The Melton-Thomas Anterior Blepharitis Protocol


The Melton-Thomas Anterior Blepharitis Protocol
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The Melton-Thomas Anterior Blepharitis Protocol
Since most anterior blepharitis cases are mixed seborrheic/staphylococcal, we pretty much treat in a generic manner.
We have long abandoned using diluted baby shampoo, and now strongly favor prepackaged commercially prepared lid scrubs. This
allows us to do an abbreviated treatment in the office, which helps patients to intimately understand how to accomplish proper and effective eyelid hygienic maneuvers. Also, the commercially available eyelid scrubs certainly
appear more professional than diluted hair shampoo.
We then medically treat with Zylet ophthalmic suspension q.i.d. for two weeks, and
then b.i.d. for two more weeks. Alternatively, have the patient rub an antibiotic-steroid
ointment into the eyelid margins q.h.s. for two weeks. Tobramycin is an excellent medicine against Staph. species, and nothing suppresses inflammatory eye disease like a
The Melton-Thomas Posterior Blepharitis Protocol
Courtesy: Katherine Mastrota, O.D.
Courtesy: Katherine Mastrota, O.D.
Stagnation/inspissation of the meibomian glands can easily lead to disruption of the tear
film lipid layer and thus cripple tear film integrity. Symptomatic dry eye disease commonly follows.
There is a three-step process that we use:
1. Apply warm soaks to soften glandular secretions. Such can
be accomplished with a clean washcloth at the lavatory sink, with a
moistened washcloth warmed in the microwave oven, with a wrapped,
warm baked potato, and any number of other unique approaches that
work. OCuSOFT and Advanced Vision Research have novel self-generating, heat-producing “goggles” that may be the best means to
accomplish heat application to the eyelids.
2. Express the glands. Now that the sebaceous secretions are relatively loosened, massage/express the previously constipated glands.
In your office, this can be accomplished, usually without the need for
prior heat application, at the slit lamp. A wonderfully simple device
was invented by Katherine Mastrota, O.D., for this “express purpose”
(pun intended). Her device is known as the Mastrota paddle, and it is
available through OCuSOFT. Trust us; it is cheap, lasts a lifetime, and
nicely facilitates the expression of meibomian glands. In the home,
patients can perform meibomian gland expression by simply massaging out the glands with their fingers. We recommend that meibomian
expression be performed in our office the first time so that we can
ensure the patient knows how to effectively accomplish the task. Once
the glands have been expressed, the patient can use a cotton swab,
clean washcloth, or lid scrub to clean away the expressed debris,
whichever they prefer.
3. Medical therapy. Once the mechanical maneuvers have been
accomplished, oral doxycycline can be used concurrently to augment
the mechanical therapy and, on a more protracted basis, help maintain
increased physiologic glandular function. We typically prescribe 50mg
per day for three to four months, or longer if needed. The tetracycline
class of medicines (of which doxycycline is a member) has other beneficial effects beyond its antibiotic properties. Drugs in the tetracycline
class are workhorses in dermatology in that they alter and enhance
the quality of sebaceous glandular function. In the setting of meibomian gland disease, the doxycycline rearranges the fatty acid structure
within the meibomian glands and helps normalize their function.
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Combination Drugs
Combination Drugs
Perhaps half of all inflamed eyes require a combination drug, rather than an
antibiotic or steroid alone.
his class of ophthalmic drugs
is highly useful and rivals the
pure topical corticosteroids in
the treatment of the acute red eye.
As with most drugs, there are clear
indications and clear contraindications, with a gray zone in between.
In order to prescribe a combination drug with clinical precision,
one has to have a masterful understanding of both antibiotics and
corticosteroids. As many as half of
all red eyes that we see are treated
with a combination drug, rather
than either a steroid or antibiotic
alone. This observation clearly
acknowledges two clinical realities:
• The need for topical antibiotics
alone is relatively low.
• Almost all acute red eyes have
a significant inflammatory component.
So, how does the astute clinician
choose between a pure steroid and
a combination drug? The answer is
relatively straightforward, but, as
always, there are exceptions to generalizations. The pivotal issue is the
integrity of the corneal epithelium.
