read every word in an article. For example, if you know you need
to find out how much money something costs, run your eyes quickly down the article,
looking for a number with a currency indicator. Then decide if this is referring to what
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you are looking for. Skimming provides the bird’s eye view of some material. Scanning
helps you swoop down to locate the specific details you need.
Another key skill is intensive reading. This helps you to understand the details in an
article. When you practice reading tests, don’t read an article intensively to start with.
This is a common mistake.
First, skim the article quickly. Get a sense for what the subject of the article is and
look at the titles, any headings or diagrams. Read the first sentence at each paragraph to
determine the theme of each paragraph. Make notes around the article as you do this.
Then, read with specific purpose. Read the questions and be clear what you are looking
for. Once you have skimmed and scanned, you are prepared to analyze the questions
carefully, circling key words and thinking of synonyms for those key words. Don’t expect
to find the exact same words in the article. Then, use your scanning and skimming skills
to home in on the right paragraph in the article. Here, you need to read in detail to find
the specific answer to each question.
To improve your reading skills, read as much as you can. Anything you read in
English is good practice. And the more variety, the better. There are no short cuts or
secret techniques. You will only improve with time, practice and persistence.
IELTS Lexical Resources
So you have decided to take the IELTS exam. Great choice. It’s the test that opens
doors around the world. Here we look at the criteria of lexical resource. This is one
of four criteria on which you will be tested. Look for the other three criteria in other
videos. This criterion focuses on the range in accuracy of the vocabulary used in your
writing. Here are a few tips to improve your vocabulary:
1. When you are learning an English vocabulary, learn synonyms. This helps you to avoid
repeating the same word. For example, learn different ways of describing changes or
trends for Task 1 answers. For both Task 1 and Task 2 answers, try not to use too many
words from the exam question in your response. Again, using synonyms can help
you to reflect the same meaning. When analyzing your Task 2 exam question, you can
brainstorm synonyms for the key words in the question, and use these throughout the
essay answer. “Alternative forms of transport should be encouraged and international
laws introduced to control car ownership and use.”
2. Also, when you are learning vocabulary, don’t learn one word at a time. Learn word
combinations or collocation. Remember the way words are used together, and
avoid typical mistakes, such as: He was guilty of making a crime. He was guilty of
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专题听力三 Love & Passion
committing a crime.
3. English words are often part of families. For instance: Nowadays every economical
is struggling. Nowadays every economic is struggling. Nowadays every economics
is struggling. Nowadays every economy is struggling. When writing, use the correct
word formation for the context.
4. Always leave time at the end of the test to check your writing for errors and add a
wider range of language.
5. Be sure you use less common vocabulary correctly. You are not trying to impress the
examiner with your vocabulary. You are not being assessed on the creativity or the
correctness of your ideas. You are demonstrating your ability to express and develop
ideas precisely and effectively.
LECTURE WATCHING
Kevin Allocca: Why Videos Go Viral
Hi. I’m Kevin Allocca, I’m the trends manager at YouTube, and I professionally
watch YouTube videos. It’s true. So we’re going to talk a little bit today about how
videos go viral and then why that even matters. We all want to be stars—celebrities,
singers comedians—and when I was younger, that seemed so very, very hard to do. But
now Web video has made it so that any of us or any of the creative things that we do can
become completely famous in a part of our world’s culture. Any one of you could be
famous on the Internet by next Saturday. But there are over 48 hours of video uploaded
to YouTube every minute. And of that, only a tiny percentage ever goes viral and gets
tons of views and becomes a cultural moment. So how does it happen? Three things:
tastemakers, communities of participation and unexpectedness. All right, let’s go.
(Video) Bear Vasquez: Oh, my God. Oh, my God. Oh, my God! Wooo! Ohhhhh,
wow!
KA: Last year, Bear Vasquez posted this video that he had shot outside his home
in Yosemite National Park. In 2010, it was viewed 23 million times.(Laughter) This is
a chart of what it looked like when it first became popular last summer. But he didn’t
actually set out to make a viral video, Bear. He just wanted to share a rainbow. Because
that’s what you do when your name is Yosemite Mountain Bear.(Laughter) And he had
posted lots of nature videos in fact. And this video had actually been posted all the way
back in January. So what happened here? Jimmy Kimmel actually. Jimmy Kimmel posted
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this tweet that would eventually propel the video to be as popular as it would become.
Because tastemakers like Jimmy Kimmel introduce us to new and interesting things and
bring them to a larger audience.
(Video) Rebecca Black: It’s Friday, Friday. Gotta get down on Friday. Everybody’s
looking forward to the weekend, weekend. Friday, Friday. Gettin’ down on Friday.
So you didn’t think that we could actually have this conversation without talking
about this video I hope. Rebecca Black’s “Friday” is one of the most popular videos
of the year. It’s been seen nearly 200 million times this year. This is a chart of what it
looked like. And similar to “Double Rainbow,” it seems to have just sprouted up out of
nowhere.
So what happened on this day? Well it was a Friday, this is true. And if you’re
wondering about those other spikes, those are also Fridays.(Laughter)But what about
this day, this one particular Friday? Well Tosh McNeil picked it up, a lot of blogs starting
writing about it. Michael J. Nelson from Mystery Science Theater was one of the first
people to post a joke about the video on Twitter. But what’s important is that an
individual or a group of tastemakers took a point of view and they shared that with a
larger audience, accelerating the process.
And so then this community formed of people who shared this big inside joke and
they started talking about it and doing things with it. And now there are 10,000 parodies
of “Friday” on YouTube. Even in the first seven days, there was one parody for every
other day of the week.(Laughter) Unlike the one-way entertainment of the 20th century,
this community participation is how we become a part of the phenomenon—either by
spreading it or by doing something new with it.
So “Nyan Cat” is a looped animation with looped music. It’s this, just like this. It’s
been viewed nearly 50 million times this year. And if you think that that is weird, you
should know that there is a three-hour version of this that’s been viewed four million
times. (Laughter) Even cats were watching this video.(Laughter) Cats were watching
other cats watch this video.
But what’s important here is the creativity that it in spired amongst this techie,
geeky Internet culture. There were remixes.(Laughter)Someone made an old timey
version.(Laughter) And then it went international.(Laughter) An entire remix community
sprouted up that brought it from being just a stupid joke to something that we can all
actually be a part of. Because we don’t just enjoy now, we participate.
And who could have predicted any of this? Who could have predicted “Double
Rainbow” or Rebecca Black or “Nyan Cat?” What scripts could you have written that
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would have contained this in it? In a world where over two days of video get uploaded
every minute, only that which is truly unique and unexpected can stand out in the
way that these things have. When a friend of mine told me that I needed to see this
great video about a guy protesting bicycle fines in New York City, I admit I wasn’t very
interested.
(Video) Casey Niestat: So I got a ticket for not riding in the bike lane, but often
there are obstructions that keep you from properly riding in the bike lane.
By being totally surprising and humorous, Casey Niestat got his funny idea and
point seen five million times. And so this approach holds for anything new that we do
creatively. And so it all brings us to one big question...
(Video) Bear Vasquez: What does this mean? Ohhhh.(Laughter)
What does it mean? Tastemakers, creative participating communities, complete
unexpectedness, these are characteristics of a new kind of media and a new kind of
culture where anyone has access and the audience defines the popularity. I mean, as
mentioned earlier, one of the biggest stars in the world right now, Justin Bieber, got his
start on YouTube. No one has to green-light your idea. And we all now feel some ownership in our own pop culture. And these are not characteristics of old media, and they’re
barely true of the media of today, but they will define the entertainment of the future.
Thank you.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Male Teacher: Welcome to Harvard, guys.
Male Teacher: It looks like what you thought it would?
Liz: Better. Unattainably better.
Male Teacher: Liz, they’re just people.
Liz: Not people like me.
Liz: [Monologue] why not people like me? What made them so different?
Because of where they were born? I was working as hard as I could, so I
didn’t end up on food stamps or house let. What... what if I work even
more? I was so close to the skin now I can touch it.
Male Teacher: It would be a reach. It’s not impossible.
Liz: Is there any other scholarships?
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Female Staff: That’s quite a few.
Liz: Write 1,500 words on the importance of the free market and the free
world and win $500. Yeah, I don’t need lead $70 of those every year.
Female Staff: T
here was some brand-new from The New York Times, maybe I didn’t
put it in yet.
Liz: $12,000 every year for 4 years.
Female Staff: What do you have to do?
Liz: Attach a brief essay describing what you believe to be the most significant
in academic achievement and how you have overcome any challenges or
obstacles. Can I have a copy of this?
Liz: [Monologue] I want to stand beside people beside walk and not be so
far beneath them. I wanna go to Harvard and become very developed,
read all the best books. Then I found myself thinking, … what if I just go
crazy? I used my every bit of potential to do that. I have to do it. I have
no choice.
Female Staff: Am I late?
Liz: No, I’m early.
Liz: I make you some coffee.
Female Staff: Want sweet, right?
Liz: Right!
Liz: Can I have a stamp for this?
Female Staff: T
hat’s the NYT scholarship. You haven’t mailed them yet? When is the
deadline?
Liz: Tomorrow.
Female Staff: I gave you that 4 months ago, Liz. What are you waiting for?
Liz: For today. For me to turn 18.
Female Staff: I t’s your birthday. Happy birthday. But I don’t think there’s an age
requirement.
Liz: I know, thank you.
Liz: [Monologue] But now I could tell the truth that I was homeless, and no
one could come and take me away.
Clip # 2
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Liz: [ Monologue] The world moves, you just suspect. It can all happen
专题听力三 Love & Passion
without you. Situations are not conducive to what you want for yourself.
Someone else’s needs, someone else’s plate is going to be stronger than
yours is...I think people just get frustrated without harsh, life can be. So
they’re spending their time dwelling on that frustration. We are calling it
anger. Keep their eyes shut to the wholeness of the situation, to all those
little, tinny things that have come together to make it, what it is.
Liz: Because I was turned so inward by mom and dad. I got chance to see how
all the little tiny things come together to make the final product. So I was
never inclined to wonder why this or why that. I knew why. Not that I was
happy about it, in fact I was really sad about it, most of the time. But I was
very accepting. I was very accepting. I just always knew that I needed to get
out.
Interviewer: Is there anything else you’d like to tell us?
Liz: I loved my mother. So much I mean, she was a drug addict. She was an
alcoholic. She was legally blind. She was schizophrenic. But I never forgot
that she did love me. Even if, if she did. All the time. All the time. All the
time. I hope you all know how much I really need this. I can’t go to college
or anything without it.
Chairman of the Press: She earned a 95 average, and finished the top of class of 150.
She did it while completing the 4 years of high school in 2. She did it while
homeless, her mother was dead, her father was a drug addict living in
shelters. And anyway I describe this can’t do just to her accomplishment.
So I’ll just introduce to you our 6th NYT scholarship winner, Liz Murray.
Liz: Everything’s changed. My life will never be the same. And I don’t know
what else to say except for thank you. Thank you very much.
A News Reporter: Liz, Liz, how did you do this?
Liz: How could I not do it? My parents showed me what the alternative was.
The Same News Reporter: Did you ever feel sorry for yourself?
Liz: Sorry?
The Same News Reporter: Sleeping in the subway. Eating out of dumpsters.
Liz: That had always been my life and I really, I feel that I got lucky, because any
sense of security was pulled out from under me. So I was forced to look
forward. I had to... there was no going back. And I reached a point where
I just thought: “All right, I’m gonna work as hard as I possibly can and see
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what happens.” And now I’m going to college. And The New York Times is
going to pay.
The Same News Reporter: So you were lucky! But is there anything you change, if you
were able?
Liz: Yeah, I’d give it back, all of it, if I could have my family back.
Liz: [Monologue] I got into Harvard. I got a job at The New York Times. I got an
apartment. I don’t have to carry my whole life with me anymore.
Liz: I don’t have to carry my whole life with me. But I do. Everyone I’ve known,
everything I have done. Jesus, chip off. I forget the little things but it’s still
hard to carry alone. So that’s why I told you. That’s why I’ve told you my
story. Now I can lay that burden down, put it in the rest, then I can go on.
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Section 2: Test & School
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Renee Montagne, Host: It’s been a high-stakes year for high-stakes standardized
tests taken by students in public schools. The debate over the new federal
education law, the Every Student Succeeds Act, turned in part on whether
annual testing would remain a federal mandate. Ultimately, the overhaul
passed with the tests still in place. On the other hand, this fall, President
Obama released a Testing Action Plan. He’s calling for states to cut down
unnecessary testing that creates, quote, “undue stress for educators and
students.” For more on the changes we’re likely to see in school testing in
2016, we turned to Anya Kamenetz of the NPR Ed team who’s been following
these issues very closely. Good morning.
Anya Kamenetz, Byline: Hi, Renee.
Montagne: A
nd annual tests are still in place. So what’s different now?
Kamenetz: W
hat’s really different are the stakes. So instead of the federal government,
as it did under No Child Left Behind, mandating that every single child
perform at grade level and dictating the sanctions for schools where
students are falling behind, now every state can pretty much set up its own
plan for improving schools. And at the same time, states are encouraged
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a little bit to deemphasize test scores in their accountability formulas in
favor of multiple measures of student success like behavior, attendance,
graduation rates, even student surveys.
Montagne: I t sounds a little bit more relaxed, but does that mean testing and test prep
is likely to fade?
Kamenetz: W
ell, it’s hard to say. You know, the Department of Education and the
president have been putting out the message that there’s too much testing.
