Management Canadian Edition PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Chapter 16 of

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Management Canadian Edition PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Chapter 16 of
PowerPoint Presentation
to Accompany Chapter 16 of
Management
Canadian Edition
Schermerhorn  Wright
Prepared by: Michael K. McCuddy
Adapted by: Lynda Anstett & Lorie Guest
Published by: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
Planning Ahead — Chapter 16 Study Questions
 How do teams contribute to organizations?
 What are the current trends in the use of teams?
 How do teams work?
 How do teams make decisions?
 What are the challenges of leading high-
performance teams?
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Team
– A small group of people with complementary
skills, who work together to achieve a shared
purpose and hold themselves mutually
accountable for performance results.
 Teamwork
– The process of people actively working
together to accomplish common goals
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Team and teamwork roles for managers:
– Supervisor — serving as the appointed head of a formal
work unit.
– Network facilitator — serving as a peer leader an
network hub for a special task force.
– Participant — serving as a helpful contributing member
of a project team.
– External coach — serving as the external convenor or
sponsor of a problem-solving team staffed by others.
Management - Chapter 16
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Figure 16.1 Team and teamwork roles for
managers.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Common problems in teams:
– Personality conflicts.
– Individual differences in work styles.
– Ambiguous agendas.
– Ill-defined problems.
– Poor readiness to work.
•
•
•
•
•
Lack of motivation.
Conflicts with other deadlines or priorities.
Lack of team organization or progress.
Meetings that lack purpose or structure.
Members coming to meetings unprepared.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Seven sins of deadly meetings:
– People arrive late, leave early, and don’t take things
seriously.
– The meeting is too long.
– People don’t stay on topic.
– The discussion lacks candor.
– The right information isn’t available, so decisions are
postponed.
– No one puts decisions into action.
– The same mistakes are made meeting after meeting.
Management Fundamentals - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Synergy
– The creation of a whole that is greater
than the sum of its parts.
– A team uses its membership resources to
the fullest and thereby achieves through
collective action far more than could be
achieved otherwise.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Usefulness of teams:
– More resources for problem solving.
– Improved creativity and innovation.
– Improved quality of decision making.
– Greater commitments to tasks.
– Higher motivation through collective action.
– Better control and work discipline.
– More individual need satisfaction.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Formal groups —
– Teams that are officially recognized and
supported by the organization for specific
purposes.
– Specifically created to perform essential tasks.
– Managers and leaders serve “linking pin”
roles.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 1: How do teams contribute
to organizations?
 Informal groups —
– Not recognized on organization charts.
– Not officially created for an organizational purpose.
– Emerge as part of the informal structure and from natural or
spontaneous relationships among people.
– Include interest, friendship, and support groups.
– Can have positive performance impact.
– Can help satisfy social needs.
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Committees, project teams, and task forces —
– Committees.
• People outside their daily job assignments work together in a
small team for a specific purpose.
• Task agenda is narrow, focused, and ongoing.
– Projects teams or task forces.
• People from various parts of an organization work together on
common problems, but on a temporary basis.
• Official tasks are very specific and time defined.
• Disbands after task is completed.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Guidelines for managing projects and task
forces:
– Select appropriate team members.
– Clearly define the purpose of the team.
– Carefully select a team leader.
– Periodically review progress.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Cross-functional teams —
– Members come from different functional units
of an organization.
– Team works on a specific problem or task with
the needs of the whole organization in mind.
– Teams are created to knock down “walls”
separating departments.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Employee involvement teams —
– Groups of workers who meet on a regular basis
outside of their formal assignments.
– Have the goal of applying their expertise and
attention to continuous improvement.
– Quality circles represent a common form of
employee involvement teams.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Virtual teams —
– Teams of people who work together and solve
problems through largely computer-mediated
rather than face-to-face interactions.
– Sometimes called …
• Computer-mediated groups
• Electronic group networks
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Potential advantages
of virtual teams:
– Savings in time and
travel expenses.
– Minimization or
elimination of
interpersonal
difficulties.
– Ease of expansion.
 Potential problems of
virtual teams:
– Difficulty in
establishing good
working relationships.