If the corneal epithelium is intact,
there is little or no reason for prophylaxis against opportunistic bac-
terial pathogens. This is because an
intact epithelium is itself a firewall
of defense. If there is significant
epithelial compromise, then a combination drug may perfectly match
the clinical need.
Remember that the conjunctiva
will be inflamed in any patient presenting with an acute red eye.
Simply put, the eye is red because it
is inflamed. Also, the conjunctiva
will be inflamed in almost all cases
in which keratitis is present. With
either keratitis (with an intact
epithelium) or non-infectious conjunctivitis, we almost always use a
Corticosteroid/Antibiotic Combination Drugs
acetate 0.2%
sodium sulfacetamide 10%
2.5ml, 5ml, 10ml/3.5g
hydrocortisone 1%
neomycin 0.35%,
polymyxin B 10,000u/ml
fluorometholone 0.1%
sodium sulfacetamide 10%
5ml, 10ml
dexamethasone 0.1%
neomycin 0.35%,
polymyxin B 10,000u/ml
dexamethasone 0.1%
neomycin 0.35%
prednisolone acetate 1%
neomycin 0.35%,
polymyxin B 10,000u/ml
5ml, 10ml
prednisolone acetate 1%
gentamicin 0.3%
2.5ml, 10ml/3.5g
dexamethasone 0.1%
tobramycin 0.3%
2.5ml, 5 ml/3.5g
prednisolone sodium
phosphate 0.25%
sodium sulfacetamide 10%
5ml, 10ml
Bausch & Lomb
loteprednol 0.5%
tobramycin 0.3%
5ml, 10ml
PREGNANCY CATEGORY: All drugs listed above are Category C.
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Combination Drugs
topical steroid.
If the accurate diagnosis of bacterial conjunctivitis is made, the decision is whether to prescribe an
antibiotic or a combination drug.
The prime determinants are
1) The severity of the infection.
2) The degree of conjunctival
If the infection presents with
marked mucopurulence, we
would likely treat with a pure
antibiotic, such as moxifloxacin (and perhaps even
culture if the infection was
severe). If the infectious
expression was only mild to
moderate, the degree of conjunctival injection would be
the overriding issue in
choosing between an antibiotic and a combination drug such
as Zylet (loteprednol/tobramycin,
Bausch & Lomb), TobraDex (dexamethasone/tobramycin, Alcon), or
Maxitrol (dexamethasone/neomycin/polymyxin B, Alcon).
We stress again that bacterial infection is uncommon,
especially relative to the
numerous expressions of
non-infectious conjunctivitis.
An exception is the
patient who presents with
what appears to be a low
grade bacterial conjunctivitis (i.e., minimal discharge), yet
with moderate to marked conjunctival injection. The patient
usually complains that the
affected eye was “stuck
together when I woke up.”
Commonly, by the time the
patient arrives at your
office, any excess debris
may have been cleaned
from the lids and lashes.
Further, blinking has moved
considerable mucopurulent
debris down the nasolacrimal
system so that the objective slit
lamp findings reveal only minimal
microparticulant debris in the
lacrimal lake; a clear, non-staining
cornea; and/or a red eye. Here is
where a combination product is
used mainly to address the conjunctival inflammation, while concurrently eliminating any infectious
component, even when the cornea
is uninvolved.
When there is significant
corneal epithelial compromise,
we almost always use a combination drug. For most cases, the
choice of drug class is that simple.
The first blockbuster, highly
effective combination antibiotic/corticosteroid was
Maxitrol, containing
neomycin, polymyxin B and
dexamethasone. Maxitrol became a
real workhorse in primary eye care.
However, the occasional neomycin
reaction, while not a major issue,
prompted investigation into a “new
and improved” combination drug.
Thus was born TobraDex, which
replaced the neomycin and
polymyxin B with tobramycin.
This drug, like Maxitrol, enjoyed
market dominance, though from
time to time, and again not a
major issue, intraocular pressure
increases prompted an investigation into a “new and improved”
combination drug.
Thus was born Zylet. Keeping
the highly efficacious tobramycin,
the dexamethasone was replaced
with a newer generation, esterbased corticosteroid, loteprednol. Now with Zylet, we have
excellent antibiosis along with
the safety and potency of loteprednol. It is available in 5ml
and 10ml bottles.