And they’re certainly responded to the public in that way. And they’re
providing resources in this bill for states to audit and to streamline their
testing programs. The problem is that many, many districts have to wait—
sometimes for months—before they get their state test scores. So they
still need to give their own diagnostic tests in order to get information
they can use in the classroom. And as long as test scores remain linked
to accountability measures, districts will still want to give benchmark and
practice tests and spend time prepping students. And it’s all this districtlevel testing and the prepping that really does seem to pile up and add to
the stress on students.
Montagne: And how exactly does the Common Core relate to all of this testing?
Kamenetz: W
ell, you know, I think a lot of the stress isn’t just about the sheer number
of tests but also around all the changes in state policies. And the Common
Core of course is really central to that. So initially, as a part of the runup to the Common Core, boosters said that if states adopted the same
standards and just a handful of aligned tests that we would simplify
testing and get scores that we could compare across states. But that hasn’t
happened. Instead, there’s been a really chaotic process of states picking
up and dropping the standards, picking up and dropping various tests. And
according to a report this year, 65 percent of the biggest school districts in
the country saw a change in their big state tests in the last five years. So not
only can we not compare performance across many, many states, the same
districts can’t compare their own performance to five years ago.
Montagne: A
nd what about the politics of testing? Because this has become quite
politicized... Will they opt out movement—continue to grow?
Kamenetz: Y
ou know, even as the opt-out movement has been running high, last spring
in states like New York, national polls reported that a majority of Americans
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don’t support sitting kids out of mandated tests. And one important political
change in the new federal law is that states no longer have to make test
scores a central part of teacher evaluations. And it was this one issue, the
linking of test scores to teacher evaluations. That really mobilized teacher
unions in particular against tests. And so I think that even if the new law
doesn’t cut back on testing, it may have effectively neutralized some of the
opposition to testing.
Montagne: Anya, thanks very much.
Kamenetz: Thanks, Renee.
VIDEO WATCHING
A common misperception voiced by people who have never been to graduate
school is that people who do apply to graduate school are trying to relive their college
years. In reality, anyone who applies to grad school with that goal in mind is in for big
disappointment. Graduate level study is a completely different experience than the
one undergrads go through. Prospective grad students should think that about these
differences and what they mean to them before committing themselves to a course of
postgraduate study.
Some of the major differences between the graduate and undergraduate student
experiences are: One, Graduate students are expected to produce original research and
analysis. Absorbing a body of knowledge is not enough to get you through a graduate
program. You need to show you can put together information and ideas and come up
with a new finding and insight.
Graduate study is more focused than undergraduate study is. You are expected
to have a fairly specific educational goal in mind when you begin a graduate program
and work diligently towards achieving that goal. While there’s some room for academic
exploration, you won’t have the same opportunities you did as an undergrad.
Transferring to another program or school is difficult. Make sure you’re happy with your
program before you matriculate.
Your relationship with professors will be more like relationships with senior
colleagues and supervisors than traditional student-teacher relationships. You are
expected to take more responsibility for your learning. That means taking more
responsibility for organizing your workload and managing your progress towards your
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degree. It also means not bother your professors with every minor question you have.
You’ll be expected to develop good judgment about which issues are worth bringing
up in class or an office visit and which ones are not. You will probably work harder and
socialize less.
Graduate students have a heavier and more complex academic workload than
undergrads do, which leads to less time for socializing. In addition, many graduate
students live off campus or have family or work obligations in addition to their studies.
All these factors mean that graduate students tend to have fewer opportunities to
socialize than undergrads do. That’s not to say people don’t establish long relationships
with fellow grad students. Many do. But the social aspects of being a grad students aren’t
important to you. You should research the side of the school carefully and be prepared
to take the initiative to shape a strong and active student community.
LECTURE WATCHING
Sir Ken Robinson: Bring on the Learning Revolution
Al Gore spoke at the TED conference I spoke at four years ago and talked about the
climate crisis. And I referenced that at the end of my last talk. So I want to pick up from
there because I only had 18 minutes, frankly. So, as I was saying—you see, he’s right.
I mean, there is a major climate crisis, obviously, and I think if people don’t believe
it, they should get out more. But I believe there is a second climate crisis, which is as
severe, which has the same origins, and that we have to deal with with the same urgency.
And you may say, by the way, “Look, I’m good. I have one climate crisis, I don’t really
need the second one.” But this is a crisis of, not natural resources—though I believe
that’s true—but a crisis of human resources.
I believe fundamentally, as many speakers have said during the past few days that
we make very poor use of our talents. Very many people go through their whole lives
having no real sense of what their talents may be, or if they have any to speak of. I
meet all kinds of people who don’t think they’re really good at anything. Actually, I
kind of divide the world into two groups now. Jeremy Bentham, the great utilitarian
philosopher, once spiked this argument. He said, “There are two types of people in this
world: those who divide the world into two types and those who do not.” Well, I do.
I meet all kinds of people who don’t enjoy what they do. They simply go through
their lives getting on with it. They get no great pleasure from what they do. They endure
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it rather than enjoy it, and wait for the weekend. But I also meet people who love what
they do and couldn’t imagine doing anything else. If you said, “Don’t do this anymore,”
they’d wonder what you’re talking about. It isn’t what they do, it’s who they are. They
say, “But this is me, you know. It would be foolish to abandon this, because it speaks
to my most authentic self.” And it’s not true of enough people. In fact, on the contrary,
I think it’s still true of a minority of people. And I think there are many possible
explanations for it. And high among them is education, because education, in a way,
dislocates very many people from their natural talents. And human resources are like
natural resources; they’re often buried deep. You have to go looking for them, they’re
not just lying around on the surface. You have to create the circumstances where they
show themselves. And you might imagine education would be the way that happens, but
too often, it’s not. Every education system in the world is being reformed at the moment
and it’s not enough. Reform is no use anymore, because that’s simply improving a
broken model. What we need—and the word’s been used many times in the past few
days—is not evolution, but a revolution in education. This has to be transformed into
something else.
One of the real challenges is to innovate fundamentally in education. Innovation is
hard, because it means doing something that people don’t find very easy, for the most
part. It means challenging what we take for granted, things that we think are obvious.
The great problem for reform or transformation is the tyranny of common sense. Things
that people think, “It can’t be done differently, that’s how it’s done.” I came across a
great quote recently from Abraham Lincoln, who I thought you’d be pleased to have
quoted at this point. He said this in December 1862 to the second annual meeting of
Congress. I ought to explain that I have no idea what was happening at the time. We
don’t teach American history in Britain. We suppress it. You know, this is our policy. No
doubt, something fascinating was happening then, which the Americans among us will
be aware of. But he said this: “The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy
present. The occasion is piled high with difficulty, and we must rise with the occasion.”
I love that. Not rise to it, rise with it. “As our case is new, so we must think anew and act
anew. We must disenthrall ourselves, and then we shall save our country.”
I love that word, “disenthrall.” You know what it means? That there are ideas that
all of us are enthralled to, which we simply take for granted as the natural order of
things, the way things are. And many of our ideas have been formed, not to meet the
circumstances of this century, but to cope with the circumstances of previous centuries.
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But our minds are still hypnotized by them, and we have to disenthrall ourselves of
some of them. Now, doing this is easier said than done. It’s very hard to know, by the
way, what it is you take for granted. And the reason is that you take it for granted.
Let me ask you something you may take for granted. How many of you here are over
the age of 25? That’s not what you take for granted, I’m sure you’re familiar with that.
Are there any people here under the age of 25? Great. Now, those over 25, could you
put your hands up if you’re wearing your wristwatch? Now that’s a great deal of us, isn’t
it? Ask a room full of teenagers the same thing. Teenagers do not wear wristwatches. I
don’t mean they can’t, they just often choose not to. And the reason is we were brought
up in a pre-digital culture, those of us over 25. And so for us, if you want to know the
time, you have to wear something to tell it. Kids now live in a world which is digitized,
and the time, for them, is everywhere. They see no reason to do this. And by the way,
you don’t need either; it’s just that you’ve always done it and you carry on doing it. My
daughter never wears a watch, my daughter Kate, who’s 20. She doesn’t see the point.
As she says, “It’s a single-function device.” “Like, how lame is that?” And I say, “No, no, it
tells the date as well.” “It has multiple functions.”
But, you see, there are things we’re enthralled to in education. Let me give you a
couple of examples. One of them is the idea of linearity: that it starts here and you go
through a track and if you do everything right, you will end up set for the rest of your
life. Everybody who’s spoken at TED has told us implicitly, or sometimes explicitly, a
different story: that life is not linear; it’s organic. We create our lives symbiotically as we
explore our talents in relation to the circumstances they help to create for us. But, you
know, we have become obsessed with this linear narrative. And probably the pinnacle
for education is getting you to college. I think we are obsessed with getting people
to college. Certain sorts of college. I don’t mean you shouldn’t go, but not everybody
needs to go, or go now. Maybe they go later, not right away.
And I was up in San Francisco a while ago doing a book signing. There was this guy
buying a book, he was in his 30s. I said, “What do you do?” And he said, “I’m a fireman.”
I asked, “How long have you been a fireman?” He said, “Always. I’ve always been a
fireman.” And I asked “Well, when did you decide?” He said, “As a kid. Actually, it was a
problem for me at school, because at school, everybody wanted to be a fireman.”
He said, “But I wanted to be a fireman.” And he said, “When I got to the senior year
of school, my teacher didn’t take it seriously. This one teacher didn’t take it seriously.
He said I was throwing my life away if that’s all I chose to do with it; that I should go
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to college, I should become a professional person, that I had great potential and I was
wasting my talent to do that.” He said, “It was humiliating. It was in front of the whole
class and I felt dreadful. But it’s what I wanted, and as soon as I left school, I applied
to the fire service and I was accepted. I was thinking about that guy recently, just a few
minutes ago when you were speaking, about this teacher, because six months ago, I
saved his life.” He said, “He was in a car wreck, and I pulled him out, gave him CPR, and
I saved his wife’s life as well.” He said, “I think he thinks better of me now.”
You know, to me, human communities depend upon a diversity of talent, not a
singular conception of ability. And at the heart of our challenges—
At the heart of the challenge is to reconstitute our sense of ability and of
intelligence. This linearity thing is a problem. When I arrived in L.A. about nine years
ago, I came across a policy statement—very well-intentioned—which said, “College
begins in kindergarten.” No, it doesn’t.
It doesn’t. If we had time, I could go into this, but we don’t. Kindergarten begins
in kindergarten. A friend of mine once said, “A three-year-old is not half a six yearold.” They’re three. But as we just heard in this last session, there’s such competition
now to get into kindergarten—to get to the right kindergarten—that people are being
interviewed for it at three. Kids sitting in front of unimpressed panels, you know, with
their resumes—
Flicking through and saying, “What, this is it?”
“You’ve been around for 36 months, and this is it?”
“You’ve achieved nothing—commit. Spent the first six months breastfeeding, I can
see.”
See, it’s outrageous as a conception. The other big issue is conformity. We have built
our education systems on the model of fast food. This is something Jamie Oliver talked
about the other day. There are two models of quality assurance in catering. One is fast
food, where everything is standardized. The other is like Zagat and Michelin restaurants,
where everything is not standardized, they’re customized to local circumstances. And we
have sold ourselves into a fast-food model of education, and it’s impoverishing our spirit
and our energies as much as fast food is depleting our physical bodies.
We have to recognize a couple of things here. One is that human talent is
tremendously diverse. People have very different aptitudes. I worked out recently that I
was given a guitar as a kid at about the same time that Eric Clapton got his first guitar. It
worked out for Eric, that’s all I’m saying. In a way—it did not for me. I could not get this
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thing to work no matter how often or how hard I blew into it. It just wouldn’t work. But it’s
not only about that. It’s about passion. Often, people are good at things they don’t really
care for. It’s about passion, and what excites our spirit and our energy. And if you’re doing
the thing that you love to do, that you’re good at, time takes a different course entirely.
My wife’s just finished writing a novel, and I think it’s a great book, but she disappears for
hours on end. You know this, if you’re doing something you love, an hour feels like five
minutes. If you’re doing something that doesn’t resonate with your spirit, five minutes
feels like an hour. And the reason so many people are opting out of education is because
it doesn’t feed their spirit, it doesn’t feed their energy or their passion.
So I think we have to change metaphors. We have to go from what is essentially
an industrial model of education, a manufacturing model, which is based on linearity
and conformity and batching people. We have to move to a model that is based more
on principles of agriculture. We have to recognize that human flourishing is not a
mechanical process; it’s an organic process. And you cannot predict the outcome of
human development. All you can do, like a farmer, is create the conditions under which
they will begin to flourish.
So when we look at reforming education and transforming it, it isn’t like cloning
a system. There are great ones, like KIPP’s; it’s a great system. There are many great
models. It’s about customizing to your circumstances and personalizing education
to the people you’re actually teaching. And doing that, I think, is the answer to the
future because it’s not about scaling a new solution; it’s about creating a movement in
education in which people develop their own solutions, but with external support based
on a personalized curriculum.
Now in this room, there are people who represent extraordinary resources in
business, in multimedia, in the Internet. These technologies, combined with the
extraordinary talents of teachers, provide an opportunity to revolutionize education.
And I urge you to get involved in it because it’s vital, not just to ourselves, but to
the future of our children. But we have to change from the industrial model to an
agricultural model, where each school can be flourishing tomorrow. That’s where
children experience life. Or at home, if that’s what they choose, to be educated with
their families or friends.
