Document 6507628

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Document 6507628
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© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
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255710 Project Management
1
Functional
Pure project
M ti
Matrix
Mixed
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
How to tie project to parent firm
How to organize the project
H
How
tto organize
i activities
ti iti
common to multiple
p p
projects
j
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
€ Organization
sub-units
b
it
255710 Project Management
2
is divided into functional
› Integration between sub-units handled
by rules, procedures
› Management
g
chain handles problems
p
› Works well in stable environment
255710 Project Management
3
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
4
1.
Flexible use of staff
› Experts
pe s assigned
ass g ed to
o functional
u c o a units
u s
› Assigned to projects as needed
2
2.
Staff
St
ff can easily
il b
be assigned
i
d tto
multiple projects
› Experts can be switched between
p j
projects
easily
y
› Functional manager picks best expert for
each project
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
Figure
5-1
5
Specialists can share knowledge and
experience
4. Functional units provide
technological/knowledge continuity
3.
›
›
Also provide continuity of policies and
procedures
Functional manager can train and inspect
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
7
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
6
Functional areas provide for a career
path within a knowledge area
5.
›
›
Engineers can become supervisors or VP’s
Does not require movement into project
management to advance
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
8
1.
Client is not the focus
›
›
2.
Function
u c o unit
u has
as itss own
o
work
o outside
ou s de the
e
project
Functional manager not likely to be
accountable for project and therefore client
›
›
Function unit sees success in its area as most
important
P j t seen as secondary,
Project
d
or worse, an
interruption
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
4.
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255710 Project Management
Slow response
›
benefit
b
fit their
th i ffunctional
ti
l unit
it
› Interests outside their area may not be fully
considered
›
›
› Complex projects require input from a large
255710 Project Management
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Motivation is weak
›
Tendency to sub optimize
Must share authority with functional managers
May be several managers responsible for
various parts of project
Client may not have a single point of contact
att project
j t
This can make response to the client slow or
non-existent
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
6.
› Functional managers manage their part to
5
5.
›
›
Functional units not focused on project
›
Project manager may not have adequate
authority
3.
Project
P
j t iis nott th
the worker’s
k ’ “h
“home””
Project manager most likely does not do
th i performance
their
f
evaluations
l ti
May not receive additional pay for
difficulties
iffi
i off working
i
on project
j
number of different areas
› This can be difficult to coordinate without a
common manager
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
11
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
12
Project manager has full authority
1.
›
›
›
Will typically report to senior management
(project sponsor)
This gives project manager access to
managerial advice
This centralizes authority and makes for
rapid decision making / response to client
Figure 5-2
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
2
2.
13
E
Everyone
reports
t to
t the
th project
j t manager
›
›
›
3
3.
255710 Project Management
This gives the project manager the ability to
make quick decisions
Makes it easier for project manager to motivate
and reward members
May be tempered by relationship to functional
unit
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
4.
›
›
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
15
Project managers can move from project to
project
It p
pays
y to hire, train, and p
promote skilled p
project
j
managers
Project team has its own identity
›
Shorter communications lines
14
Can maintain project management skills
›
5.
255710 Project Management
Project members work for the “project” not the
f
functional
ti
l unit
it
This can significantly improve performance
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
16
Quick decisions
6.
›
A th it is
Authority
i centralized
t li d
1.
Unity of command
7.
›
›
Each worker reports to one, and-only-one,
manager
Project has a simple structure
Structurally simple and flexible
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8.
›
›
›
2.
›
›
Everyone on project is concerned about
project, not their functional unit
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
17
›
›
›
Experts
E
t on a project
j t will
ill ffocus on the
th areas
essential to the project
Thi can llead
This
d tto th
them falling
f lli
behind
b hi d iin other
th
areas
It can also be difficult
iffi
to ffeed their
i
developing expertise back into the
organization
i ti
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
19
Project managers tend to stockpile resources so
they are available when needed
Th also
They
l tend
t d to
t keep
k
those
th
resources longer
l
than needed just-in-case
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
18
Organizational inconsistency
4.
Experts falling behind in other areas
3.
Each project has a full staff
This leads to overstaffing
Stockpiling
›
Easy to implement
H li ti approach
Holistic
h
9.
Duplicate staffing
›
›
Corner-cutting
g
“They don’t understand our problems”
Life of its own
5
5.
›
›
Projectitis
U versus them
Us
th
Life after the p
project
j
ends
6.
›
›
›
Lots of uncertainty
Will there be layoffs
Rusty skills
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
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Only way to do large, one-time projects
€ Disadvantages
i d
make
k iit iimpractical
i l ffor
continually doing projects, e.g.
construction
€ Matrix developed in aerospace to deal
with this
€
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
€
€
€
€
255710 Project Management
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Functional part provides home for workers
after project
Functional part helps maintain expertise
In a strong matrix, people from functional
areas are assigned to project
In a weak matrix, capacity from functional
areas are assigned
g
to project
p j
Figure 5-3
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
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22
The project is the focus
1.