Now that we have 90% of
this topic covered, we need to
spend the bulk of this article
discussing other various exceptions
and modifications to this rather
simple decision tree. The best way
to teach the concepts for drug class
choice is perhaps by looking at a
few specific clinical entities.
Thygeson’s Superficial
Punctate Keratopathy (SPK)
This not-so-uncommon keratitis
is seen in young to middle-aged
patients. The classic symptoms are
foreign body sensation, photophobia and lacrimation. This idiopathic
condition has cycles of exacerbation
and remissions over the course of
10 to 20 years, until it finally
abates. It is during these exacerbations when symptoms prompt the
patient to seek medical attention.
This usually bilateral keratitis
shows several tiny, usually central,
subtle (but readily seen) staining
defects with fluorescein dye. (Note
that about 20% of cases are unilateral, so differentiating Thygeson’s
from herpes simplex must be done;
here is where corneal sensitivity
testing can be useful. Also, the
Thygeson’s eye will generally be
white, or minimally injected,
whereas the herpetic eye will generally be considerably injected.)
If the patient is significantly
symptomatic, a topical corticosteroid readily suppresses the keratitis and its attendant symptoms. If
the presenting symptoms are tolerable, then artificial tears and patient
education are likely all that is
needed. However, the teaching
point here is that even though there
is some punctate staining in acute
Thygeson’s SPK, all that is needed is
a topical steroid. This is the uniform recommendation in authoritative textbooks.
While 1% concentrations of topical steroids are indicated in most
inflammatory eye conditions,
Thygeson’s is steroid sensitive.
Therefore, our drug of choice in
these cases is Alrex (loteprednol
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Combination Drugs
occurred and the
Of note, antibiotics and combisteroid can be stopped,
nation drugs have little or no role in
or tapered to b.i.d. for a treating patients with adenoviral
few more days. While a
infections because concurrent bactecombination drug, such
rial infection is exceedingly rare.
as Zylet, TobraDex or
For several years now, we have
generic Maxitrol, could
successfully treated symptomatic
be used here, we almost patients with acute, grade II or
always use a pure topihigher EKC with a 60-second treatcal steroid. Aminoglyment of 5% Betadine Sterile Ophcoside toxicity on an
thalmic Prep Solution (povidone/
already toxic ocular
iodine, Alcon) followed by ocular
surface is probably not
surface lavage. This accomplishes
a practical concern, but
two objectives. First, eradication of
could be in instances in
the bulk of the adenoviral load haswhich the patient has
tens acute symptomatic recovery.
A classic presentation of the corneal staining pattern
concurrent dry eye.
Second, since the virus particles resof Thygeson’s SPK. (The fellow eye was nearly identiIn many advanced
idence time has been considerably
cal.) This is one of the unusual cases of keratitis in
cases of EKC, subeptruncated, the potential for viral
which a modestly potent corticosteroid, such as Alrex
ithelial infiltrates (which
(q.i.d. for one week, then b.i.d. for one to two more
do not stain) can
weeks), quickly brings resolution in most cases.
develop. When these
cause symptomatic,
0.2%, Bausch & Lomb). We genervisual compromise, a steroid will
ally treat symptomatic patients
readily clear this unique, immune
q.i.d. for one week, then b.i.d. for
keratitis. This generally requires
one to four weeks, until the phase
two to four months of tapering
of exacerbation subsides. Artificial
therapy. Our routine has been to
tears complement virtually all acute
use Lotemax q.i.d. for one month,
ocular surface conditions, but there
t.i.d. for one month, b.i.d. for one
is no need for an antibiotic.
month, and then once-daily for one
month. It usually takes two to four
Development of thick membranes can be
months for sufficient viral antigen
seen in more advanced cases of EKC.
to be physiologically leeched from
After instillation of topical anesthetic,
Keratoconjunctivitis (EKC)
If the EKC is severe, and espestromal residence. So when the
these membranes (note both superior
cially if tarsal conjunctival memsteroid taper is completed, any
and inferior tarsal) were peeled away
branes have formed, there can be
small infiltrates that might reform
with minimal bleeding. Zylet was then
epithelial compromise. The key here should be symptomatically miniused q2h for two days, then q.i.d. for
is to physically peel away these
mal, or silent.
four days.
membranes, as they exert toxic and
Pearls for Using Combination Drugs
mechanical trauma to the epithe• Any time you see any process at or near the limbus, it is inflammatory in nature.
lium. Be sure to wear gloves when
Herpetic infection can present at this area, but will typically be linear (as opposed to oval)
performing this procedure, as minor
in morphology.
bleeding often results.