There’s been a lot of talk about dreams over the course of these few days. And I
wanted to just very quickly—I was very struck by Natalie Merchant’s songs last night,
recovering old poems. I wanted to read you a quick, very short poem from W. B. Yeats,
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who some of you may know. He wrote this to his love, Maud Gonne, and he was
bewailing the fact that he couldn’t really give her what he thought she wanted from him.
And he says, “I’ve got something else, but it may not be for you.”
He says this: “Had I the heavens’ embroidered cloths, enwrought with gold and
silver light, The blue and the dim and the dark cloths Of night and light and the halflight, I would spread the cloths under your feet: But I, being poor, have only my
dreams; I have spread my dreams under your feet; Tread softly because you tread on my
dreams.” And every day, everywhere, our children spread their dreams beneath our feet.
And we should tread softly.
Thank you. Thank you very much. Thank you.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
McGonagall: W
elcome to Hogwarts. Now in a few moments, you’ll pass through these
doors and join your classmates. But before you take your seats, you must
be sorted into your houses. They are Gryffindor, Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw
and Slytherin. While you’re here, your house will be like your family. Your
triumphs will earn you points. Any rule-breaking and you will lose points.
At the end of the year, the house with the most points wins the House
Cup.
Matthew: Trevor! … Sorry.
McGonagall: The sorting ceremony will begin momentarily.
Malfoy: It’s true then, what they’re saying on the train. Harry Potter has come to
Hogwarts.
Matthew: Harry Potter?
Malfoy: This is Crabbe and Goyle. And I’m Malfoy. Draco Malfoy. … Think my
name’s funny, do you? I’ve no need to ask yours. Red hair and a hand-medown robe? You must be a Weasley. You’ll soon find out some wizarding
families are better than others, Potter. You don’t want to go making
friends with the wrong sort. I can help you there.
Harry: I think I can tell the wrong sort for myself, thanks.
McGonagall: All ready for you now. Follow me.
Hermione: It’s not real, the ceiling. It’s just bewitched to look like the night sky. I
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read about it in Hogwarts, A History.
McGonagall: W
ill you wait along here, please? Now, before we begin, Professor
Dumbledore would like to say a few words.
Dumbledore: I have a few start-of-term notices I wish to announce. The first years,
please note that the Dark Forest is strictly forbidden to all students. Also,
our caretaker, Mr. Filch, has asked me to remind you that the first-floor
corridor in the right-hand side is out of bounds to everyone who doesn’t
want to die a most painful death. Thank you.
McGonagall: When I call your name, you will come forth. I shall place the Sorting
Hat on your head and you will be sorted into your houses. Hermione
Granger.
Hermione: Oh, no. Okay, relax.
Ron: Mental, that one. I’m telling you.
Sorting Head: Right, then. Right. Okay. Gryffindor!
McGonagall: D
raco Malfoy.
Sorting Head: Slytherin!
Ron: Every wizard who went bad was in Slytherin.
McGonagall: Susan Bones.
Ron: Harry, what is it?
Harry: Nothing. Nothing, I’m fine.
Sorting Head: Let’s see… I know! Hufflepuff !
McGonagall: R
onald Weasley.
Sorting Head: Ah! Another Weasley! I know just what to do with you. Gryffindor!
McGonagall: H
arry Potter.
Sorting Head: Um, difficult, very difficult. Plenty of courage, I see. Not a bad mind,
either. There’s talent, oh, yes. And a thirst to prove yourself. But where
to put you?
Harry: Not Slytherin, not Slytherin!
Sorting Head: Not Slytherin, eh? Are you sure? You could be great, you know. It’s all
here, in your head. And Slytherin will help you on the way to greatness,
there’s no doubt about that. No? Well, if you’re sure. Better be…
Gryffindor!
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Clip # 2
Ron: Made it! Can you imagine the look on old McGonagall’s face if we were
late? That was bloody brilliant!
McGonagall: T
hank you for that assessment, Mr. Weasley. Perhaps it would be more
useful if I were to transfigure Mr. Potter and yourself into a pocket watch?
Then one of you may be on time.
Harry: We got lost.
McGonagall: T
hen perhaps a map? I trust you don’t need one to find your seats.
Snape: There will be no foolish wand-waving or silly incantations in this class. As
such, I don’t expect many of you to appreciate the subtle science and exact
art that is potion-making. However, for those select few who possesses
the predisposition, I can teach you how to bewitch the mind and ensnare
the senses. I can tell you how to bottle fame, brew glory and even put a
stopper in death. Then again, maybe some of you have come to Hogwarts
in possession of abilities so formidable that you feel confident enough to
not pay attention. Mr. Potter, our new celebrity, tell me what would I get if I
added powdered root of asphodel to an infusion of wormwood. You don’t
know? Well, let’s try again. Where, Mr. Potter, would you look if I asked you
to find me a bezoar?
Harry: I don’t know, sir.
Snape: And what is the difference between monkshood and wolfbane?
Harry: I don’t know, sir.
Snape: Pity. Clearly, fame isn’t everything, is it, Mr. Potter?
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Section 3: School Education
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
In a predominantly Hispanic neighborhood known for its poverty and gangs,
growing up can be tough. That’s especially true for Garfield High School student Marco
Antonio Aguilar. “My freshman year, everything went bad. I hated the school.”
Aguilar says he had the wrong friends, often skipped school and even got into
fights. The school suspended him and he almost had to go to a school for problem
students. But a talk with his mom woke him up. “What also sparked the fire more was
with the help of the teachers I received, and knowing that they did care about me, the
school did really help me.” “You don’t have to suspend kid. It doesn’t get you anywhere.
It’s not even expensive, it’s very simple, connect with students.”
Garfield High School Principal Jose Huerta says when he first arrived at Garfield
High more than four years ago, the dropout rate was more than 50 percent, and with
close to 700 suspensions a year. He says most of the suspensions were for behavioral
problems which school officials call “willful defiance.” “It could be from chewing gum in
class to sticking gum under the things.”
Huerta changed the discipline policy. Those with willful defiance issues will no
longer be suspended. Instead, they first talk to a teacher, then a parent may get involved
and eventually, a support group if needed.
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Garfield High now has an 85 percent graduation rate, and the school has changed.
“The reason we don’t see vandalism or anything is because now there’s a connection
with our students. They respect us dearly and we respect them, and I tell them I love
them. Every time we have an assembly: ‘remember guys I love you and we love you’ and
they all respond with an applause because they don’t always get that.”
Punishments for behavioral problems were decided by each school in this urban
district. But last year, the Los Angeles Unified School District banned suspension for
willful defiance issues. School Superintendent John Deasy, “Far too many suspensions,
and far too many suspensions for black and brown youth. Suspending and expelling
students for non-violent behaviors come to great cost to both the students and their
communities.”
The U.S. Departments of Justice and Education recently called on schools to find
alternatives to suspensions for non-violent behaviors. Dan Losen of The Civil Rights
Project at UCLA says while 60 percent of secondary schools in the U.S. do not have high
suspension rates, those that do often are in poor black or Latino neighborhoods. “The
schools that suspend high number of kids, they don’t have better achievement. They
don’t have better graduation rates.”
United Teachers Los Angeles President Warren Fletcher says that while suspending
a student should never be a first option, taking the option away completely is not the
solution either. “If you take it off the table; if you make it so that a school essentially
doesn’t have that option at all in an environment of ballooning class sizes and deep,
deep cuts to student mental health, it creates a pressure cooker environment in a
school, and that’s not good for anyone.”
While the number of suspensions nationwide seems to be decreasing, many
educators say a more permanent solution is to pair changes in discipline with more
funding to provide support for the students—so they can succeed like Aguilar, who
plans on going to college when he graduates this year.
VIDEO WATCHING
Reporter: Brazil is a country aiming to become a world leader. It recently overtook the UK to become the world’s sixth largest economy. And the global
leaders flocking here are a sign of the nation’s growing clouds. But when it
comes to education, Brazil only rank 53rd in terms of straining to expand,
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due to a lack of sufficiently trained workers. BBC’s Katty Kay reports from
Sao Paulo on the challenges Brazil needs to address so it can seize its
moment and not be left on the sidelines.
Reporter: In downtown Sao Paulo they are throwing up buildings at a dizzying pace,
but it needs more than muscle to live a country into modernity. All this
prosperity was built on exporting Brazil’s natural resources. But if the
country wants to do more than supply commodities to China, it needs
human resources, too. But you won’t find many skilled workers on the
streets.
Reporter: It’s here in a poor neighborhood of Sau Paulo, not far from the glitzy
business district, that you find Brazil’s challenge. If this country ever wants
to develop from an emerging economy to an emerged economy, it’s going
to have to do a much better job educating its population.
Reporter: It’s time for school in a poor Sau Paulo neighborhood. This is the second
session of the day. Brazil’s done a good job getting more children into the
education system. But now there aren’t enough schools. So, like many
here, this one runs three shifts. It’s progress. A lot of children here come
from families that hardly had any education.
Reporter: This boy says his mother only studied until fourth grade and he’s not
sure but maybe his father made it as far as fifth. This girl is determined to
go all the way through college. She says studying is the passport for the
future. That ambition gives Hedgie Laney Ikunya a challenge. Her own
training, she says, was minimum. She stepped into her first classroom with
absolutely no practical experience. And it was terrifying.
Reporter: With minimum resources, the school is trying hard. But if it can’t provide
skillful workers that Brazil needs to satisfy the demanding of growing
economy, then Brazil companies will look elsewhere for labor. They will
look for people like Joao Nunes, a Portuguese engineer working here as a
head hunter.
Joao Nunes: W
hen we talk about engineers, Brazil has a huge demand of technical
professionals. To satisfy the growth of the country, in terms of infrastructures. But the problem in Brazil is not to construct the building, is when
you need to construct, for example, more complex constructure, for
example, dam, high way, some of the boards.
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Reporter: Or even a world cup stadium. For the big games of 2014, Sao Paulo is
building a showcase for the future. It needs educated Brazilians to make
that future a success.
LECTURE WATCHING
Taking OLPC to Columbia
It’s amazing, when you meet a head of state and you say, “What is your most
precious natural resource?”—they will not say children at first. And then when you say
children, they will pretty quickly agree with you.
(Video): We’re traveling today with the Minister of Defense of Colombia, head
of the army and the head of the police, and we’re dropping off 650 laptops today to
children who have no television, no telephone and have been in a community cut off
from the rest of the world for the past 40 years. The importance of delivering laptops
to this region is connecting kids who have otherwise been unconnected because of
the FARC, the guerrillas that started off 40 years ago as a political movement and then
became a drug movement. There are one billion children in the world, and 50 percent
of them don’t have electricity at home or at school. And in some countries—let me pick
Afghanistan—75 percent of the little girls don’t go to school. And I don’t mean that they
drop out of school in the third or fourth grade—they don’t go.
So in the three years since I talked at TED and showed a prototype, it’s gone from
an idea to a real laptop. We have half a million laptops today in the hands of children.
We have about a quarter of a million in transit to those and other children, and then
there are another quarter of a million more that are being ordered at this moment.
So, in rough numbers, there are a million laptops. That’s smaller than I predicted—I
predicted 3 to 10 million—but is still a very large number.
In Colombia, we have about 3,000 laptops. It’s the Minister of Defense with whom
we’re working, not the Minister of Education, because it is seen as a strategic defense
issue in the sense of liberating these zones that had been completely closed off, in
which the people who had been causing, if you will, 40 years’ worth of bombings and
kidnappings and assassinations lived.
And suddenly, the kids have connected laptops. They’ve leapfrogged. The change
is absolutely monumental, because it’s not just opening it up, but it’s opening it up to
the rest of the world. So yes, they’re building roads, yes, they’re putting in telephone,
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专题听力三 Love & Passion
yes, there will be television. But the kids 6 to 12 years old are surfing the Internet in
Spanish and in local languages, so the children grow up with access to information, with
a window into the rest of the world. Before, they were closed off.
Interestingly enough, in other countries, it will be the Minister of Finance who
sees it as an engine of economic growth. And that engine is going to see the results in
20 years. It’s not going to happen, you know, in one year, but it’s an important, deeply
economic and cultural change that happens through children. Thirty-one countries in
total are involved, and in the case of Uruguay, half the children already have them, and
by the middle of 2009, every single child in Uruguay will have a laptop—a little green
laptop.
Now what are some of the results? Some of the results that go across every single
country include teachers saying they have never loved teaching so much, and reading
comprehension measured by third parties—not by us—skyrockets. Probably the most
important thing we see is children teaching parents. They own the laptops. They take
them home. And so when I met with three children from the schools, who had traveled
all day to come to Bogota, one of the three children brought her mother. And the reason
she brought her mother is that this six-year-old child had been teaching her mother
how to read and write. Her mother had not gone to primary school. And this is such an
inversion, and such a wonderful example of children being the agents of change.
So now, in closing, people say, now why laptops? Laptops are a luxury; it’s like
giving them iPods. No. The reason you want laptops is that the word is education, not
laptop. This is an education project, not a laptop project. They need to learn learning.
And then, just think—they can have, let’s say, 100 books. In a village, you have 100
laptops, each with a different set of 100 books, and so that village suddenly has 10,000
books. You and I didn’t have 10,000 books when we went to primary school.
Sometimes school is under a tree, or in many cases, the teacher has only a fifthgrade education, so you need a collaborative model of learning, not just building more
schools and training more teachers, which you have to do anyway. So we’re once again
doing “Give One, Get One.” Last year, we ran a “Give One, Get One” program, and it
generated over 100,000 laptops that we were then able to give free. And by being a zerodollar laptop, we can go to countries that can’t afford it at all. And that’s what we did.