›
That remains the project manager
manager’ss
responsibility
The project has access to entire
organization for labor and technology
2.
›
›
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
Projects draw from functional organizations
as required
This reduces duplication of resources
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
24
3.
Less anxiety about the end of the project
›
4.
5.
Project members return to their functional
organizations
Consistent policies
›
›
Parent organization will oversee project
Project will have closer access to parent
administration
Response to client is rapid
›
›
Thatt remains
Th
i the
th project
j t manager’s
’
responsibility
With much remaining within parent
organization, response to parent is also rapid
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
25
Flexibility
7.
›
›
›
Easier to balance organizational resources
›
›
255710 Project Management
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Less competition for resources
C
Competition
titi
can be
b controlled
t ll d b
by parentt
organization and functional managers
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
26
Functional units make many decisions,
including technology ones
1.
Many different
M
diff
t possible
ibl structures
t
t
between
b t
strong and weak
Diff
Different
t structures
t
t
can be
b used
d for
f different
diff
t
projects
Different
iff
structures can be used ffor different
iff
functional areas
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
6
6.
›
›
›
›
Project manager has less control than in a
pure project
Project manager’s control is balanced
against
g
that of the functional manager
g
If they disagree, it can be hard to resolve
Negotiation
g
is the key
y to project
p j
success
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
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Projects compete for resources
2.
›
›
›
3.
This is
Thi
i especially
i ll ttrue when
h
th
there are severall
large projects
S
Someone
above
b
project
j t managers mustt sett
and enforce priorities
Multiple
i
schedules will
i add stress to
functional managers
Strong matrices mirror many disadvantages
of project structure
›
4
4.
Workers do not have a single manager
›
›
›
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
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Project team crosses time, space,
organizational or cultural boundaries
organizational,
€ Facilitated by the Internet
€ Often organized as a matrix
€
€
€
€
€
€
255710 Project Management
31
This splits loyalty
M k performance
Makes
f
appraisal
i l diffi
difficult
lt
Information flow is difficult
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
€
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
People are assigned to, and identify with,
“their”
their project much as in the project structure
255710 Project Management
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Challenging and interesting projects
Use volunteers
Use people who know each other
Create a resource to learn about one
another
Encourage frequent communications
Divide work into modules
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
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Firms typically do not set out to “pick” an
organizational form
€ Rather, the structure evolves over time
€ The structure is not static
€ Rather,
Rather it changes as the organization
organization, its
goals, and its environment changes
€
Figure 5-4
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
33
In-depth application of a technology
€ Large capital
i l iinvestment, especially
i ll
when that investment is concentrated in
one functional area
€
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
35
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
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Handling a large number of similar
projects
€ Handling a one-time project that
requires much control but is not focused
on one functional area
€
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
36
Projects that require inputs from several
functional areas
€ Projects that use technology from
several functional areas
€
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
€
€
€
€
€
€
255710 Project Management
37
Projects are risky, uncertainty is high
Project manager must manage this risk
This is called “risk management”
Ri k varies
Risk
i widely
id l b
between
t
projects
j t
Risk also varies widely between
organizations
i ti
Risk management should be built on the
results
lt off prior
i projects
j t
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
39
Risk Management
2. The
h Project
j
Office
Offi
1.
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
5.
6.
7.
255710 Project Management
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Risk management planning
Ri k identification
Risk
id tifi ti
Qualitative risk analysis
Quantitative risk analysis
Risk response planning
Risk monitoring and control
Ri k managementt d
Risk
database
t b
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
40
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
5.
6.
List ways a project can fail
Evaluate
l
severity
i
Estimate likelihood
Estimate the ability to detect
Fi d the
Find
th risk
i k priority
i it number
b
Consider ways to reduce
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
€
› Often called the war room
€
41
Different project need different staffs
€ Some
S
common members
b
include
i l d
€
€
€
€
› Contract administrator
€
› Controller
€
Should report to project manager
€
255710 Project Management
43
In addition to providing a place to work,
p built a feeling
g of team among
g
this helps
the workers
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
› Engineer
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
All projects should have an office
dedicated to that project
255710 Project Management
42
All projects are composed of interconnected groups
These groups can form teams
It is not enough to have an effective team
The team must also be working
g towards the
good of the project
Need to avoid “us
us versus them
them” mentality
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
44
€
Some of the problems that prevent a team
from performing effectively:
›
›
›
›
›
€
Internal conflict
Member frustration
Wasting time
Poor decision making
g
Team members more concerned with finishing
job than doing good job
Project teams need to work together
© Copyright, Original work by K.Y.Tippayawong, November 2010
255710 Project Management
45

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