• In any acute, unilateral red eye with a serous discharge, be sure to rule out herpetic
These membranes are a marker
of intense inflammation, and as
• Never (or rarely) taper combination drugs below q.i.d. because subtherapeutic levels of
such, corticosteroid therapy is of
antibiotic set the stage for antibiotic resistance.
paramount importance. We gener• In the context of a red eye with a mild secondary iritis, instill a short-acting cycloplegic
ally use Lotemax (loteprednol
agent, particularly if a pure antibiotic is used. A combination product will generally elimi0.5%, Bausch & Lomb) q.i.d. for a
nate such an iritis without the need for a cycloplegic, though this is a fine clinical point.
week. By the end of this period,
natural healing will likely have
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Combination Drugs
antigenic (stromal immune) keratitis is largely pre-empted. (See also
“Adenoviral Infections: Take
Charge of EKC,” page 10A.)
Note: since Betadine stings,
always pre-treat the cornea with a
drop of proparacaine. Furthermore,
to diminish any patient discomfort,
we generally instill a drop or two of
Voltaren (diclofenac sodium,
Novartis Ophthalmics) or Acular
LS (ketorolac tromethamine,
Allergan) before, and again after
the treatment.
Following the in-office treatment
as described above, we always prescribe Lotemax, usually q.i.d. for
four to six days, to dampen or eliminate any residual inflammatory
Herpes Simplex Keratitis
Here is another condition that
commonly demonstrates considerable epithelial compromise.
Since corticosteroids cause local
immunosuppression, their use is
contraindicated—an exceedingly
well-known principle. No authori-
needed, unless there is clear evidence of concurrent bacterial infection.
Fungal ( fusarium ) infection with stromal
Topical Viroptic (trifluridine,
Monarch Pharmaceutical), perhaps
in conjunction with preservativefree artificial tears, is the only therapeutic intervention warranted for
herpes simplex epithelial keratitis.
Oral antivirals, such as acyclovir
(400mg five times daily for seven
days) can be used if there is trifluridine resistance, or if the patient has
developed an allergic response to
Corneal Abrasions
Herpes simplex keratitis.
tative textbook recommends the use
of a prophylactic antibacterial agent
in such cases. As clinicians, we do
not know why the herpetic corneal
defect does not invite opportunistic
bacterial pathogens; we just know
that antibacterial therapy is not
Most such defects heal within a
day or two, regardless of any therapeutic maneuvers. To our knowledge, no studies have prospectively
followed “no treatment” of abrasions, but it would be interesting to
know the absolute need for prophylactic antibiotic use, which is standard practice in these situations. We
imagine the rate of infectious keratitis would be very small.
However, since antibiotics are safe,
there is no mandate to take unnecessary risks.
Conservative therapy with antibiotics has evolved into the standard
of care for corneal abrasions. There
are, however, circumstances—most
notably delay in seeking care—in
which the abraded eye is consider-
ably inflamed. While fungal infection is always a rare possibility if
the traumatic agent was vegetative,
99.9% of the time fungus is not a
That being said, we have occasionally used a short-acting cycloplegic agent and a combination
drug in “hot” eyes with corneal
abrasions. The steroid component
calms the tissues and thus potentiates corneal re-epithelialization. A
further note for the fungal worriers
out there: if the delay in seeking
care is only two to four days, fungal
involvement at this point is unlikely,
since fungi are usually slow growing and would take many more
days to proliferate to symptomatic
Now, if the patient gives a history
of vegetative trauma, and reports
that the abrasion initially healed
over a day or two, but is now (perhaps a week later) presenting with a
hot eye and stromal infiltrates, consider fungal etiology. However, such
symptoms are still most likely associated with a cell-mediated immune
response to the initial trauma rather
than a fungal infection. The salient
features of a fungal keratitis are:
• History of corneal injury (vegetative matter)
• Slowly progressive
• Hypopyon in advanced cases
• Not very painful (relatively)
• Feathery border (hyphate-like)
These classic, limbally expressed
phlyctenules were treated with Zylet
(q2h for two days, then q.i.d. for five
days) with quick resolution.
