Product handbook - Grooving and groove-turning

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Product handbook - Grooving and groove-turning
Product handbook
Grooving and
groove-turning
_Walter Cut
Grooving and
groove-turning
experts
CONTENTS
Grooving and
groove-turning
Walter Cut grooving/groove-turning range
2 Tiger·tec® grades
4 Walter Cut tools
Walter Cut tools
for grooving and groove-turning
8 System overview
10 Toolholders
20 Toolholders for snap-ring grooves
Inserts
13 GX inserts for grooving
14 GX inserts for groove-turning
21 Inserts for snap-ring grooves
Technical information
22
24
26
29
34
35
36
37
Grade application chart
Cutting data
User guide
Grooving fault analysis
Groove-turning fault analysis
Wear analysis
Hardness comparison table
Calculation Formulas
Walter Cut:
Tiger·tec® grades for grooving and groove-turning
Completely innovative coatings and
geometries achieve peak performance
when grooving and parting off.
With this innovative development, it is
possible for the first time to apply an
aluminum oxide coating in a PVD
process to carbide indexable inserts.
Tiger·tec® for Walter Cut
This PVD Tiger offers a previously
unknown degree of toughness and wear
resistance – which is particularly
important in grooving operations.
In addition to this patented PVD
Tiger·tec® coating and the proven CVD
Tiger·tec® coating, there is a complete
Tiger·tec® grade package available for
the Walter Cut grooving system.
2
The application
The INSERT GRADES
–– For grooving, groove-turning and
parting off
–– From unfavorable to stable ­conditions
–– The Walter Tiger·tec® grades cover
the complete range of grooving
WSP 43 – Tiger·tec® PVD Al2O3
–– Maximum toughness and process
reliability for difficult to machine
materials, steel and stainless steel
–– The cutting material for unfavorable
conditions, e.g. heavily interrupted
cuts, very unstable clamping,
unstable machines and low cutting
speeds
Your advantages
–– High productivity due to a reliable
machining process
–– High temperature resistance in
conjunction with high toughness
–– High cutting edge stability due to
low coating temperature and at
the same time offering high wear
resistance
–– Smooth surface to reduce
built-up cutting edges
Wear resistance
WSM 33 – Tiger·tec® PVD Al2O3
–– Maximum resistance to wear and
temperature for difficult to machine
materials, steel and stainless steel
–– The universal cutting material covers
the majority of all applications
WPP 23 – Tiger·tec® CVD
–– Maximum hot hardness and wear
resistance for steel
–– For use in stable conditions in
conjunction with high cutting speeds
WAK 20 – Tiger·tec® CVD
–– The benchmark cutting tool material
in cast iron machining
–– The universal grade for the majority
of applications
WSM / WSP
PVD Al203
Current PVD grades
Toughness
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
3
Walter Cut G1011:
One for all
Reduced tool head height
Optimal screw position
Locking screw can be
accessed from above
and below
New insert seat design
Walter Cut monoblock toolholder G1011:
The tool
The application
–– Walter Cut monoblock tools for
grooving, groove-turning and
parting off
–– Locking screw can be accessed from
above and below
–– Reduced head height – eases chip
evacuation
–– For 2-cutting edge GX24 grooving
insert
–– Insert widths 0.118, 0.157, 0.197,
0.236 inch
–– Cutting depths 0.472, 0.827 inch
–– Shank sizes 0.750 x 0.750 inch,
1.000 x 1.000 inch
–– First choice for all OD grooving
­operations
–– Parting off of diameters up to 1.654 in
–– Grooving and groove-turning
­operations up to a depth of 0.827 in
–– For use on lathes of all types
4
The benefits to you at a glance
0.472 in
Simple handling in inverted use
0.827 in
Optimum stability due to two cutting
depths
f
h
Simple chip evacuation due to reduced
tool head height [h]
Greatest clamping force due to ­optimum
screw position.