– Depersonalization of
working relationships.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Guidelines for managing virtual teams:
– Virtual teams should begin with social
messaging.
– Team members should be assigned clear roles.
– Team members must have positive attitudes
that support team goals.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Self-managing work teams —
– Teams of workers whose jobs have been
redesigned to create a high degree of task
interdependence and who have been given
authority to make many decisions about how to
do the required work.
– Also known as autonomous work groups.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 Typical self-management responsibilities:
– Planning and scheduling work.
– Training members in various tasks.
– Sharing tasks.
– Meeting performance goals.
– Ensuring high quality.
– Solving day-to-day operating problems.
– In some cases, hiring and firing team members.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 2: What are the current trends
in the use of teams?
 In self-managing work teams, members …
– Are held collectively accountable for performance
results.
– Have discretion in distributing tasks within the team.
– Have discretion in scheduling work within the team.
– Are able to perform more than one job on the team.
– Evaluate one another’s performance contributions.
– Are responsible for the total quality of team products.
Management - Chapter 16
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Figure 16.2 Organizational and management implications
of self-managing work teams.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Effective teams …
– Achieve and maintain high levels of task
performance.
– Achieve and maintain high levels of member
satisfaction.
– Retain viability for the future.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Resource input factors that influence group
process in the pursuit of team effectiveness:
– Nature of the task.
– Organizational setting.
– Team size.
– Membership characteristics.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Group process:
– The way the members of any team work
together as they transform inputs into outputs :
– Also known as group dynamics.
– Includes communications, decision making,
norms, cohesion, and conflict, among others.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Team effectiveness may be summarized as …
Team Effectiveness =
Quality of Inputs + (Process Gains - Process Losses)
Management - Chapter 16
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Figure 16.3 An open-systems model of
work team effectiveness.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Stages of team development:
– Forming — initial orientation and interpersonal testing.
– Storming — conflict over tasks and ways of working as
a team.
– Norming — consolidation around task and operating
agendas.
– Performing — teamwork and focused task
performance.
– Adjourning — task accomplishment and eventual
disengagement.
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Norms
– Behavior expected of team members.
– Rules or standards that guide behavior.
– May result in team sanctions.
 Performance norms
– Define the level of work effort and performance
that team members are expected to contribute to
the team task.
Management - Chapter 16
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Figure 16.4 Criteria for assessing the
maturity of a team.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Guidelines for building positive norms:
– Act as a positive role model.
– Reinforce the desired behaviors with rewards.
– Control results by performance reviews and regular
feedback.
– Orient and train new members to adopt desired
behaviors.
– Recruit and select new members who exhibit desired
behaviors.
– Hold regular meetings to discuss progress and ways of
improving.
– Use team decision-making methods to reach agreement.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Cohesiveness
– The degree to which members are attracted to
and motivated to remain part of a team.
– Can be beneficial if paired with positive
performance norms.
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Effects of team cohesiveness and norms:
– Positive norms + high cohesiveness  high
performance and strong commitments to
positive norms.
– Positive norms + low cohesiveness  moderate
performance and weak commitments to positive
norms.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Effects of team cohesiveness and norms
(cont.):
– Negative norms + low cohesiveness  low to
moderate performance and weak commitments
to negative norms.
– Negative norms + high cohesiveness  low
performance and strong commitments to
negative norms.
Management - Chapter 16
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Figure 16.5 How cohesiveness and norms
influence team performance.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Guidelines for increasing team cohesion:
– Induce agreement on team goals.
– Increase membership homogeneity.
– Increase interaction among members.
– Decrease team size.
– Introduce competition with other teams.
– Reward team rather than individual results.
– Provide physical isolation from other teams.
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Task activities
– Actions by team members that contribute
directly to team’s performance purpose.
– Include:
•
•
•
•
•
Initiating
Information sharing
Summarizing
Elaborating
Opinion giving
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Maintenance activities
– Support emotional life of a team as an ongoing
social system.