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Combination Drugs
• Slightly raised, dirty-white infiltration
• Satellite lesions
• Partial or complete ring
• Secondary anterior uveitis
For perspective, in our combined
54 years of intense clinical experience, we have seen a grand total of
two cases of fungal infection following corneal abrasion, both of
which were treated successfully.
If, however, the traumatic vector
of the corneal abrasion was inorganic, and there is marked inflammation, a combination product
could be considered. More conservatively, use a pure antibiotic a day
or two, then if the traumatic keratoconjunctivitis fails to subside or if
symptoms worsen, add a steroid.
Keratoconjunctivitis (PKC)
Most usually seen in young girls,
this staphylococcal hypersensitivity
response commonly targets the limbal tissues as one or two raised,
whitish lesions, which stain lightly
with fluorescein. Nothing else looks
like a phlyctenule.
While one would think staphylo-
Contact Lens-Associated Keratitis
Confusion abounds in eye care regarding the diagnosis and treatment of contact lens-related keratitis, although in most cases,
these clinical presentations are rather straightforward. Of course,
our greatest concern is vision loss from a central bacterial
corneal ulcer. The good news is that such ulcers are exceedingly
rare. The problem, however, is threefold: 1) corneal infiltrates are
quite common occurrences; 2) there is a lot of uncertainty among
eye doctors as to the differentiation of corneal lesions; and 3) the
ever-looming concern, “Is this the beginning of a potentially
vision-threatening ulcerative process?” This last point is particularly worrisome when a positive epithelial defect is present.
Corneal hypoxia is the most common cause of corneal infiltrative events, but with the advent of the super oxygen-permeable
silicone hydrogel lenses, we hope to see a dramatic decrease in
the hypoxic-related keratitis.
Hypoxia can result in a cascade of events that result in leukocytic chemotaxis into the anterior stromal tissues. Once ample
leukocytic recruitment occurs, exocytotoxic chemicals can lead to
retrograde demise of some of the overlying epithelium as evidenced by a positive fluorescein staining defect. It is these circumstances that lead many doctors to erroneously assume the
worst and start the patient on a course of topical antibiotics.
While this does no harm, it does no more good than simply discontinuing the use of the contact lenses, which, of course, is the
first step of treatment for all contact lens-related eye problems. A
steroid, in combination with an antibiotic, is perfectly suited to
suppress the immune/inflammatory response, while protecting
the cornea against any opportunistic bacterial infections.
There are numerous parameters to evaluating the differential
diagnosis of leukocytic infiltration (largely from hypoxia) versus
stromal opacification lesions (largely from bacterial infection).
(See “Clinical Perspectives on Corneal Infiltrates,” page 17A.)
Let’s look at some risk factors for ulcerative keratitis so that
we can better quantify the likelihood of such occurrences:
• Poor tear film function
• Uncontrolled staphylococcal blepharitis
• Smoking
• Swimming while wearing contacts (esp. in fresh water)
• Being under age 22 ±
While this is not an exhaustive list, it gives us some red flags
by which we can exercise our clinical judgment, and enhance our
patient education.
If you truly feel your patient has an infectious lesion, then start
them on a fluoroquinolone such as Vigamox or Zymar every 15
minutes for three to six hours, then hourly until bedtime. We have
our patients instill generic Polysporin (or Neosporin) ointment at
bedtime. Follow your patient daily and modify therapy based on
the clinical response.
There is a less intensive approach that can be used if you
think your patient has a leukocytic infiltrate, but are still concerned about possible infection. Here, use any fluoroquinolone or
aminoglycoside hourly until the patient is seen back the next day
to assess the clinical course. In either diagnostic circumstance,
(bacterial infection or leukocytic infiltration), improvement will
most always be evident, mainly because lens wear has been discontinued.
Naïve practitioners who witness such improvement may
wrongly deduce that the lesion must have been an infective
process, and be glad they used an antibiotic. Once again, infiltrates are very common, and bacterial keratitis is very rare.