Driver grooving operations
4140
Tool:
Insert:
Insert grade:
Machine:
Cutting data
vc
750 SFM
f
0.010 – 0.012 inch
s
0.236 inch
T
0.315 inch
Number of cuts: 4
G1011.2020R-6T12GX24
GX24-4E600 N050-UF4
WPP 23
Index MS32
multi-spindle, 5 hp
Comparison of number of components
+160%
Competition
Walter
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
[pieces]
5
Walter Cut Modular:
The quick-change artist
Highest stability due to
optimum interface
Flexibility due to different
tool shanks
Support face for absorbing
cutting forces
Walter Cut Modular tool NCBE
The tool
The application
–– Modular tooling system for grooving,
groove-turning and parting off
–– For insert widths of 0.024–0.382 inch
–– Over 800 variants possible
–– Greatest stability
–– Three different grooving systems can
be used in the same base holder
–– Tools for internal and external
machining
––
––
––
––
6
For radial and axial grooving
For internal and external grooving
For machining snap-ring grooves
For use on lathes of all types
The benefits to you at a glance
Square shank and Walter Capto™ tools available
GX
FX
LX
GX axial
The best grooving system for every machining operation
Pre-groove clamping nut
4140
Tool:
Insert:
Insert grade:
Machine:
Cutting data
vc
425 SFM
f
0.006 – 0.002 inch
s
0.118 inch
T
0.197 inch
Number of cuts: 2
NCAE 25–C400 R–GX16–2
GX16–2E300 N030–GD3
WPP 23
Index MS32
multi-spindle, 5 hp
Comparison of number of components
+40%
Competition
Walter
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
[pieces]
7
System overview
Walter Cut grooving and groove-turning tools
Grooving / groove-turning
E
HOIC
1st C
G 1011
Shank size
Page 10
s
0.625 x 0.625
1.000 x 1.000
1.250 x 1.000
Page 12
s
Tmax
0.077–0.098
0.276
0.118–0.178
0.276
0.077–0.098
0.276
0.118–0.178
0.276
0.118
0.472/0.827 0.079–0.098
0.472
0.156
0.472/0.827 0.118–0.178
0.472
0.197
0.472/0.827 0.157–0.197
0.472
0.236
0.472/0.827
0.118
0.472/0.827 0.079–0.098 0.472/0.827
0.156
0.472/0.827 0.118–0.178 0.472/0.827
0.197
0.472/0.827 0.157–0.197 0.472/0.827
0.236
0.472/0.827
s
Tmax
0.118–0.178 0.472/0.827 0.118-0.138
0.827
0.157–0.197 0.472/0.827 0.157-0.197
0.827
0.236
s = cutting width
Tmax = max. grooving depth
8
XLCFN
Page 11
Tmax
0.500 x 0.500
0.750 x 0.750
NCAE / NCBE
0.472/0.827
0.236
0.827
Snap-ring grooves
E
HOIC
1st C
NCCE
NCAE
Page 20
Page 11
s
Tmax
s
Tmax
0.024–0.067
0.079
0.077–0.098
0.276
0.118–0.178
0.276
0.024–0.067
0.079
0.077–0.098
0.276
0.118–0.178
0.276
0.079–0.098
0.472
0.118–0.178
0.472
0.157–0.197
0.472
0.079–0.098
0.472
0.118–0.178
0.472
0.157–0.197
0.472
0.118–0.178
0.472
0.024–0.089
0.024–0.089
0.024–0.089
0.118
0.118
0.118
0.157–0.197
0.472
0.236
0.472
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
9
Walter Cut
Tools for grooving and groove-turning
G1011
s
in
0.118
0.156
0.197
0.236
Tmax
in
h = h1
in
b
in
0.472
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–3T12GX24
0.472
1.000
1.000
G1011.16 R/L–3T12GX24
0.827
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–3T21GX24
0.827
1.000
1.000
G1011.16 R/L–3T21GX24
0.472
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–4T12GX24
0.472
1.000
1.000
G1011.16 R/L–4T12GX24
0.827
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–4T21GX24
0.827
1.000
1.000
G1011.16 R/L–4T21GX24
0.472
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–5T12GX24
0.472
1.000
1.000
G1011.16 R/L–5T12GX24
0.827
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–5T21GX24
G1011.16 R/L–5T21GX24
0.827
1.000
1.000
0.472
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–6T12GX24
0.472
1.000
1.000
G1011.16 R/L–6T12GX24
0.827
0.750
0.750
G1011.12 R/L–6T21GX24
0.827
1.000
1.000
G1011.16 R/L–6T21GX24
For inserts see page 13/14.
10
Designation
Type
GX 24–2E3 . .
GX 24–3E4 . .
GX 24–3E5 . .
GX 24–4E6 . .