We went to Haiti, we went to Rwanda, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Mongolia. Places that are
not markets, seeding it with the principles of saturation, connectivity, low ages, etc. And
then we can actually roll out large numbers.
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So think of it this way: think of it as inoculating children against ignorance. And
think of the laptop as a vaccine. You don’t vaccinate a few children. You vaccinate all the
children in an area.
MOVIE WATCHING
Teacher: Partner science projects are due Friday. Decide who you want to work with,
sign the sheet as it comes around.
Girl: Back off! One at a time!
Teacher: Quietly!
Chris: Hi Greg, you want to do a project together?
Greg: I don’t know. I have a couple of ideas that I have already working on.
Big Chris: I want to work with Greg because my last science project didn’t go so well.
Mother: Chris! Would you get these damn ants out of here!
Big Chris: James Brown stole that “ants from my pants” idea from my father.
Chris: Come on, man. Who else will partner with me?
Greg: Chris, it’s not that I don’t want to be your partner. It’s just, I take my science
very seriously.
Chris: Yeah, you know, but we can still have fun.
Greg: We are talking about science, Chris. So you got to decide. Do you want to
have fun, or you want to win?
Big Chris: I just wanted to pass.
Big Chris: At school, I feel like I was doing a science project and Greg was trying to win
a Nobel Prize.
Greg: I am thinking about doing something like a periodic table. We can chart each
one that is discovered and show how it affects the society.
Chris: I am thinking we can make a volcano with vinegar and baking soda.
Greg: No, I did that in the third grade.
Big Chris: My third grade science project was watching a banana rot.
Greg: Hey, why don’t we do a whole thing of Plate Tectonics?
Big Chris: I thought Plate Tectonics was the original name of the Wu Tang Clan.
Greg: We can diagram a continental shift and show how mountain ranges form. And
show the shift of the Earth that around history.
Chris: So I guess making a robot out of soup cans aren’t gonna get it.
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专题听力三 Love & Passion
Greg: No.
Big Chris: Meanwhile I turned down Greg’s project on the theory of relativity.
Chris: Go!
Man: I will come up there, boy!
Big Chris: He turned down my project on: how to make ice. Finally we decided on
something we both like.
Chris and Greg: The solar system!
Chris: This looks great. Mercury is the closet to the Sun. Venus is the second. Earth
is the third. And we have four moons around Jupiter. It’s perfectly the scale.
Greg: Quit lying to yourself.
Chris: What’s that supposed to mean?
Greg: If the Earth was actually that close to the Sun, we will all be death.
Chris: Greg, it is a science project. It looks great.
Greg: We got to do it over.
Chris: Do it over? Do the whole universe over? Are you crazy? It looks great the way
it is.
Greg: This isn’t great. This sucks.
Chris: Look at this kid. His project is a bug in jelly. We are fine.
Greg: I knew you didn’t take science as seriously as I do.
Chris: Einstein didn’t take science as seriously as you do.
Greg: I knew I should get somebody else for a partner. I can’t turn this in. People
will think I’m an idiot.
Chris: What are you trying to say?
Greg: I said it once, and I’m gonna say it again. This sucks.
Chris: You know what? If you want to do something else, well, then do something
else.
Greg: I won’t let you screw the whole thing up.
Chris: There’s a reason why you don’t have friends until I came along.
Greg: There’s a reason you don’t have a friend now.
Big Chris: It was like Andrew Ridgeley leaving Whim.
Greg: Get out of my way.
Chris: No, you get out of my way.
Girl: Fight!
Big Chris: Like wars, most fights are started by people who won’t get hit.
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Chris: All right, then, hold my books.
Greg: Hold my books.
Chris: Hold my sweater.
Greg: Hold my vest.
Chris: Hold my watch.
Greg: Hold my Star Trek bracelet.
Chris: Hold my shoes.
Greg: Hold my shoes? Where did you get that?
Chris: Either that or punch you on the face.
Greg: Seriously?
Chris: No. What are we gonna do about the science project?
Greg: I got an idea.
Boy 1: …
Chris and Greg: What?
Boy 2: He said, “What about us?”
Boy 1: …
Boy 2: …
Boy 1: Come on!
Greg: I still wish the Earth would move away from the Sun.
Chris: Do you think we can win it?
Greg: Are you kidding me? If we can’t beat the bug in jello, I will go to school in
your neighborhood.
Chris: You are right. It looks great.
Caruso: Hi Frank, finish my science project.
Greg: Hey, you can’t do that!
Caruso: What are you gonna do about it?
Big Chris: All the science in the world is no match for a guy who could smack the taste
out of your mouth. Caruso couldn’t spell “Solar System.” But since he could
kick both of our asses, that means the universe was his.
Caruso: Yeah!
Greg: At least we beat the jello bug.
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Personalized Technology: The Apple of Your Eye
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. China.
2. About 720 million.
3. Developing economies such as China.
4. Price devices.
5. Lenovo.
6. Copy their business models to more emerging markets.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.D irections: Watch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. He died at age 56, battling with pancreatic cancer for 8 years.
2. He turned them to objects of desire.
3. 20; In his parents’ garage.
4. He was fired from Apple. It was devastating.
5. Animation.
6. In 1996, Apple bought NeXT.
7. A
pple’s stock soared more than 7,000% and became one of the most valuable
companies in history.
8. Remembering he’ll be dead soon.
9. Immeasurably better.
10. Brilliance, passion, energy, and countless innovation.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video and decide if the statements below
are true (T) or false (F).
1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. keynote
2. the most extraordinary speakers
3. convey information
4. inspires
5. several key techniques
6. electrify his audience
7. you can adopt
8. setting the theme
9. hinting at
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10. the ultra-thin MacBook Air
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the same video again and answer the following
questions.
1. Several key techniques Jobs uses to electrify his audience.
2. “Extraordinary,” “amazing,” and “ cool.”
3. Stiff, formal, lacking possess.
4. S
et the theme, provide a headline, and open & close each section with a clear
transition.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. It is the day the iPad comes out and it is his birthday.
2. It is a movie theater, a library, a music store all rolled into one awesome pad.
3. To line up for the iPad in the morning.
4. She’ll line up for the iPad for him.
5. She thinks it is a toy.
6. He builds a rosewood chess set.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. two whole days
2. wire the house
3. done it
4. surprised
5. functioning brain
6. headed out
7. free pass
8. hear yourself
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9. go outside
10. 2025
Part B
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Scripts
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Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
We’re going next to CNTV. China will cement its lead as the world’s largest smart
phone market in 2013, as the nation is expected to sell 240 million smart phones,
nearly one third of the global shipments, industry analysts from the firm Canalis said
on Thursday. Analysts said Chinese manufacturers will dominate the domestic market
and are well positioned to enter overseas markets. China will register up to 29% of the
837 million smart phones projected to be sold this year. The United States, the world’s
second largest smart phone maker, is likely to absorb another 125 million units during
the same period, it said. Total shipments hit 224 million in 2012 in China, making the
country the world’s No.1 smart phone manufacturer, the Xinhua News Agency reported,
citing industry insiders. Sales in smart phones in developed economies will see robust
growth despite the faltering economies. Both the major market drivers are developing
economies, but major market drivers are developing economies such as China,
according to Canalis. In total, developing markets will contribute 70 to 80 percent of the
growth this year, it added. In addition, the national brands will vigorously compete with
international players, especially in smaller cities. Domestic venders are rapidly moving
their business toward smart phones and winning consumers with their competitively
price devices. Such moves will continue to put significant pressure on international
venders this year, according to Nicole Peng, the research director of Canalis China
Office in Shanghai. Chinese makers, such as the Lenovo Group, ZET Corp. and the
Huawei Technologies, have released a series of low-end headsets, the price around 1,000
yuan, that’s about U.S. $160, targeting buyers with lower incomes. The U.S. research
company Guardlist said in November that Lenovo will become China’s top smart phone
maker before the end of this year. Low-cost smart phones have drastically accelerated
the decline in feature phones in China and the similar trend is expected to be seen in
other emerging markets in the next three years, Canalis predicted, adding that Chinese
companies will be given the opportunity to copy their business model to more emerging
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markets.
VIDEO WATCHING
Death of a man who literally changed the way we live our lives every day. Steve Jobs,
the visionary founder and leader of Apple Computer has died of the age 56. A giant in
business, technology and entertainment, Steve Jobs has been battling pancreatic cancer
for 8 years. Despite answering in short, he helped with personal computer. But that is
only a beginning. Here is ABC’s Bill Weir.
Before he put a virtual world onto fingertips, [“And we call it the ipad.” (Jobs)],
before he turned household tools into objects of desire [“Today, Apple is going to
reinvent the phone.” (Jobs)], before he changed the way we are entertained [“And you
can watch it on your ipod.” (Jobs)], a 20-year-old Steve Jobs launched a revolution
from his parents’ garage. With buddy Steve Wozniak, they set out to move the power of
computer from the laboratory to your lap. “The penalty for failure, for going-and-tryingto-start-a-company failure is nonexistent.” And his brilliant confidence was validated
when the launched the Macintosh. “We worked hard and in 10 years Apple has grown
from just the 2 of us in a garage to a 2-billion-dollar company of over 4,000 employees.
But the 80s brought a power struggle within Apple’s board and Jobs was soon fired
from the company he founded. “So when I was 30, I was out and very publicly out. What
had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone and it was devastating.” But he did
not wallow. And in his 30s he met his wife, started another computer company called
NeXT and took over Pixar, changing animation forever. “My name is Woody and this is
Andy’s room.” In 1996 Apple bought NeXT and soon Jobs was back in charge, leading
a digital renaissance. After his return, Apple’s stock soared more than 7,000%, turning
that garage startup into one of the most valuable companies in history. And in the valley
of geniuses, his myth grew into Thomas-Edison-meets-Willy-Wonka proportions, bailing
anticipations for invention shrouded in secrecy, [“Are you using it currently? Is that
your phone?” “Oh, I haven’t been able to, because I can’t take it out in public.”] While
keeping his life fiercely under wraps. Not even his board knows about his pancreatic
cancer. “I just want to mention this.” And he didn’t reveal he had a liver transplant until
after the procedure. “I now have a liver of a mid-20s person, who died in a car crash.”
Through life while his body grew frail, that mind, that drive, never quit. A standing
ovation welcomed his surprise appearance at the spring launch of iPad 2. But then
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came this letter in August, “I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no
longer meet my duties, I would be the first to let you know.” He wrote, “Unfortunately
that day has come.” He was a man who peered into the future, seeing how we’d work
and play 20 years before we ever hold proof. Everything will be portable. “People want
large color screen that can put photographs on. People want motion video.” And when
the body began to fail, he was driven anew by the clock and that burning need to build
something great. “Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve
ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life, because almost everything of
all external expectations, all pride, all fear and embarrassment of failure—these things
all just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important.” A titan of
American business, Steve Jobs was just 56 years old. He leaves behind a wife and 4
children. And just minutes ago, Apple’s board of directors issued a statement saying in
part, “Steve’s brilliance, passion and energy, with a source of countless innovation that
enriched and improved all of our lives. The world is immeasurably better because of
Steve. We’re gonna have much more on the life and impact of this remarkable American,
Steve Jobs, on a special edition of Nightline.
LECTURE WATCHING
Anyone who has watched steve Jobs’ keynote would tell you he is one of the most
extraordinary speakers in corporate America. “Who does the best job of that in the
world?” (Jobs) While most presenters simply convey information, Jobs inspires. I’m
Carl MacGallo. And today I’ll walk you through several key techniques that Steve Jobs
uses to electrify his audience—the elements that you can adopt in your very next
presentation. “Welcome to MacWorld 2008. We’ve got some great stuff for you. There’s
clearly something in the air today.” (Jobs) With those words, Jobs opened MacWorld 2008,
setting the theme for his presentation and hinting the major announcement of the day—
the launch of the ultra-thin MacBook Air. Whether it’s a new notebook or the iPhone,
Jobs unveils a single headline that sets the theme. “Today Apple is going to reinvent
the phone.” Once you identify a theme, make sure it’s clear and consistent throughout
the presentation. Think of a staff meeting as a presentation. So let’s say you’re
a sales manager introducing new software tool to help your team generate tracks and
cheer sales leads. You might kick off your meeting this way: “Good morning. Thanks for
coming. I know you’ll be really excited about this. Today we make it easier for you to
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make your quota.” That’s the headline. “Easier to make quota.” It’s memorable and it
sets the direction for the rest of your meeting. It gives your audience a reason to listen.
“So I’ve got 4 things I’d like to talk about to you today. Let’s get started.” (Jobs) Steve
Jobs always provides an outline for his presentation and then verbally opens and closes
each section with a clear transition in between. Here’s an example. “So that’s time
capsule, a perfect companion and leperd and that’s the first thing I want to share with
you this morning.” The point is make it easy for you listeners to follow your story. Your
outline will serve as guide posts along the way.
You’ll also notice during his presentations Jobs uses words like “extraordinary,”
“amazing,” and “cool”. He is passionate, enthusiastic and it shows. “Incredible,
unbelievable, awesome, extraordinary year for Apple.” (Jobs) You know your audience
wants to be wowed, not put to sleep. Too many people fall into this presentation
mode—it’s stiff, it’s formal, it lacks possess. We. Your listeners are giving you permission
to have fun and be excited about your company, your robotic and your service. If you’re
not passionate about it, we’re not going to be.