The most appropriate therapeutic response to an immune/
inflammatory condition (e.g., a leukocytic/sterile infiltrate) is a
steroid. Since a small epithelial defect may or may not be present, or clinical judgment may be wrong (if the lesion actually is an
early infectious disease process), we always prescribe an antibiotic/steroid combination drug, such as Zylet, TobraDex, or generic
Maxitrol to treat these conditions. To this day, tobramycin remains
an excellent, broad spectrum bacterial antibiotic.
Prescribe the combination drug to be used q2h for two days,
then q.i.d. for four days (mainly to quiet the inflammation and
allow the eye to calm down).
Each doctor must evaluate each patient’s condition carefully
and prescribe with as much precision as possible. As stated at
the outset, treatment of contact lens-associated keratitis is rather
straightforward in most cases. In ambiguous cases, treat conservatively until the diagnosis becomes clear. For perspective, we
have seen less than a handful of cases of microbial keratitis
between the two of us.
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Combination Drugs
Peripheral anterior stromal infiltrates may or may not exhibit overlying epithelial compromise (as evidenced by positive
fluorescein staining). This contact lens wearer presented with a typical ‘infiltrate,’ which was treated with Zylet (q2h for two
days, then q.i.d. for four more days).
coccal blepharitis would always be
evident, such is not empirically the
case. Certainly, if blepharitis is present, initiate proper care, but first
treat the inflammatory keratoconjunctivitis. When there is a staining
defect at the corneolimbus, a prophylactic antibiotic is counterproductively conservative.
The key clinical feature is the
inflammatory component—the eye
is red. Here, a combination product
is probably wise. Use a combination
drug every two hours for a day or
two, then q.i.d. for four to six days,
and then stop.
Staph. Marginal “Ulcers”
Much more appropriately called
“peripheral inflammatory epithelial
defects,” these are uncommon
events that have a similar pathophysiology to PKC and sterile infiltrates.
In these cases, the staphylococcal
exotoxins begin to erode a section
of the peripheral corneal epithelial
tissues. The eye is red with accentuation of a sector of bulbar conjunctival inflammation adjacent to the
affected cornea. The foci of compromised epithelium stains brightly
with fluorescein dye. There may be
a few cells in the anterior chamber.
The epithelium is broken down as a
result of the underlying anterior
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
of many cases of dry eye-related
SPK, topical steroid and/or Restasis
(cyclosporine, Allergan) therapy is
often employed (along with artificial tears, etc.) in the successful
management of KCS. We have
never read of an antibiotic role in
the management of KCS.
In summary, select a pure antibiotic when the clinical picture is portrayed by evident mucopurulent
discharge, or there is evident (or
high risk for) corneal infection.
Select a combination drug in the
absence of the above two findings
when there is mild to moderate
epithelial compromise near the limbus along with considerable conjunctival inflammation.
Select a pure steroid if the eye is
red and the corneal epithelium is
intact. We might default to a combination drug if the patient is a contact lens wearer, but it would
depend on the individual situation.
We have all seen dry eye patients
with slit lamp-observable, coarse
SPK. Also known as punctate
epithelial erosions, SPK represents a
break in epithelial integrity that theoretically provides a foothold for
bacterial adherence and subsequent
penetration. Yet, antibiotic intervention is rarely, if ever indicated.
Acknowledging the participation
of inflammation in the pathogenesis
We have discussed many exceptions to these general guidelines.
The primary purpose of this article
is to encourage the reader to limit
the prescribing of an antibiotic for
the gamut of red eyes and recognize
that most red eyes are inflammatory
in nature.
Most importantly, prescribe with
precision! stromal inflammatory process, thus
causing retrograde compromise to
the overlying epithelium.
Once this subepithelial inflammation is subdued by the corticosteroid component in a combination
drug, re-epithelialization is potentiated.
An antibiotic alone in this case is
almost worthless. While an antibiotic can serve to protect against
opportunistic bacterial potential, it
will do nothing to curb the inflammatory process.
As with PKC, a combination corticosteroid/antibiotic product is perfectly suited to address the inflammatory process while simultaneously guarding the cornea against
the possibility of bacterial infection.
Therapeutic management is as
described for PKC.