NCAE
s
in
0.077–0.098
0.118–0.178
0.079–0.098
0.118–0.178
0.157–0.197
0.236
0.118
0.157–0.197
0.236
0.315
Tmax
in
h = h1
in
b
in
0.276
0.500
0.500
NCAE 12–0808 R/L–GX 09–1
0.276
0.625
0.625
NCAE 16–1010 R/L–GX 09–1
0.276
0.500
0.500
NCAE 12–0808 R/L–GX 09–2
0.276
0.625
0.625
NCAE 16–1010 R/L–GX 09–2
0.472
0.750
0.750
NCAE 20–1212 R/L–GX 16–1
Designation
0.472
1.000
1.000
NCAE 25–1616 R/L–GX 16–1
0.472
0.750
0.750
NCAE 20–1212 R/L–GX 16–2
0.472
1.000
1.000
NCAE 25–1616 R/L–GX 16–2
0.472
1.250
1.250
NCAE 32–8585 R/L–GX 16–2
0.472
0.750
0.750
NCAE 20–1212 R/L–GX 16–3
0.472
1.000
1.000
NCAE 25–1616 R/L–GX 16–3
0.472
1.250
1.250
NCAE 32–8585 R/L–GX 16–3
0.472
1.000
1.000
NCAE 25–1616 R/L–GX 16–4
0.472
1.250
1.250
NCAE 32–8585 R/L–GX 16–4
0.827
0.750
0.750
NCBE 20–1212 R/L–GX 24–2–21
0.827
1.000
1.000
NCBE 25–1616 R/L–GX 24–2–21
0.827
1.000
1.000
NCBE 25–1616 R/L–GX 24–3–21
0.827
1.250
1.000
NCBE 32–8585 R/L–GX 24–3–21
0.827
1.000
1.000
NCBE 25–1616 R/L–GX 24–4–21
0.827
1.250
1.000
NCBE 32–8585 R/L–GX 24–4–21
0.827
1.000
1.000
NCBE 25–1616 R/L–GX 24–5–21
Type
GX 09–1 …
GX 09–2 …
GX 16–1 …
GX 16–2 …
GX 16–3 …
GX 16–4 …
GX 24–2 …
GX 24–3 …
GX 24–4 …
GX 24–5 …
For inserts see page 13/14 (snap-ring grooves p. 21).
These tools are also available in Walter Capto™ version.
See the Walter general catalog.
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
11
Walter Cut
Tools for grooving and groove-turning
XLCFN
s
h4
h3
s
mm
Tmax
mm
h3 =h4
mm
Designation
0.118–0.138
0.827
1.260
XLCFN 3203–gx24–2S
0.157–0.197
0.827
1.260
XLCFN 3204–gx24–3S
GX 24–3 . . .
0.236
0.827
1.260
XLCFN 3206–gx24–4S
GX 24–4 . . .
For inserts see page 13/14.
12
Type
GX 24–2 . . .
GX inserts for grooving
Geometry selection
Cutting edge
Sharp
Stable
ISO P
Steel
ICE
HO
1st C
UF4
(see p. 15)
CE4
GD3
(see p. 18)
(see p. 19)
Feed
Low
Stable
Cutting edge
Sharp
ISO M
Stainless
steel
High
UD6
ICE
HO
1st C
(see p. 17)
GD3
UF4
(see p. 19)
(see p. 15)
Feed
Low
Cutting edge
E
HOIC
1st C UA4
Stable
Sharp
ISO K
Cast iron
High
(see p. 16)
UF4
CE4
(see p. 18)
(see p. 15)
Feed
Low
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
High
13
GX inserts for groove-turning
Geometry selection
Cutting edge
Sharp
Stable
ISO P
Steel
ICE
HO
1st C
UF4
(see p. 15)
UD6
(see p. 17)
Feed
Low
Stable
Cutting edge
UD6
ICE
HO
1st C
Sharp
ISO M
Stainless
steel
High
(see p. 17)
UF4
(see p. 15)
Feed
Low
Cutting edge
Sharp
Stable
ISO K
Cast iron
ICE
HO
1st C
UA4
UF4
(see p. 16)
(see p. 15)
Feed
Low
14
High
High
UF4 - the universal one
The right cutting edge for
–– All grooving operations
–– Good chip control
–– medium feed rates
–– Low cutting forces
32°
11°
Optimum indexable insert for:
Cutting edge design
6°
good
moderate
poor
machining conditions
GX–UF4
coated grades
0.008
0.098
0.098
0.008
0.098
GX16–2E300 N030–UF4
0.630
0.118
0.012
0.118
GX16–3E400 N040–UF4
0.630
0.157
0.016
0.138
GX16–3E500 N040–UF4
0.630
0.197
0.016
0.138
GX16–4E600 N050–UF4
0.630
0.236
0.020
0.157
GX24–2E300 N030–UF4
0.945
0.118
0.012
0.098
GX24–3E400 N040–UF4
0.945
0.157
0.016
0.118
GX24–3E500 N040–UF4
0.945
0.197
0.016
0.118
GX24–4E600 N050–UF4
0.945
0.236
0.020
0.138
WSP 43
0.079
0.630
WSM 33
0.630
GX16–1E250 N020–UF4
WPP 23
GX16–1E200 N020–UF4
WSP 43
ap max
in
WSM 33
r
in
S
WSP 43
s
in
K
WSM 33
ap max
l
in
Designation
M
WPP 23
P
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
l = overall length
For cutting speed recommendations see page 24.