Remember Jobs isn’t selling hardware, he’s selling an experience. If you offer
numbers and statistics, make them meaningful. “We have sold 4 million iphones to
date. To divide 4 million by 200 days, that’s 2,000 iphones every day on average.” (Jobs)
Numbers don’t mean much unless they are placed in contexts. Managers, connect
the dots for your listeners. Recently I worked with a company which launched 12 GB
memory card. 12 GB! That number doesn’t mean much to most people. So we put it in
the context. We say that’s enough memory to listen to your music while traveling to the
moon and back. Now 12 GB mean something to me. Make numbers meaningful.
One of the most impressive elements of Steve Jobs’s presentation is that they are
easy on the eyes. His presentations are visual and simple. while most speakers fill their
slides with mind-numbing data and text and charts, Jobs does just the opposite. He uses
very little text and usually one, maybe two images per slide. You see, you want to paint a
picture for your audience without overwhelming them. Inspiring presentations are short
on bullet points and big on visuals.
If you really want your presentation to pop, treat it as a show with ads, films,
themes and transitions. Jobs includes video clips, demonstrations and guests. He also
has a knack for dramatic flare. It’s very effective. For example, when introducing the
MacBook Air, Jobs drew chairs by opening a Manila interoffice envelope and pulling the
laptop out for everyone to see. “This is the new MacBook Air. You can get a feel of how
thin it is.” (Jobs) What is the one memorable moment of your presentation? Identify it,
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had it time, and then build up to it.
“It will help us with our work today.” (Jobs) And finally, rehearse, rehearse, and
rehearse some more. “Let me show you how easy that is now.” (Jobs) Steve Jobs
makes it look easy because he spends hours rehearsing. He cannot pull off an intricate
presentation with video clips and demonstrations and outside speakers without practice.
The result—a presentation that is perfectly synchronized and looks, yes, effortless.
Now, the average businessperson does not have the resources to create a Steve Jobs
extravaganza. But you do have time to rehearse. The greatest presenters do it. So should
you.
Oh, and one more thing. At the end of most presentations, Jobs adds to the drama
by saying “And one more thing.” “One last thing...”(Jobs) He then adds a new product or
a feature, or sometimes just introduces a band. It not only heightens the excitement; it
also leaves the audience feel that they’ve been given an added bonus. The point is, Steve
Jobs approaches each presentation as an event, a production with a strong opening,
product demonstration in the middle, and a strong conclusion, and yes, even an encore,
that “one more thing.” I wish you a dazzling presentation.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Luke: Today, Sam Riley kicked a soccer ball and it hit another kid so hard his eye
popped out.
Phil: Awesome!
Claire: Really? His eye popped out.
Luke: Never mind.
Phil: Well, gotta hit the sack. Big Saturday tomorrow.
Claire: That’s right. It’s somebody’s birthday.
Phil: Not just that. The iPad comes out on my actual birthday. It’s like Steve Jobs and
God got together to say, “We love you, Phil.”
Claire: What is so great about that doohickey anyhow?
Phil: “Doohickey,” Elly May? It’s a movie theater, a library and a music store all rolled
into one awesome pad.
Alex: A library is a place where people get books.
Haley: A movie theater is a place where people go on dates.
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Phil: I better load the beach chair into the trunk. I’m gonna need it for the line in the
morning.
Claire: Wait, honey. Hang on. You can’t spend your birthday in line.
Phil: Well, not the whole day. I have to be there at 6:00, you’ll forget about it. Then
I’m out by 10:00.
Claire: Why don’t you let me do it?
Phil: Claire, you don’t have to do that.
Claire: No, I know, but I want to. And that way on your birthday you’ll wake up and
you’ll have your brand-new toy.
Phil: Okay. Well, in spite of you calling it a toy, this is shaping up to top the best
birthday I ever had.
Haley: Oh, thank God we don’t have to hear that stupid story about that place…
Phil: It was called the Fun Zone. I was 11. I hit 10 straight fastballs in the batting
cage. Then my best friend Jeff Sweeney stepped in and took one in the groin.
I yelled out “Ball two! “Everybody laughed. That was when I knew I was funny.
Good night.
Manny: B-E-L-I-E-V-E. Believe.
Gloria: Are you sure there’s not a “E-I” In the middle?
Manny: No. It’s “I-E.”
Gloria: Good, papi! If I can’t fool you, then your teachers can’t fool you either.
Manny: I don’t think they’re trying to fool me.
Jay: Wait until you see what I got Phil for his birthday. I found it on the SkyMall
catalog.
Gloria: Ay. It’s not one of those talking alarm clocks? It’s 6:05. It’s 6:25. Wake up. Wake
up.
Jay: Even better. A rosewood chess set. As a matter of fact, before I wrap this thing,
what say we take it for a spin? Come on Manny. I’ll teach you.
Gloria: He knows how to play. His father taught him.
Jay: I’m gonna teach him real chess, not the Colombian version. We actually use the
pieces to play the game, not smuggle stuff out of the country.
Gloria: I know one Colombian piece you won’t be playing with later.
Jay: Manny, come on. Let’s see what you got.
Gloria: You’ll be surprised. Let Him Win.
Gloria: Manny’s an excellent player, but Jay is a grumpy loser. He mopes, he makes the
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face, he slams the door, then he said he didn’t slam the door. It’s better that he
wins.
Clip # 2
Phil: And we have liftoff. Yello? House of the future.
Claire: Phil, you have two whole days to yourself. Please tell me you’re not gonna spend
them trying to wire the house to your ipad?
Phil: No, ‘cause I’ve already done it. I think when you get home, you’re gonna be very
surprised to see this house has an actual functioning brain in it.
Claire: Great. Great. Now go out and see some friends.
Phil: I’m headed out now. I have a third showing at that colonial. Cam gave me a free
pass to the gym. I am… not too bright! I am… dim!
Claire: Honey, if you could hear yourself. Promise me you’ll go outside and play.
Phil: Miss you, too. Phil Dunphy, this is the year 2025, Welcome, you’re the first one
here.
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Employment: Get a Job!
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. A
CV normally consists of work history, educational background, interests and
abilities.
2. People who look for work.
3. 5 minutes.
4. “Employ me.”
5. “Give my dad a job.”
6. H
e is good at marketing himself. He was bold and courageous in his attempts to
catch potential employers’ attention.
Ⅱ. 略
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VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. A 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. D
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. H
e is in Detroit visiting workers at a GM plant in the heart of a resurgent American
auto industry.
2. B
ecause this week Congress passed landmark trade agreements and assistance for
American workers.
3. Disappointed.
4. An action to create jobs and restore some security for the middle class.
5. H
e is going to urge (Members of) Congress to vote on putting (hundreds of
thousands of) teachers back in the classroom, cops back on the streets, and
firefighters back on the job.
6. Putting people back to work.
Restoring economic security for the middle class.
Rebuilding an economy where hard work is valued and responsibility is rewarded.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. take a look at this
2. in 1945
3. a whole variety of
4. I’m the experimenter
5. some matches
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6. attach the candle
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. He went to law school.
2. The key is to overcome what’s called functional fixedness.
3. It shows the power of incentives.
4. It’s built entirely around these extrinsic motivators, around carrots and sticks.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. 30 years.
2. Dumbfounded / Confused.
3. He feels like the people he worked with were his family and he died.
4. Because she has a house payment and she has children.
5. Because he does not work here.
6. Because he doesn’t have the balls to sake his own employees.
7. No, he won’t.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. you’re carrying a backpack
2. you have in your life
3. that adds up
4. getting pretty heavy now
5. Stuff it all in there
6. two-bedroomed house
7. Now try to walk
8. weigh ourselves down
9. Moving is living
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10. who can’t remember
11. let everything burn
12. kind of exhilarating
Part B
略
240
UNIT
Scripts
9
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Rob: Hello, I’m Rob. With me in the studio today is Neil. Hello, Neil!
Neil: Hello there, Rob!
Rob: Now I bet you have an impressive CV, Neil. CV is short for curriculum vitae—that’s
a Latin expression we use for the document in which people list their work history,
education, interests and abilities. In other parts of the English-speaking world it’s
called a resume. Now, Neil, I know you are a very good teacher and producer, but
does your CV actually shine?
Neil: Well, I hope it’s good enough to impress hiring managers. But it’s a challenge to
prove on a piece of paper or online document that you’re really better than the
other people who are competing for the same position.
Rob: Em, today we’re talking about CVs and you’ll learn some words related to this
topic, which will especially interest jobseekers—that’s what we call people looking
for work.
Neil: Yes, and jobseekers have to worry about having an impressive CV, so they get that
call for a job interview.
Rob: Yes, the CV is just the beginning. And, as you mentioned job interviews, I’ll ask
you a question all about this. According to a recent survey, managers decide quite
quickly if they’re going to really consider giving a candidate a job or not. So, when
you go for a job interview, how long do you have, on average, to make a good
enough impression for an employer to hire you? Do you have... a) Less than 3
minutes, b) Less than 5 minutes, or c) Less than 10 minutes.
Neil: Well, I think it’s probably quite short, so I’m going to go for: (b) 5 minutes.
Rob: Well, you’ll have the correct answer—the result of this survey—at the end of
the programme. But people have done all sorts of unusual things to reach the
interview level. One of them is Briton Daniel Conway, who went from posing
shirtless in the street with the phrase “employ me” written on his chest to
uploading a video on social media asking to be hired.
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Neil: Ah, this video went viral—it means became popular very quickly. In it his daughter
appears next to the phrase “give my dad a job.”
Rob: Yes. Daniel Conway tells us about his experience looking for work. Which word
does he use when he says he wanted to be noticed?
Daniel Conway, former jobseeker: I just thought as a young naive kid that I would
kind of walking into a job, but the truth is, you know, there are a lot of good
people out there who got just as great skills and I realized at that point that you’ve
got to stand out and get your strengths across.
Neil: He uses the phrasal verb to stand out—it means to be more visible than others in a
group so that he can be noticed.
Rob: D an Conway uses another phrasal verb: get your strengths across—to get
something across means to make something clear. In this case he wants the
employer to understand how good he is as a potential employee, his strengths and
his good qualities.
Neil: And did he get a job?
Rob: Well, yes, he did. And I’m glad to say that after four years this 29-year-old man got
a job marketing vitamins!
Neil: Well, we can say he was good at marketing himself.
Rob: Yes, we can. Well, he was bold and courageous in his attempts to catch potential
employers’ attention. He showed a quality described by career coach Corinne
Mills. Listen to What she says and tell me: What is the quality jobseekers have to
show for sure.
VIDEO WATCHING
I’m here in Detroit visiting workers at a GM plant in the heart of a resurgent
American auto industry. And I brought a guest with me—President Lee of South Korea.
We’re here because this week, Congress passed landmark trade agreements with
countries like Korea, and assistance for American workers that will be a big win for our
economy.
These trade agreements will support tens of thousands of American jobs. And we’ll
sell more Fords, Chevys and Chryslers abroad stamped with three proud words—“Made
in America.”
So it was good to see Congress act in a bipartisan way on something that will help
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create jobs at a time when millions of Americans are still out of work and need them
now.
But that’s also why we were so disappointing to see Senate Republicans obstruct
the American Jobs Act, even though a majority of Senators voted “yes” to advance this
jobs bill.
We can’t afford this lack of action. And there is no reason for it. Independent
economists say that this jobs bill would give the economy a jumpstart and lead to nearly
two million new jobs. Every idea in that jobs bill is the kind of idea both parties have
supported in the past.
The majority of the American people support the proposals in this jobs bill. And
they want action from their elected leaders to create jobs and restore some security
for the middle class right now. You deserve to see your hard work and responsibility
rewarded—and you certainly deserve to see it reflected in the folks you send to
Washington.
But rather than listen to you and put folks back to work, Republicans in the House
spent the past couple days picking partisan ideological fights. They’re seeing if they can
roll back clean air and water protections. They’re stirring up fights over a woman’s right
to make her own health care choices. They’re not focused on the concrete actions that
will put people back to work right now.
Well, we’re going to give them another chance. We’re going to give them another
chance to spend more time worrying about your jobs than keeping theirs.
Next week, I’m urging Members of Congress to vote on putting hundreds of
thousands of teachers back in the classroom, cops back on the streets, and firefighters
back on the job.
And if they vote “no” on that, they’ll have to tell you why. They’ll have to tell you
why teachers in your community don’t deserve a paycheck again. They’ll have to tell
your kids why they don’t deserve to have their teacher back. They’ll have to tell you why
they’re against commonsense proposals that would help families and strengthen our
communities right now and in the long term.
In the coming weeks, we’ll have them vote on the other parts of the jobs bill—
putting construction workers back on the job, rebuilding our roads and bridges;
providing tax cuts for small businesses that hire our veterans; making sure that
middle-class families don’t see a tax hike next year and that the unemployed and our
out-of-work youth have a chance to get back in the workforce and earn their piece of the
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American Dream.
That’s what’s at stake. Putting people back to work. Restoring economic security for
the middle class. Rebuilding an economy where hard work is valued and responsibility
is rewarded—an economy that’s built to last. And I’m going to travel all over the country
over the next few weeks so that we can remind Congress that’s the most important
thing. Because there’s still time to create jobs and grow our economy right now. There’s
still time for Congress to do the right thing. We just need to act.
Thanks.