– Include:
•
•
•
•
•
Gatekeeping
Encouraging
Following
Harmonizing
Reducing tension
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Distributed leadership roles …
– Make every member responsible for recognizing when
task and/or maintenance activities are needed and
taking actions to provide them.
– Leading through task activities focuses on solving
problems and achieving performance results.
– Leading through maintenance activities helps
strengthen and perpetuate the team as a social system.
Management - Chapter 16
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Figure 16.6 Distributed leadership helps
teams meet task and maintenance needs.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Dysfunctional activities that detract from team
effectiveness:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Being aggressive
Blocking
Self-confessing
Seeking sympathy
Competing
Withdrawal
Horsing around
Seeking recognition
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 3: How do teams work?
 Communication networks
– Decentralized
• All members communicate directly with one
another.
– Centralized
• Activities are coordinated and results pooled by
central point of control.
– Restricted
• Polarized subgroups contest one another.
• Subgroups may engage in antagonistic relations.
Management - Chapter 16
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Source: John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., James G. Hunt, and
Richard N. Osborn, Organizational Behavior, 8th ed. (New
York: Wiley, 2003), p. 347. Used by permission.
Figure 16.7 Interaction patterns and
communication networks in teams.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 4: How do teams make
decisions?
 Methods of team decision making:
– Lack of response
– Authority rule
– Minority rule
– Majority rule
– Consensus
– Unanimity
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Study Question 4: How do teams make
decisions?
 Assets of team decision making:
– Greater amounts of information, knowledge,
and expertise.
– Expands number of action alternatives
considered.
– Increases understanding and acceptance.
– Increases commitment to follow through.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 4: How do teams make
decisions?
 Potential disadvantages of team decision
making:
– Social pressure to conform.
– Individual or minority group domination.
– Time requirements.
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Study Question 4: How do teams make
decisions?
 Symptoms of groupthink:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Illusions of group invulnerability.
Rationalizing unpleasant and disconfirming data.
Belief in inherent group morality.
Negative stereotypes of competitors.
Pressure to conform.
Self-censorship of members.
Illusions of unanimity.
Mind guarding.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 4: How do teams make
decisions?
 Methods for dealing with groupthink:
– Have each group member be a critical evaluator.
– Don’t appear to favor one course of action.
– Create subteams to work on the same problems.
– Have team members discuss issues with outsiders.
– Have outside experts observe and provide feedback on
team activities.
– Assign a member to the devil’s advocate role.
– Hold a second-chance meeting.
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Study Question 4: How do teams make
decisions?
 Creativity in team decision making —
guidelines for brainstorming:
– All criticism is ruled out.
– Freewheeling is welcomed.
– Quantity is important.
– Building on one another’s ideas is encouraged.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 4: How do teams make
decisions?
 Creativity in team decision making — steps in the
nominal group technique:
– Participants work alone, identifying possible solutions.
– Ideas are shared in a round-robin fashion without any
criticism or discussion.
– Ideas are discussed and clarified in a round-robin
sequence.
– Members individually and silently follow a written
voting procedure.
– The last two steps are repeated as needed.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 5: What are the challenges of
leading high-performance teams?
 Team building
– A sequence of planned activities used to
gather and analyze data on the
functioning of a team and to implement
constructive changes to increase its
operating effectiveness.
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Study Question 5: What are the challenges of
leading high-performance teams?
 Steps in a cyclical team-building process:
– Step 1 — problem awareness.
– Step 2 — data gathering.
– Step 3 — data analysis and diagnosis.
– Step 4 — action planning.
– Step 5 — action implementation.
– Step 6 — evaluation.
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Figure 16.8 Steps in the team-building process: case of the
hospital top management team.
Management - Chapter 16
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Study Question 5: What are the challenges of
leading high-performance teams?
 Characteristics of high-performing teams:
– A clear and elevating goal.
– A task-driven, results-oriented structure.
– Competent and committed members who work hard.
– A collaborative climate.
– High standards of excellence.
– External support and recognition.
– Strong and principled leadership.
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Study Question 5: What are the challenges of
leading high-performance teams?
 Effective team leaders act to:
– Establish clear vision.
– Create change.
– Unleash talent.
Management - Chapter 16
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