Insert width
0.236
0.197
0.157
0.118
0.098
0.079
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
Feed
15
UA4 – the stable one
The right cutting edge for
–– Cast iron machining
–– Middle to high machining parameters
–– Greatest process reliability in cast iron
machining
0°
Optimum indexable insert for:
Cutting edge design
6°
good
moderate
poor
machining conditions
GX–UA4
coated grades
0.630
0.079
0.008
0.098
GX16–1E250 N020–UA4
0.630
0.098
0.008
0.098
GX16–2E300 N030–UA4
0.630
0.118
0.012
0.118
GX16–3E400 N040–UA4
0.630
0.157
0.016
0.138
GX16–3E500 N040–UA4
0.630
0.197
0.016
0.138
GX16–4E600 N050–UA4
0.630
0.236
0.020
0.157
GX24–2E300 N030–UA4
0.945
0.118
0.012
0.098
GX24–3E400 N040–UA4
0.945
0.157
0.016
0.118
GX24–3E500 N040–UA4
0.945
0.197
0.016
0.118
GX24–4E600 N050–UA4
0.945
0.236
0.020
0.138
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
l = overall length
For cutting speed recommendations see page 24.
Insert width
0.236
0.197
0.157
0.118
0.098
0.079
0.002
16
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
Feed
WPP 23
WAK 30
GX16–1E200 N020–UA4
K
WAK 20
ap max
in
WSP 43
r
in
WSM 33
s
in
M
WSP 43
l
in
Designation
WSM 33
ap max
WPP 23
P
UD6 – the universal one
for Stainless Steel
The right cutting edge for
–– Grooving and groove-turning
–– Medium feed range
–– Soft cutting, thus low cutting forces
20°
15°
Optimum indexable insert for:
Cutting edge design
6°
good
moderate
poor
machining conditions
GX–UD6
coated grades
GX16–1E200 N020–UD6
0.630
0.079
0.008
0.098
GX16–1E250 N020–UD6
0.630
0.098
0.008
0.098
GX16–2E300 N030–UD6
0.630
0.118
0.012
0.118
GX16–3E400 N040–UD6
0.630
0.157
0.016
0.138
GX16–3E500 N040–UD6
0.630
0.197
0.016
0.138
GX16–4E600 N050–UD6
0.630
0.236
0.020
0.157
GX24–2E300 N030–UD6
0.945
0.118
0.012
0.098
GX24–3E400 N040–UD6
0.945
0.157
0.016
0.118
GX24–3E500 N040–UD6
0.945
0.197
0.016
0.118
GX24–4E600 N050–UD6
0.945
0.236
0.020
0.138
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
l = overall length
For cutting speed recommendations see page 24.
Insert width
0.236
0.197
0.157
0.118
0.098
0.079
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
Feed
17
WSP 43
b
b
b
b
b
a
b
b
b
b
S
WAM 20
b
b
b
b
b
a
b
b
b
b
K
WPP 23
WXM 33
ap max
in
WAM 20
r
in
M
WSP 43
s
in
WPP 23
ap max
l
in
Designation
WXM 33
P
CE4 – the universal one
The right cutting edge for
–– Grooving and parting off operations
–– Moderate to high feeds
–– Excellent chip formation
12°
20°
Optimum indexable insert for:
Cutting edge design
6°
good
moderate
poor
machining conditions
GX–CE4
coated grades
0.008
GX24–2E300 N020–CE4
0.945
0.118
0.008
GX24–3E400 N030–CE4
0.945
0.157
0.012
GX24–3E500 N030–CE4
0.945
0.197
0.012
GX24–4E600 N030–CE4
0.945
0.236
0.012
a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c
c
c
c
c
a
a
a
a
a
a
c
c
c
c
c
c
WSP 43
0.008
0.118
S
WSM 33
0.98
0.654
K
WPP 23
0.654
GX16–2E300 N020–CE4
WSP 43
GX16–1E250 N020–CE4
WSM 33
r
in
WSP 43
s
in
WSM 33
l
in
Designation
M
WPP 23
P
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c
c
c
c
c
l = overall length
For cutting speed recommendations see page 24.