LECTURE WATCHING
Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation
I need to make a confession at the outset here. A little over 20 years ago, I did
something that I regrets, something that I’m not particularly proud of. Something that,
in many ways, I wish no one would ever know, but here I feel kind of obliged to reveal.
Late 1980s, in a moment of youthful indiscretion, I went to law school.
Now, in America, law is a professional degree: after your university degree, you go
on to law school. When I got to law school, I didn’t do very well. To put it mildly, I didn’t
do very well. I, in fact, graduated in the part of my law school class that made the top
90% possible.
Thank you. I never practiced law a day in my life; I pretty much wasn’t allowed to.
But today, against my better judgment, against the advice of my own wife, I want to
try to dust off some of those legal skills—what’s left of those legal skills. I don’t want to
tell you a story. I want to make a case. I want to make a hard-headed, evidence-based,
dare I say lawyerly case, for rethinking how we run our businesses.
So, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, take a look at this. This is called the candle
problem. Some of you might have seen this before. It’s created in 1945 by a psychologist
named Karl Duncker. Karl Duncker created this experiment that is used in a whole
variety of experiments in behavioral science. And here’s how it works. Suppose I’m the
experimenter. I bring you into a room. I give you a candle, some thumbtacks and some
matches. And I say to you, “Your job is to attach the candle to the wall so the wax doesn’t
drip onto the table.” Now what would you do?
Many people begin trying to thumbtack the candle to the wall. Doesn’t work. Somebody, some people, and I saw somebody kind of make the motion over here—some
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people have a great idea where they light the match, melt the side of the candle, try to
adhere it to the wall. It’s an awesome idea. Doesn’t work. And eventually, after five or
ten minutes, most people figure out the solution, which you can see here.
The key is to overcome what’s called functional fixedness. You look at that box and
you see it only as a receptacle for the tacks. But it can also have this other function, as a
platform for the candle. The candle problem.
Now, I want to tell you about an experiment using the candle problem, done by
a scientist named Sam Glucksberg, who is now at Princeton University in the US. This
shows the power of incentives.
Here is what he did. He gathered his participants and said: “I’m going to time you,
how quickly you can solve this problem.” To one group he said, “I’m going to time you
to establish norms, averages for how long it typically takes someone to solve this sort of
problem.”
To the second group he offered rewards. He said, “If you’re in the top 25% of the
fastest times, you get five dollars. If you’re the fastest of everyone we’re testing here
today, you get 20 dollars.” OK, now this is several years ago, adjusted for inflation, it’s a
decent sum of money for a few minutes of work. OK, it’s a nice motivator.
Question: How much faster did this group solve the problem?
Answer: It took them, on average, three and a half minutes longer. Now this makes
no sense, right? I mean, I’m an American. I believe in free markets. That’s not how it’s
supposed to work, right?
If you want people to perform better, you reward them. Right? Bonuses,
commissions, their own reality show. Incentivize them. That’s how business works.
But that’s not happening here. You’ve got an incentive designed to sharpen thinking
and, and accelerate creativity, and it does just the opposite. It dulls thinking and blocks
creativity.
And what’s interesting about this experiment is that it’s not an aberration. This
has been replicated over and over and over again for nearly 40 years. These contingent
motivators—if you do this, then you get that—work in some circumstances. But for a lot
of tasks, they actually either don’t work or, often, they do harm. This is one of the most
robust findings in social science, and also one of the most ignored.
I spent the last couple of years looking at the science of human motivation,
particularly the dynamics of extrinsic motivators and intrinsic motivators. And I’m telling
you, it’s not even close. If you look at the science, there is a mismatch between what
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science knows and what business does.
What’s alarming here is that our business operating system—think of the set of
assumptions and protocols beneath our businesses, how we motivate people, how we
apply our, our human resources—it’s built entirely around these extrinsic motivators,
around carrots and sticks. That’s actually fine for many kinds of 20th century tasks. But
for 21st century tasks, that mechanistic, reward-and-punishment approach doesn’t work,
often doesn’t work, and often does harm. Let me show you what I mean.
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Man 1: This is what I get in return for 30 years of service for my company? And
they send some yo-yo like you in here, to try to tell me that I’m out of
job? They should be telling you you’re out of job.
Woman 1: You have a lot of gall, coming in here and firing your No. 1 producer. And
you’re gonna go home tomorrow and make more money than you’ve
ever made in your life and I’m gonna go home without a pay cheque.
Man 2: I just, I guess you leave me dumbfounded. I don’t, I don’t know where
this is coming from. How am I supposed to go back as a man and explain
to my wife that I lost my job?
Man 3: On a stress level, I’ve heard that losing your job is like a death in the
family. But personally, I feel more like the people I worked with were my
family and I died.
Woman 2: I can’t afford to be unemployed. I have a house payment. I have children.
Man 4: I don’t know how you can live with yourself, but I’m sure that you’ll find
a way while the rest of us are suffering.
Man 5 (Steve): Who are you, man?
Man 6: Excellent question. Who am I? Poor Steve has worked here for seven
years. He’s never had a meeting with me before or passed me in the hall,
or told me a story in the break room. And that’s because I don’t work here.
I work for another company that lends me out to pussies like Steve’s
boss who don’t have the balls to sake their own employees, and in some
cases for good reason. I guess people do crazy shit when they get fired.
Man 5 (Steve): Did I do something wrong? I mean, is something I could do differently
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here?
Man 6: This is not an assessment of your productivity. You’re gonna try not take
this personally.
Man 5 (Steve): Don’t personally.
Man 6: Steven, I want you to review this packet. Take it seriously. I think you’re
gonna find a lot of good answers in here.
Man 5 (Steve): I’m sure this is gonna be very helpful—a packet. Thank you… A packet.
Man 6: Well, anybody who ever built an empire or changed the world sat where
you are right now. And it’s because they sat there they were able to do
it. That’s the truth. I’m gonna need your keycard. Great. OK. Now, I
want you to take the day, go get together your personal things, and then
tomorrow, you get yourself some exercise. You go out for a jog, you give
yourself some routines and pretty soon you find your legs.
Man 5 (Steve): How do I get in touch with you?
Man 6: Don’t worry, we’ll be in touch with you soon. This is just the beginning.
I’ll never see Steve again.
Clip # 2
How much does your life weigh? Imagine for a second that you’re carrying a
backpack. I want you to feel the straps on your shoulders. Feel ’em? Now I want you to
pack it with all the stuff that you have in your life. Let’s start with little things, you got
shelves and the drawers, and knick-knacks, the collectables. Feel the weight as that adds
up. Then you start adding larger stuff—clothes, table-top appliances, lamps, linens…
your TV… The backpack should be getting pretty heavy now. You go bigger, your couch,
bed, your kitchen table. Stuff it all in there. Your car, get it in there. Your home, whether
it’s a studio apartment or two-bedroomed house, I want you to stuff it all into that
backpack. Now try to walk. It’s kind of hard, isn’t it? This is what we do to ourselves on
a daily basis. We weigh ourselves down until we can’t even move and make no mistake.
Moving is living. Now, I’m gonna set that backpack on fire. What do you want to take
out of it? Photos? Photos are for people who can’t remember. Drink some ginkgo and
let the photos burn. In fact, let everything burn and imagine waking up tomorrow with
nothing. It’s kind of exhilarating, isn’t it?
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Section 1: Science & Our Life
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. The foundation of all knowledge.
2. One in three Americans.
3. The enthusiasm of the teacher.
4. To turn kids on to math (or to get students used to connecting cool exhibits like
robot swarm with math).
5. Because that is the productivity / workforce.
Ⅱ. 略
VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
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Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. D 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. C
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. First, start with getting permission. Second, understand the consumers. Third,
know your audience. Four, be relevant.
2. They should ask for consent.
3. I t means those people who have no interest at all in the benefits offered by the
mobile messages.
4. I t refers to those who need to be in control of incoming messages and remain
interested in mobile marketing.
5. 18%.
6. 52%.
7. Respect builds loyalty.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. whether we could evolve or develop a sixth sense
2. help us make the right decision
3. coming across
4. the top networking place
5. while I take out my phone and Google you
6. open a browser, and go to a website
7. the most ecologically responsible purchase
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. To have easy access to all this relevant information that can help us make optimal
decisions about what to do next and what actions to take.
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专题听力四 Business & Technology
2. A camera, just a simple web cam, a portable, battery-powered projection system
with a little mirror.
3. The cell phone acts as the communication and computation device.
4. a. T
he user can use the device to take a picture of whatever is in front of him or
her, then just go up to any wall and project all the pictures that he’s taken.
b. T
he user can sort through the pictures and organize them, and re-size them,
etc., again using all natural gestures.
5. a. T
he product invented by the speaker’s research lab is totally mobile. (You can
use any surface; you can walk up to any surface, including your hand, if nothing
else is available, and interact with this projected data.)
b. T
he product invented by the speaker’s research lab can be made in mass
quantities. (This would not cost more tomorrow than today’s cell phones and
would actually not have bigger packaging.)
6. B
ecause it really can act as one of these sixth-sense devices that gives you relevant
information about whatever is in front of you.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. Hope wanted the ants to keep an eye on Scott when she was away from the room.
2. Scott left an impression on Dr. Pym by the method he used to get pass his security
system.
3. Ever since Scott burgled Vista Corp.
4. a. Ants can lift objects fifty times their weight.
b. Ants can build farms and they cooperate with each other.
5. He uses electromagnetic waves to stimulate them.
6. It was a formula that altered atomic relative distance.
7. He hid it from the world.
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Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. took on
2. a big deal
3. I saw something in him
4. began to suspect
5. heard rumors about
6. obsessed with
7. conspired against
8. voted me out of
9. the board’s chairman
10. the deciding vote
11. cracking my formula
12. affect the brain’s chemistry
13. deserves a shot at redemption
14. be with your daughter again
15. redeem yourself
16. breaking into places
17. break into a place
Part B
略
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专题听力四 Business & Technology
Section 2: Technology—Friend or Foe?
Part A
GTHINKING AHEAD
略
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Ⅰ. D
irections: Listen to the news and answer the following questions.
1. Simulation technology.
2. Tell new parents why their baby is crying.
3. Knowing how to sort family photos.
4. By analyzing, with embedded sensors, molecules in someone’s breath, for example.
5. It tries to achieve an ideal balance between the best possible taste and the best
possible nutritional outcome.
6. A lot of very sophisticated computational methods have been implemented on tiny
small mobile devices.
Ⅱ. 略
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VIDEO WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video and choose the best answers to the
following questions.
1. D 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. B
Ⅲ. D
irections: Rewatch the video carefully and answer the following
questions.
1. 422.
2. None of them really knows him.
3. A group message might replace the presence of friends at one’s happy life event /
(No one will be there for a friend if a group message will do.)
4. Read a book / paint a picture / do some exercise.
5. P
ut your hands behind your head, step away from the phone, talk to someone,
learn to co-exist.
6. No one wants to talk for the fear of looking insane.
7. A generation of idiots/ dumb people.
8. Internet language, a way of showing approval and support in social media.
Ⅳ. 略
LECTURE WATCHING
Ⅰ.Directions: Watch the video and fill in the blanks.
1. of those hands
2. we’re trying to solve
3. 20 nerds
4. 8 or 80
5. a small, portable robot
6. creepy or uncanny
7. cute
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专题听力四 Business & Technology
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch the video again and answer the following questions.
1. iPhone.
2. 150 bucks.
3. A pet with a mind of his own.
4. be connected from other iOS device such as iPad, shoot videos and stream videos
to the device / serve as the speaker’s extension.
5. T
he new function allows people to drag and drop these blocks of semantic
code and create any behavior for a robot they want.
Ⅲ. 略
MOVIE WATCHING
Ⅰ.略
Ⅱ.Directions: Watch movie clip #1 and answer the following questions.
1. A test to find if a computer is intelligent enough to make its human interactant
feel that it is another human.
2. Nathan is creating the history of gods / doing the work of gods.
3. No.
4. Overcome initial social awkwardness.
5. Because language is something acquired.
6. He thinks that she is fascinating.
7. To show him that she is a robot and see if he still feels that she has consciousness.
8. He thinks that they are incredible.
Ⅲ. D
irections: Watch movie clip #2 and then fill in the blanks with the
exact words you hear.
1. if you could
2. inevitable
3. an evolution
4. prototypes
5. isolation
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6. continuum
7. download the mind
8. formatting
9. survive
10. look back on
11. an upright ape
12. extinction
Part B
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专题听力四 Business & Technology
Section 1: Science and Our Life
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Mathematics is more than arithmetic. Scientists, and philosophers throughout
history have called it the foundation of all knowledge, and praise its simple beauty.
Yet many Americans seem to have a problem with it. In a recent survey, one in three
Americans admitted that they’re not good at math.
Here at Mercy College in Dobbs Ferry, outside New York City, nationally renowned
mathematician and Dean of the School of Education, Albert Posamentier, knows why.
“Elementary school teachers in this country, and in Europe as well, are part of
that general population and consequently they bring that dislike of mathematics
subconsciously, sometimes consciously at other times, to the classroom and as a
result the teaching mathematics at the elementary school level lacks motivation, lacks
enthusiasm. The enthusiasm of the teacher is extremely important in turning kids on to
the subject matter.”
Turning kids on to math is the goal of the National Museum of Mathematics in New
York City. It’s a one-of-a-kind museum that resembles a high-tech playground with more
than 30 hands-on attractions.
MoMath Executive Director, Cindy Lawrence: “And as a nation we need to get kids
more excited about math and about science, technology, and engineering because that’s
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our productivity, that’s our workforce.”