Insert width
0.236
0.197
0.157
0.118
0.098
0.079
0.002
18
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
Feed
GD3 – the soft cutting one
The right cutting edge for
–– Very soft cutting action
–– Light to moderate feeds
–– General parting off and grooving
­operations
9°
Optimum indexable insert for:
Cutting edge design
6°
good
moderate
poor
machining conditions
GX–GD3
coated grades
0.008
GX16–2E300 N030–GD3
0.630
0.118
0.012
GX16–3E400 N040–GD3
0.630
0.157
0.016
GX16–3E500 N040–GD3
0.630
0.197
0.016
GX16–4E600 N050–GD3
0.630
0.236
0.020
GX24–2E300 N030–GD3
0.945
0.118
0.012
GX24–3E400 N040–GD3
0.945
0.157
0.016
GX24–3E500 N040–GD3
0.945
0.197
0.016
GX24–4E600 N050–GD3
0.945
0.236
0.020
WSP 43
0.008
0.098
WSM 33
0.079
0.630
WPP 23
0.630
GX16–1E250 N020–GD3
WSP 43
GX16–1E200 N020–GD3
WSM 33
r
in
S
WSP 43
s
in
K
WSM 33
l
in
Designation
M
WPP 23
P
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
l = overall length
For cutting speed recommendations see page 24.
Insert width
0.236
0.197
0.157
0.118
0.098
0.079
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
Feed
19
Tools for snap-ring grooves
NCCE
s
in
0.024–0.067
0.024–0.098
Tmax
in
h = h1
in
b
in
0.079
0.500
0.500
NCCE 12–0808 R/L–GX 09–1
0.079
0.625
0.625
NCCE 16–1010 R/L–GX 09–1
0.118
0.750
0.750
NCCE 20–1212 R/L–GX 16–2
Designation
0.118
1.000
1.000
NCCE 25–1616 R/L–GX 16–2
0.118
1.250
1.000
NCCE 32–8585 R/L–GX 16–2
For inserts see page 21.
These tools are also available in Walter Capto™ version.
See the Walter general catalog.
20
Type
GX 09–1 . . . R/L
GX 16–2 . . . R/L
Inserts for snap-ring grooves
The right cutting edge for
–– Best surface quality
–– All common snap-ring types
–– Minimal burr formation
10°
Optimum indexable insert for:
Cutting edge design
6°
good
poor
GX16
r
in
Tmax
in
GX 09–1S0.60 R/L 0.354 0.024
—
0.030
GX 09–1S0.80 R/L 0.354 0.031
—
0.037
GX 09–1S0.90 R/L 0.354 0.035
—
0.041
GX 09–1S1.00 R/L 0.354 0.039
—
0.045
GX 09–1S1.20 R/L 0.354 0.047
—
0.053
GX 09–1S1.40 R/L 0.354 0.055
—
0.060
GX 09–1S1.70 R/L 0.354 0.067
—
0.072
Designation
l
in
s
in
GX 09–1S1.95 N
0.354 0.077 0.004
—
GX 09–1S2.25 N
0.354 0.089 0.004
—
GX 09–2S2.75 N
0.354 0.108 0.004
—
GX 09–2S3.25 N
0.354 0.118 0.004
—
WTA 33
HC
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
l = overall length
For cutting speed recommendations see page 24.
HC
r
in
Tmax
in
GX 16–2S0.60 R/L 0.630 0.024
—
0.030
GX 16–2S0.80 R/L 0.630 0.031
—
0.037
GX 16–2S0.90 R/L 0.630 0.035
—
0.041
GX 16–2S1.00 R/L 0.630 0.039
—
0.045
Designation
l
in
s
in
GX 16–2S1.20 R/L 0.630 0.047
—
0.053
GX 16–2S1.40 R/L 0.630 0.055
—
0.060
GX 16–2S1.70 R/L 0.630 0.067
—
0.072
GX 16–2S1.95 R/L 0.630 0.077
—
0.081
GX 16–2S2.25 R/L 0.630 0.089
—
0.093
GX 16–2S2.75 N
0.630 0.108 0.004
GX 16–2S3.25 N
0.630 0.128 0.004
—
—
GX 16–3S4.25 N
0.630 0.167 0.008
—
GX 16–4S5.25 N
0.630 0.207 0.008
—
WTA 33
GX09
moderate
machining conditions
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
Insert width
0.197–0.236
0.157–0.196
0.118–0.157
0.079–0.118
0.024–0.078
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.018
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
Feed
21
Grade application chart
Grades of cutting material for grooving and groove-turning
WPP 23
HC – P 20
•
HC – S 30
WSM 33
••
HC – M 30
HC – P 35
••
WAM 20
WXM 33
WAK 20
WAK 30
WTA 33
HC – P 45
••
HC – M 45
••
HC – M 20
••
••
HC – M 35
•
••
HC – K 20
HC – H 10
••
HC – K 30
HC – P 40
HC – P 10
•
••
•
HC – K 10
HC = Coated carbide
22
•
HC – S 20
HC – P 40
••
••
HC – S 45
WSP 43
H
Hard materials
Non-ferrous metals
••
HC – K 30
S
Heat resistant alloys
N
Cast iron
Standard
designation
K
Stainless steel
Walter grade
designation
M
Steel
Workpiece material group
P
Primary application
Additional application
•
Application area
01
10
05
20
15
30
25
40
35
45
Coating process
Coating composition
CVD
TiCN + Al2O3
(+TiN)
PVD
TiAlN + Al2O3
(ZrCN)
PVD
TiAlN + Al2O3
(ZrCN)
CVD
TiCN + Al2O3
+ HfN
PVD
Multilayer
TiAlN / TiN
+ZrCN
CVD
TiCN + Al2O3
(+TiN)
CVD
TiCN + Al2O3
(+TiN)
CVD
TiCN + Al2O3
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
23
Workpiece material
Unalloyed steel¹
P
Low-alloyed steel¹
High-alloyed steel and
high-alloyed Tool steel¹
Stainless steel¹
M
Stainless steel¹
Grey cast iron
K
Cast iron with
spheroidal graphite
Malleable cast iron
approx. 0.15% C
annealed
125
1
approx. 0.45% C
annealed
190
2
approx. 0.45% C
tempered
250
3
approx. 0.75% C
annealed
270
4
approx. 0.75% C
tempered
300
5
annealed
180
6
tempered
275
7
tempered
300
8
tempered
350
9
annealed
200
10
hardened
325
11
annealed ferritic/martensitic
200
12
martensitic, tempered
240
13
austenitic2, retained
180
14
pearlitic/ferritic
180
15
pearlitic (martensitic)
260
16
ferritic
160
17
pearlitic
250
18
ferritic
130
19
pearlitic
230
20
Fe based
Heat resistant alloys
S
Titanium alloys
1 and
cast steel
2 and
austenitic / ferritic
Ni or
Co based
annealed
200
31
hardened
280
32
annealed
250
33
hardened
350
34
cast
320
Alpha + Beta alloys, hardened
3 Rm:
tensile strength in MPa = N/mm2 4 The
machining group categories can be found in the Walter general catalog.
24
Machining group4
Material
group
Classification of the main material groups and code letters
Brinell hardness HB
Cutting data for Walter Cut
– grooving and groove-turning –
for coated carbide grades
1050
35
3
37
Cutting speed vc [ft/min]
WPP 23 WSM 33 WSP 43
WTA 33
WAM 20 WXM 33 WAK 20
660
WAK 30
590
620
590
180
590
590
560
590
560
520
560
490
460
160
520
520
520
490
460
430
150
430
520
490
490
460
430
120
330
490
490
590
520
490
180
520
520
520
490
430
390
140
460
490
620
490
360
330
150
430
460
490
490
330
330
130
300
330
430
430
390
360
180
330
590
520
360
300
260
140
430
460
460
180
590
560
590
590
260
100
360
260
430
360
430
150
520
390
920
490
660
150
980
520
120
920
850
660
240
980
920
520
190
850
790
590
80
490
390
60
430
330
490
300
300
130
130
230
230
200
200
200
200
110
110
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
25
User Guide – grooving/groove-turning
Basic principles
General
The use of groove-turning tools
allows machining steps to be
grouped together, saving on the
number of tools used.
These tools are used in
­particular for machining
­between shoulders or when
tool positions are limited.
A form-fit connection between the
insert and insert seat enables both
radial and axial forces to be absorbed.
This allows grooving and longitudinal
turning operations when special chip
forming geometries are used.
26
Machining process strategy
Grooving
We always distinguish between two
production strategies:
grooving and groove-turning.
For grooving, the feed moves in only
one direction.
Longitudinal turning with a small stock
removal (ca. 0.004 – 0.012 inch) takes
place only as a finishing pass.
Groove-turning
Groove-turning is a combination of
grooving and longitudinal turning
movements.
Grooving or groove-turning?
Groove-turning
The choice of machining process strategy
depends on the shape and size of the
groove to be produced.
As a rule of thumb, the following criteria
can be used to make a decision:
Groove-turning:
The groove width is 1.5 times greater
than the groove depth
Grooving
Grooving:
The groove depth is 1.5 times greater
than the groove width
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
27
User Guide – grooving
User tips
For grooving, only one cutting edge is used.
Here it is necessary to adhere to certain machining sequences to achieve an
optimum result.