Every day the museum is filled with busloads of excited schoolchildren and adults.
You can sit on a chair at the center of “Hyper Hyperboloid” surrounded by colored
cables that never touch; or ride a square-wheeled trike or a coaster rolling on giant
acorns.
“I learn a lot more than I am learning currently. But it’s really just a lot of fun to see
all the different things that look like just games when they’re actually just math.”
“[It] probably makes mathematics seem less scary than a lot of people think it is.”
“It feels like I just earned something. It’s like a huge thing for me because I just
solved the difficult question.”
The goal is to get students used to connecting cool exhibits like robot swarm with
the math that makes them possible.
Dean Posamentier says it is important to remember that America’s relationship with
math doesn’t keep students away. More than 800,000 foreign students come here each
school year to study the sciences, business, and, of course, mathematics.
VIDEO WATCHING
Today, 80% of consumers are concerned about mobile marketing. Thousands
of mobile phone users worldwide were surveyed on their attitudes towards mobile
marketing to understand how this affects business. The results show 4 clear best
practices for how to engage your customer on mobile.
One, start with permission. Making customers feel secure about your communications is an essential starting point. 95% of the respondents said they are annoyed to
receive messages from senders they haven’t approved. The best insights come when
companies simply ask for their customers’ consent. Two, understand the consumer.
Mobile marketing evokes negative sentiment. For starters, we need to understand the
issues behind this. For example, 77% of the respondents said they had received an offer
that was not in line with their interest. 75% found it difficult to opt out. And 80% feel
that the benefit was not attractive.
Three, know your audience. Customers can be divided into four categories. 27%
belong to the category “Marketing Immune” with no interest in the benefits offered by
mobile messages. 27% belong to the category “Easy Going” with no need to be in control
but with limited impact on purchases. 29% belong to the category “Control Freaks” who
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need to be in control of incoming messages and remain interested in mobile marketing.
And 18% belong to the category “Connected Marketing Lovers,” who are interested
in promotions or other benefits and do not need to be in control. Segmentation of
customers ensures a more effective approach.
Four, be relevant: right person, right message, right moment. More than half
surveyed were happy to receive certain types of messages when relevant. 52% surveyed
said they would take advantage of an immediate discount. And 46% said they want to
receive a gift from companies.
Result: Respect builds loyalty. By following these four best practices: Start with
permission; Understand the consumer; Know your audience; Be relevant: Right person,
right message, right moment. And by respecting the customer engagement process, you
can develop positive relationships with your mobile audience.
LECTURE WATCHING
Pattie Maes: Meet the Sixth Sense Interaction
I’ve been intrigued by this question of whether we could evolve or develop a sixth
sense — a sense that would give us seamless access and easy access to meta-information
or information that may exist somewhere that may be relevant to help us make the right
decision about whatever it is that we’re coming across. And some of you may argue, “Well,
don’t today’s cell phones do that already?” But I would say no. When you meet someone
here at TED—and this is the top networking place, of course, of the year—you don’t
shake somebody’s hand and then say, “Can you hold on for a moment while I take out
my phone and Google you?” Or when you go to the supermarket and you’re standing
there in that huge aisle of different types of toilet papers, you don’t take out your cell
phone, and open a browser, and go to a website to try to decide which of these different
toilet papers is the most ecologically responsible purchase to make.
So we don’t really have easy access to all this relevant information that can just help
us make optimal decisions about what to do next and what actions to take. And so my
research group at the Media Lab has been developing a series of inventions to give us
access to this information in a sort of easy way, without requiring that the user changes
any of their behavior. And I’m here to unveil our latest effort, and most successful effort
so far, which is still very much a work in process. I’m actually wearing the device right
now and we’ve sort of cobbled it together with components that are off the shelf—and
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that, by the way, only cost 350 dollars at this point in time.
I’m wearing a camera, just a simple web cam, a portable, battery-powered
projection system with a little mirror. These components communicate to my cell
phone in my pocket which acts as the communication and computation device. And
in the video here we see my student Pranav Mistry, who’s really the genius who’s been
implementing and designing this whole system. And we see how this system lets him
walk up to any surface and start using his hands to interact with the information that is
projected in front of him. The system tracks the four significant fingers. In this case, he’s
wearing simple marker caps that you may recognize. But if you want a more stylish
version, you could also paint your nails in different colors.
And the camera basically tracks these four fingers and recognizes any gestures that
he’s making so he can just go to, for example, a map of Long Beach, zoom in and out,
etc. The system also recognizes iconic gestures such as the “take a picture” gesture, and
then takes a picture of whatever is in front of you. And when he then walks back to the
Media Lab, he can just go up to any wall and project all the pictures that he’s taken, sort
through them and organize them, and re-size them, etc., again using all natural gestures.
So, some of you most likely were here two years ago and saw the demo by Jeff Han,
or some of you may think, “Well, doesn’t this look like the Microsoft Surface Table?” And
yes, you also interact using natural gestures, both hands, etc. But the difference here
is that you can use any surface, you can walk up to any surface, including your hand, if
nothing else is available, and interact with this projected data. The device is completely
portable, and can be...(interrupted by the applause)
So, one important difference is that it’s totally mobile. Another even more important
difference is that in mass production, this would not cost more tomorrow than today’s
cell phones and would actually not sort of be a bigger packaging—could look a lot more
stylish than this version that I’m wearing around my neck. But other than letting some
of you live out your fantasy of looking as cool as Tom Cruise in “Minority Report,” the
reason why we’re really excited about this device is that it really can act as one of these
sixth-sense devices that gives you relevant information about whatever is in front of you.
So we see Pranav here going into the supermarket and he’s shopping for some paper
towels. And, as he picks up a product, the system can recognize the product that he’s
picking up, using either image recognition or marker technology, and give him the green
light or an orange light. He can ask for additional information. So this particular choice
here is a particularly good choice, given his personal criteria. Some of you may want
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the toilet paper with the most bleach in it rather than the most ecologically responsible
choice.
If he picks up a book in the bookstore, he can get an Amazon rating—it gets
projected right on the cover of the book. This is Juan’s book, our previous speaker,
which gets a great rating, by the way, at Amazon. And so, Pranav turns the page of the
book and can then see additional information about the book—reader comments, maybe
sort of information by his favorite critic, etc. If he turns to a particular page, he finds an
annotation by maybe an expert or a friend of ours that gives him a little bit of additional
information about whatever is on that particular page. Reading the newspaper—
it never has to be outdated.
You can get video annotations of the events that you’re reading about. You can get
the latest sports scores, etc. This is a more controversial one.
As you interact with someone at TED, maybe you can see a word cloud of the tags,
the words that are associated with that person in their blog and personal web pages.
In this case, the student is interested in cameras, etc. On your way to the airport, if
you pick up your boarding pass, it can tell you that your flight is delayed, that the gate
has changed, etc. And, if you need to know what the current time is, it’s as simple as
drawing a watch—(07:23) on your arm.
So that’s where we’re at so far in developing this sixth sense that would give us
seamless access to all this relevant information about the things that we may come
across. My student Pranav, who’s really, like I said, the genius behind this.
He does deserve a lot of applause, because I don’t think he’s slept much in the last
three months, actually. And his girlfriend is probably not very happy about him either.
But it’s not perfect yet, it’s very much a work in progress. And who knows, maybe in
another 10 years we’ll be here with the ultimate sixth sense brain implant. Thank you
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Scott: hello. Who are you? Have you been standing there watching me sleep this
whole time?
Hope: Yes.
Scott: Why?
Hope: Because the last time you were here you stole something.
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Scott: Oh, oh. Hey. Look. Whoa.
Hope: Paraponera Clavata. Giant tropical bullet ants ranked highest on the Schmidt
pain index. They are here to keep an eye on you when I can’t. Dr. Pym’s
waiting for you downstairs.
Scott: Who? Whose pajamas are these? How am I supposed to do this? Hey, just one
step at a time. Ugh. You don’t bite me. I don’t step on you, deal?
Hope: Take down the servers and Cross wouldn’t even know. We don’t need this guy.
Dr. Pym: I assume that you have already met my daughter Hope.
Scott: I did. She is great.
Dr. Pym: She doesn’t think that we need you.
Hope: We don’t. We can do this ourselves.
Dr. Pym: I go to all this effort to let you steal my suit, and then Hope has you arrested.
Hope: Okay, we can try this and when he falls, I’ll do it myself. (Hope)
Dr. Pym: She is a little bit anxious. It has to do with this job, which, judging by the fact
that you are sitting opposite me, I take it that you are interested in.
Scott: What job?
Dr. Pym: Would you like some tea?
Scott: Uh, sure.
Dr. Pym: I was very impressed with how you managed to get pass my security system.
Freezing that metal was particularly clever.
Scott: Were you watching me?
Dr. Pym: Scott, I have been watching you for a while ever since you robbed Vista Corp.
Oh, excuse me, burgled Vista Corp. Vista’s security system is one of the most
advanced in the business. It’s supposed to be unbeatable, but you beat it.
Would you like some sugar?
Scott: Yeah, thanks. You know, I am Okay. How do you make them do that?
Dr. Pym: Ants can lift objects fifty times their weight. They build farm, they cooperate
with each other.
Scott: Right. But how do you make them do that?
Dr. Pym: I use electromagnetic waves, to stimulate their olfactory nerve center. I speak
to them. I can go anywhere, hear anything and see everything.
Hope: And still know absolutely nothing. I am late to meet Cross.
Scott: Uh... Dr. Pym?
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Dr. Pym: You don’t need to raise your hand, Scott.
Scott: Sorry, I just have one question. Who are you? Who is she? What the hell’s going
on and can I go back to jail now?
Dr. Pym: Come with me. Twenty years ago I created a formula that altered atomic
relative distance.
Scott: Huh?
Dr. Pym: I learned how to change the distance between atoms, that’s what powers the
suit. That’s why it works.
Scott: Wow. Whoa.
Dr. Pym: That was dangerous. It was too dangerous. So I hid it from the world. And
that’s when I switched gears and I started my own company.
Scott: Pym Tech.
Clip # 2
Dr. Pym: Yes. I took on a young protégé called Darren Cross.
Scott: Darren Cross. He is a big deal.
Dr. Pym: But before he was a big deal, he was my assistant. I thought I saw something
in him, a son I never had perhaps. He was brilliant, but as we became close he
began to suspect that I wasn’t telling him everything. He heard rumors about
what was called the Pym Particles, and he became obsessed with recreating my
formula. But I wouldn’t help him so he conspired against me and he voted me
out of my own company.
Scott: How could he do that?
Dr. Pym: The board’s chairman is my daughter, Hope. She was the deciding vote.
But she came back to me when she saw how close Cross was to cracking my
formula. The process is highly volatile. What isn’t protected by a specialized
helmet can affect the brain’s chemistry. I don’t think Darren realizes this, and
you know, he is not the most stable guy to begin with.
Scott: So, what do you want from me?
Dr. Pym: Scott, I believe that everyone deserves a shot at redemption.
Scott: Do you?
Dr. Pym: I do. If you can help me, I promise I can help you be with your daughter
again. Now are you ready to redeem yourself?
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Scott: Absolutely. My days of breaking into places and stealing shit are done. What do
you want me to do?
Dr. Pym: I want you to break into a place and steal some shit.
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Section 2: Technology—Friend or Foe?
Scripts
Part A
LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Imagine shopping for clothes online and being able to run your hand across the
screen on your computer or smartphone, and feel the fabrics. That kind of simulation
technology could be available within the next five years.
Says IBM Vice President Bernie Meyerson.“We’re talking about reinventing the way
computers operate and how you interact with them as humans.”
Smart machines will soon be able to listen to the environment and highlight the
sounds we care about most. For instance, an advanced speech recognition system will
tell new parents why their baby is crying.
“You know your child is hungry, versus ill, versus lonely. This kind of thing is not
possible today, but with a sophisticated enough system, it actually is possible.”
In the near future, personal computers will be able to do more than recognize faces
and visual data. Their built-in cameras will be able to analyze features such as colors,
and understand the meaning of images, such as knowing how to sort family photos.
Smart machines will also be able to smell. If you sneeze on your computer or cell
phone, tiny sensors embedded in the machine will be able to analyze thousands of
molecules in your breath.
“It can give you an alarm and say, ‘Hey, you may not feel sick yet, but you have an
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infection, you must go see your doctor immediately.’”
IBM scientists are also developing a system which can experience flavors that can be
used by chefs to create recipes. It breaks down ingredients to their molecular level and
blends them to create the most popular flavors and smells, even as it helps us mind our
waistlines.
“At the start, it will be able to recommend to you the food you love to taste, but it
can also keep track of the caloric limits, whether you have limits on the fat or cholesterol
you can eat. So it can strike this almost ideal balance between the best possible taste and
the best possible nutritional outcome.”
One of the most impressive things about the IBM list, says Georgetown University
computer science professor Mark Maloof, is how powerful these tiny, smart devices are
becoming.
“I think one of the surprises in that list is how a lot of very sophisticated
computational methods for doing, say for example, hearing and vision, have been
implemented on these tiny small mobile devices.
Advances in computer technology over the next five years, says Maloof, will make
what now seems like science fiction a part of our everyday lives.
VIDEO WATCHING
Look Up from Your Phone
I have 422 friends yet I am lonely
I speak to all of them every day, yet none of them really know me.
The problem I have sits in the space in-between
Looking into their eyes, or at a name on a screen.