Producing a small groove with chamfer
Grooving with
0.004 inch allowance
on diameter
Turn the chamfer
and finish 1st groove
wall
Turn the chamfer
and finish 2nd
groove wall
Producing a wide groove by grooving
3
2 3 1 23
12
1
Rough grooving
web width = s – 2 x r
5
4 5
45
Rough grooving
4
Finishing
ap max = r
s = edge width / r = corner radius / ap max = max. cut depth
28
User Guide – grooving
Fault analysis
Poor surface
‡‡ Align coolant to the cutting edge
‡‡ Select geometry offering greater chip formation
‡‡ Increase the cutting speed
‡‡ Use a smaller corner radius
‡‡ Use a more positive geometry
Damage caused by chips
‡‡ Use a geometry offering greater chip formation
‡‡ Lower the cutting speed
Poor chip formation
‡‡ Lower the cutting speed
‡‡ Improve coolant
‡‡ Use a geometry with greater chip forming
­capability
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
29
User Guide – Groove-turning
Basic principles
Tool must be aligned 90° to the
axis of rotation.
0.004"/4.0"
This is the only way to guarantee that a
clearance angle can be generated when
the groove is turned in both directions.
Poor tool alignment leads to vibration
and can cause tool breakage.
Deflection
Deflection means the movement of the insert support blade caused by a force
[FP]. This deflection is required in order to generate an adjacent clearance angle
[a] during the longitudinal turning operation.
The degree of deflection is influenced by multiple factors:
–– Cut depth [ap]
–– Feed [f]
–– Cutting speed [vc]
–– Corner radius [r]
–– Workpiece material to be machined
–– Cutting depth of the tool [T]
–– Width of the insert support blade
Diameter compensation
The deflection causes different longitudinal ratios
on the tool. In order to generate an even diameter
during finishing, a diameter compensation must
take place at the transition from grooving to the longitudinal turning movement.
1. Rough turn the workpiece
2. Groove to the final diameter
3. Pull back 0.004 inch
4. Turn longitudinally
5.Measure the groove diameter and turned diameter and correct the pullback
dimension (0.004 inch) by the difference in diameter.
30
User Guide – Groove-turning
User tips
Groove-turning
In order to ensure a safe machining
process, certain tool paths must be
adhered to.
For instance, a tool must not be
stressed by cutting in two directions at
the same time. At all times, ensure that
the cutting edge is relieved after
grooving before you start the
longitudinal turning operation.
Transitions from longitudinal turning to
grooving requires the cutting edge to
be relieved in the same way.
Machining sequence
At the end of the longitudinal turning
operation, pull back against the
direction of feed and away from the
machined diameter at least 0.004 inch.
This clearance allows the cutting edge
to return to its original position.
The next grooving operation can
now follow.
Before you transition to the
­longitudinal turning operation at
this point, pull back 0.004 inch again.
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
31
User Guide – Groove-turning
User tips
Cutting a recess
1. Roughing
1. Groove to a depth equal
to the longitudinal
turning depth of cut
2. Retract 0.004 inch
radially
3. Turn longitudinally
4. Retract 0.004 inch
radially and axially
2. Finishing
1. Groove at the radius
tangency point to
finished diameter and
retract
Avoiding ring formation
2
3
4
1
1. Turn longitudinally to approximately 0.020 – 0.060 inch
before the shoulder
2. Retract diagonally from the corner
3. Position the tool above the ring
4. Remove the ring by a radial grooving operation
32
5. Groove
6. Retract 0.004 inch
7. Turn longitudinally to approximately
0.020 inch before the shoulder
8. Retract 0.004 inch radially and axially
2. Finish the 1st wall and
generate the radius
3. Retract by the diameter
compensation dimension
4. Turn longitudinally to the
radius tangent position
5. Retract 0.004 inch
radially and axially
6. Finish the 2nd wall and
generate the radius
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
33
User Guide – Groove-turning
Fault analysis
Vibration during longitudinal turning
‡‡ Check tool alignment (see page 30)
‡‡ Deflection of cutting edge too low (see page 30)
‡‡ Use narrower insert (easier to deflect)
‡‡ Use a smaller corner radius
‡‡ Shorten workpiece overhang
Step in machined diameter
‡‡ Correct pullback dimension before finishing cut
‡‡ Ensure even stock allowance
‡‡ Check whether the insert seat is damaged
‡‡ Increase the cutting speed
‡‡ Use a more positive geometry
Damage caused by swarf
‡‡ Use a geometry with greater chip forming
­capability
‡‡ Lower the cutting speed
‡‡ Optimize coolant
Ring formation
‡‡ Check program sequence (see page 32)
Poor chip formation
‡‡ Lower the cutting speed
‡‡ Increase the feed
‡‡ Improve coolant
‡‡ Use a geometry with greater chip forming
­capability
34
User Guide – grooving/groove-turning
Wear analysis
Flank face wear
‡‡ Use a more wear-resistant grade
‡‡ Reduce the cutting speed
‡‡ Improve coolant
Plastic deformation
‡‡ Use a more wear-resistant grade
‡‡ Reduce feed
‡‡ Optimize coolant
‡‡ Reduce the cutting speed
Chipping
‡‡ Use tougher grades of carbide
‡‡ Use a more rigid tool
‡‡ Use stronger geometries
‡‡ Use wider inserts if necessary
Built-up cutting edge
‡‡ Increase the cutting speed
‡‡ Use a more positive geometry
‡‡ Optimize coolant
Crater wear
‡‡ Reduce the cutting speed
‡‡ Use more positive geometry
‡‡ Use a more wear-resistant grade
‡‡ Optimize coolant
Notching or oxidation
‡‡ Reduce the cutting speed
‡‡ Reduce feed
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
35
Hardness comparison table
Tensile strength, Brinell, Vickers and Rockwell hardness (extract from DIN 50150)
Tensile
strength
[N/mm2]
Vickers
hardness
HV
36
Brinell
hardness
HB
Rockwell
hardness
HRC
HRC
Rm
HV
HB
255
270
285
305
320
335
350
370
385
400
415
430
450
465
480
495
510
530
545
560
575
595
610
625
640
660
675
690
705
720
740
755
770
785
800
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
76.0
80.7
85.5
90.2
95.0
99.8
105
109
114
119
124
128
133
138
143
147
152
156
162
166
171
176
181
185
190
195
199
204
209
214
219
223
228
233
238
20.3
21.3
22.2
820
255
242
23.1
835
260
247
24.0
850
265
252
865
270
880
275
Tensile
strength
[N/mm2]
Vickers
hardness
HV
Brinell
hardness
HB
Rockwell
hardness
HRC
HRC
Rm
HV
HB
900
280
266
27.1
915
285
271
27.8
930
290
276
28.5
950
295
280
29.2
29.8
965
300
285
995
310
295
31.0
1,030
320
304
32.2
1,060
330
314
33.3
1,095
340
323
34.4
1,125
350
333
35.5
1,155
360
342
36.6
1,190
370
352
37.7
1,220
380
361
38.8
1,255
390
371
39.8
1,290
400
380
40.8
1,320
410
390
41.8
1,350
420
399
42.7
1,385
430
409
43.6
1,420
440
418
44.5
1,455
450
428
45.3
1,485
460
437
46.1
1,520
470
447
46.9
1,555
480
(456)
47.7
1,595
490
(466)
48.4
1,630
500
(475)
49.1
1,665
510
(485)
49.8
1,700
520
(494)
50.5
1,740
530
(504)
51.1
1,775
540
(513)
51.7
1,810
550
(523)
52.3
1,845
560
(532)
53.0
1,880
570
(542)
53.6
24.8
1,920
580
(551)
54.1
257
25.6
1,955
590
(561)
54.7
261
26.4
1,995
600
(570)
55.2
Turning calculation formulas
Tensile
strength
[N/mm2]
Vickers
hardness
HV
Brinell
hardness
HB
Rockwell
hardness
HRC
Rm
HV
HB
HRC
2,030
610
(580)
55.7
2,070
620
(589)
56.3
2,105
630
(599)
56.8
2,145
640
(608)
57.3
2,180
650
(618)
Number of revolutions
vc x 12
[rpm]
Cutting speed
57.8
660
58.3
670
58.8
680
59.2
690
59.7
700
60.1
720
61.0
740
61.8
760
62.5
780
63.3
800
64.0
820
64.7
840
65.3
860
65.9
880
66.4
900
67.0
920
67.5
940
68.0
12
[ft/min]
Feed rate
[in/min]
Engagement time
The hardness values converted i.a.w. these
tables are approximate only. See DIN 50150.
n
Dc
vc
vf
f
th
lm
Number of revolutions
Drill diameter
Cutting speed
Feed rate
Feed per revolution Engagement time
Length of cut
rpm
in
ft/min
in/min
in
min
in
Tensile strength
N/mm2
Rm
Vickers hardness HV
Diamond pyramid 136°
Testing force F ≥ 98 N
Brinell hardness HB
Calculated from:
HB = 0.95 x HV
0.102 x F/D = 30 N/mm
F = testing force in N
D = sphere diameter in mm
HB
Rockwell hardness C
Diamond cone 120°
Overall testing force 1471 ± 9 N
HRC
2
HV
2
Walter Cut – Grooving and groove-turning
37

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