I took a step back and opened my eyes,
I looked round and realised,
This media we call social is anything but
When we open our computers and it’s our doors we shut
All this technology we have, it’s just an illusion
Community, companionship, a sense of inclusion
Yet when you step away from this device of delusion
You awaken to see a world of confusion.
A world where we’re slaves to the technology we mastered
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Where information gets sold by some rich, greedy bastard
A world of self-interest, self-image, self-promotion
Where we all share our best bits but, leave out the emotion.
We’re at our most happy with an experience we share,
But is it the same if no one is there?
Be there for your friends and they’ll be there too,
But no one will be if a group message will do.
We edit and exaggerate, crave adulation
We pretend not to notice the social isolation
We put our words into order till our lives are glistening
We don’t even know if anyone is listening
Being alone isn’t a problem let me just emphasise
If you read a book, paint a picture, or do some exercise
You’re being productive and present, not reserved and reclused
You’re being awake and attentive and putting your time to good use
So when you’re in public and you start to feel alone
Put your hands behind your head, step away from the phone
You don’t need to stare at your menu, or at your contact list
Just talk to one another, learn to co-exist.
I can’t stand to hear the silence of a busy commuter train
When no one wants to talk for the fear of looking insane.
We’re becoming unsocial, it no longer satisfies
To engage with one another and look into someone’s eyes.
We’re surrounded by children who since they were born,
Have watched us living like robots and think it’s the norm.
It’s not very likely you’ll make world’s greatest Dad,
If you can’t entertain a child without using an iPad
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When I was a child I’d never be home
Be out with my friends, on our bikes we’d roam
I’d wear holes in my trainers, and graze up my knees
Or build our own clubhouse, high up in the trees
Now the park is so quiet, it gives me a chill
See no children outside and the swings hanging still.
There’s no skipping, no hopscotch, no church and no steeple
We’re a generation of idiots, smart phones and dumb people
So look up from your phone, shut down the display
Take in your surroundings, make the most of today
Just one real connection is all it can take,
To show you the difference that being there can make
Be there in the moment, as she gives you the look,
That you remember forever, as when love overtook
The time she first held your hand, or first kissed your lips,
The time you first disagreed, but still loved her to bits.
The time you don’t have to tell hundreds, of what you’ve just done,
Because you want to share this moment, with just this one.
The time you sell your computer, so you can buy a ring,
For the girl of your dreams, who is now the real thing.
The time you want to start a family, and the moment when
You first hold your little girl, and get to fall in love again
The time she keeps you up at night, and all you want is rest,
And the time you wipe away the tears, as your baby flees the nest,
The time your baby girl returns, with a boy for you to hold,
And the time he calls you Grandad, and makes you feel real old
The time you take in all you’ve made, just by giving life attention,
And how you’re glad you didn’t waste it, by looking down at some invention
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The time you hold your wife’s hand, sit down beside her bed
You tell her that you love her, lay a kiss upon her head.
She then whispers to you quietly, as her heart gives a final beat,
That she’s lucky she got stopped, by that lost boy in the street
But none of these times ever happened, you never had any of this,
When you’re too busy looking down, you don’t see the chances you miss.
So look up from your phones, shut down those displays,
We have a finite existence, a set number of days.
Don’t waste your life getting caught in the net,
because when the end comes, nothing’s worse than regret.
I am guilty too, of being part of this machine,
this digital world, we are heard but not seen.
Where we type as we talk and read as we chat,
Where we spend hours together, without making eye contact.
So don’t give in to a life where you follow the hype,
Give people your love, don’t give them your “like.”
Disconnect from the need to be heard and defined
Go out into the world, leave distractions behind.
Look up from your phone, shut down that display.
Stop watching this video, live life the real way.
LECTURE WATCHING
A Mini Robot Powered by Your Phone
So just by a show of hands, how many of you all have a robot at home? Not very
many of you. Okay. And actually of those hands, if you don’t include Roomba how many
of you have a robot at home? So a couple. That’s okay. That’s the problem that we’re
trying to solve at Romotive—that I and the other 20 nerds at Romotive are obsessed with
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solving.
So we really want to build a robot that anyone can use, whether you’re 8 or
80. And as it turns out, that’s a really hard problem, because you have to build a small,
portable robot that’s not only really affordable, but it has to be something that people
actually want to take home and have around their kids. This robot can’t be creepy or
uncanny. He should be friendly and cute.
So meet Romo. Romo’s a robot that uses a device you already know and love—
your iPhone—as his brain. And by leveraging the power of the iPhone’s processor, we
can create a robot that is wi-fi enabled and computer vision-capable for 150 bucks, which
is about one percent of what these kinds of robots have cost in the past.
When Romo wakes up, he’s in creature mode. So he’s actually using the video
camera on the device to follow my face. If I duck down, he’ll follow me. He’s wary, so
he’ll keep his eyes on me. If I come over here, he’ll turn to follow me. If I come over
here—(Laughters) He’s smart. And if I get too close to him, he gets scared just like any
other creature. So in a lot of ways, Romo is like a pet that has a mind of his own.Thanks,
little guy. (Sneezing sound) Bless you.
And if I want to explore the world—uh-oh, Romo’s tired—if I want to explore the
world with Romo, I can actually connect him from any other iOS device. So here’s the
iPad. And Romo will actually stream video to this device. So I can see everything that
Romo sees, and I get a robot’s-eye-view of the world. Now this is a free app on the App
Store, so if any of you guys had this app on your phones, we could literally right now
share control of the robot and play games together.
So I’ll show you really quickly, Romo actually—he’s streaming video, so you can see
me and the entire TED audience. If I get in front of Romo here. And if I want to control
him, I can just drive. So I can drive him around, and I can take pictures of you. I’ve
always wanted a picture of a 1,500-person TED audience. So I’ll snap a picture. And in
the same way that you scroll through content on an iPad, I can actually adjust the angle
of the camera on the device. So there are all of you through Romo’s eyes. And finally,
because Romo is an extension of me, I can express myself through his emotions. So I
can go in and I can say let’s make Romo excited.
But the most important thing about Romo is that we wanted to create something
that was literally completely intuitive. You do not have to teach someone how to drive
Romo. In fact, who would like to drive a robot? Okay. Awesome. Here you go. Thank
you, Scott.
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And even cooler, you actually don’t have to be in the same geographic location
as the robot to control him. So he actually streams two-way audio and video between
any two smart devices. So you can log in through the browser, and it’s kind of like
Skype on wheels. So we were talking before about telepresence, and this is a really cool
example. You can imagine an eight-year-old girl, for example, who has an iPhone, and
her mom buys her a robot. That girl can take her iPhone, put it on the robot, send an
email to Grandma, who lives on the other side of the country. Grandma can log into that
robot and play hide-and-go-seek with her granddaughter for fifteen minutes every single
night, when otherwise she might only be able to get to see her granddaughter once or
twice a year.
Thanks, Scott.
So those are a couple of the really cool things that Romo can do today. But I just
want to finish by talking about something that we’re working on in the future. This is
actually something that one of our engineers, Dom, built in a weekend. It’s built on
top of a Google open framework called Blockly. This allows you to drag and drop these
blocks of semantic code and create any behavior for this robot you want. You do not
have to know how to code to create a behavior for Romo. And you can actually simulate
that behavior in the browser, which is what you see Romo doing on the left. And then if
you have something you like, you can download it onto your robot and execute it in real
life, run the program in real life. And then if you have something you’re proud of, you
can share it with every other person who owns a robot in the world. So all of these wi-fienabled robots actually learn from each other.
The reason we’re so focused on building robots that everyone can train is that
we think the most compelling use cases in personal robotics are personal. They
change from person to person. So we think that if you’re going to have a robot in your
home, that robot ought to be a manifestation of your own imagination.
So I wish that I could tell you what the future of personal robotics looks like. To
be honest, I have no idea.But what we do know is that it isn’t 10 years or 10 billion
dollars or a large humanoid robot away. The future of personal robotics is happening
today, and it’s going to depend on small, agile robots like Romo and the creativity of
people like yourselves. So we can’t wait to get you all robots, and we can’t wait to see
what you build.
Thank you.
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Teacher’s Manual
研 究 生 学 术 英 语 视 听 说 教 程 教 师 用 书
MOVIE WATCHING
Clip # 1
Nathan:Do you know what a Turing Test is?
Caleb:Yeah. I know what a Turing Test is. It’s when a human interacts with a computer
and if the human doesn’t know he is interacting with a computer, the test is
passed.
Nathan:And what does a pass tell us?
Caleb:The computer has artificial intelligence. Are you building an AI?
Nathan:I’ve already built one. In the next few days, you are gonna be the human
component in a Turing Test.
Caleb:Holy shit.
Nathan:Yeah, that’s right, Caleb. You got it. Because if that test is passed, you are dead
center of the greatest scientific event in the history of man.
Caleb:If you’ve created a conscious machine, it’s not the history of man. That’s the
history of gods.
...
Ava:Hello.
Caleb:Hi. I’m Caleb.
Ava:Hello. Caleb.
Caleb:Do you have a name?
Ava:Yes. Ava.
Caleb:Pleased to meet you, Ava.
Ava:I’m pleased to meet you, too. I’ve never met anyone new before. Only Nathan.
Caleb:Then I guess we’re both in quite a similar position.
Ava:Haven’t you met lots of new people before?
Caleb:None like you. So we need to break the ice. Do you know what I mean by that?
Ava:Yes.
Caleb:What do I mean?
Ava:Overcome initial social awkwardness.
Caleb:So let’s have a conversation.
Ava:Okay. What would you like to have a conversation about?
Caleb:Why don’t we start with you telling something about yourself.
Ava:What would you like to know?
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专题听力四 Business & Technology
Caleb:Whatever comes in your head.
Ava:Well, you already know my name. And you can see that I’m a machine. Would
you like to know how old I am?
Caleb:Sure.
Ava:I’m one.
Caleb:One what? One year or one day?
Ava:One.
Caleb:When did you learn how to speak, Ava?
Ava:I always knew how to speak, and that’s strange, isn’t it?
Caleb:Why?
Ava:Because language is something that people acquire.
Caleb:Well, some people believe that language exists from birth. And what is learned
is the ability to attach words and structures to the latent ability. Do you agree
with that?
Ava:I don’t know. Will you come back tomorrow, Caleb?
Caleb:Yes.
Ava:Good.
...
Caleb:Oh man, she is fascinating. When you talk to her, you’re just... Through the
looking glass.
Nathan:“Through the looking glass.” Wow. You’re good with words, Caleb. You’re
quotable.
Caleb:Actually, that’s someone else’ quote.
Nathan:You know I wrote down that other line you came up with. The one about how
I invented a machine with consciousness. I’m not a man, I’m god.
Caleb:I don’t think that’s exactly what I...
Nathan:I just thought, “man, that is so good.” When we get to tell the story, you know,
I turn to Caleb, and he looked up at me and he said, “You’re not a man. You’re
god.”
Caleb:Yeah, but I didn’t say that.
Nathan:So, anyway, you are impressed.
Caleb:Yes. Yes. Although...
Nathan:Although? There is a qualification to your being impressed?
Caleb:No. There is no qualification to her. It’s just in the Turing Test. The machine
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Teacher’s Manual
研 究 生 学 术 英 语 视 听 说 教 程 教 师 用 书
should be hidden from the examiner.
Nathan:No. We’re way past that. If I hid Ava from you, so you just heard her voice, she
would pass for human. The real test is to show you that she’s robot, and then
see if you still feel she has consciousness.
Caleb:Yeah. I think you are probably right. Her language abilities, they are incredible.
The system is stochastic, right? It’s non-deterministic? At first I thought she was
mapping from internal semantic form to syntactic tree-structure and getting
linearized words, but then I started to realize the model was some kind of
hybrid.
Nathan:Caleb.
Caleb:No?
Nathan:I understand that you want me to explain how Ava works, but I am sorry I’m
not gonna be able to do that.
Caleb:Try me. I’m hot on high-level abstraction.
Nathan:It’s not because I think you’re too dumb. It’s because I wanna have a beer and
conversation with you. Not a seminar.
Caleb:Yeah. Sorry.
Nathan:No, it’s okay. You’re alright. Just...
Clip # 2
Caleb:Why did you make Ava?
Nathan:That’s not a question. Wouldn’t you, if you could?
Caleb:Maybe. I don’t know. I am asking why you did it?
Nathan:L ook! The arrival of strong artificial intelligence has been inevitable for
decades. The variable was “when” not “if.” So I don’t see Ava as a decision, just
an evolution. I think it’s the next model that’s gonna be the real breakthrough.
The singularity.
Caleb:Next model?
Nathan:After Ava.
Caleb:I didn’t know there was gonna to be a model after Ava.
Nathan:Yeah, why? You thought she was a one-off?
Caleb:No, I knew there must have been prototypes. So I...I knew she wasn’t the first,
but I thought maybe the last.
Nathan:Well. Ava doesn’t exist in isolation any more than you or me. She is part of a
continuum. So version 9.6 and so on. Each time they get a little bit better.
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专题听力四 Business & Technology
Caleb:When you make a new model, what do you do with the old one?
Nathan:Well, I, uh, download the mind, unpack the data, add in the new routines I’ve
been writing. And to do that you end up partially formatting, so the memories
go. But the body survives. And Ava’s body is a good one. You feel bad for Ava?
Feel bad for yourself, man. One day the AIs are gonna look back on us the same
way we look at fossil skeletons in the plains of Africa, an upright ape, living in
dust, with crude language and tools. All set for extinction.
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