The Light and Enlightenment of Chanukah - shema


The Light and Enlightenment of Chanukah - shema
The Light and Enlightenment of Chanukah
Understanding the Significance of Olive Oil in Greek and Jewish Culture
Maoz Tzur, 5th verse
Greeks gathered against me, in days of the Hasmoneans
They broke down my tower’s walls, and defiled all the oils.
But from the very last flask, a miracle ensued for Your beloved
So the sages of the day fixed these eight for song and praise.
‫מָ עוֹז צּור‬
‫ אֲ זַ י בִ ימֵ י חַ ְשמַ נִים‬,‫יְ וָ נִ ים נ ְִקבְ צּו עָ לַי‬
‫ וְ ִט ְמאּו כָל הַ ְשמָ נִים‬,‫ּופָ ְרצּו חוֹמוֹת ִמגְ ָדלַי‬
‫ ַנעֲשָ ה נֵס לַשוֹשַ נִים‬,‫ּומנוֹתַ ר ַק ְנ ַקנִים‬
.‫ ָקבְ עּו ִשיר ְּור ָננִים‬,‫בְ נֵי בִ ינָה יְ מֵ י ְשמ ֹונָה‬
Oilve Oil in the Temple and for Chanukah
Menorah - Exodus 27:20
Now you shall command the Children of Israel that they
bring you pure olive oil, pressed for illumination, to kindle
each light [of the Menorah] continually.
‫ש ָראֵ ל וְ יִ ְקחּו אֵ לֶּיָך‬
ֹ ְ ִ‫וְ אַ ָתה ְתצַ ּוֶּ ה אֶּ ת בְ נֵי י‬
‫שֶּ מֶּ ן זַ יִ ת זָ ְך כ ִָתית לַמָ אוֹר לְ הַ עֲֹלת נֵר‬
:‫ָת ִמיד‬
Daily Tamid offering – Exodus 29:39-42
(39) One lamb you shall offer in the morning; and the other
lamb you shall offer at evening; (40) And with the one lamb a
10th deal of flour mixed with the 4th part of a hin of beaten
oil; and the 4th part of a hin of wine for a drink offering…
‫ש הָ אֶּ חָ ד ַת ֲע ֶֹּשה בַ ב ֶֹּקר וְ אֵ ת‬
ֹ ֶּ‫לט אֶּ ת הַ כֶּב‬
‫ מ‬:‫ש הַ שֵ נִי ַת ֲע ֶֹּשה בֵ ין הָ עַ ְרבָ יִ ם‬
ֹ ֶּ‫הַ כֶּב‬
‫סלֶּת בָ לּול בְ שֶּ מֶּ ן כ ִָתית ֶּרבַ ע הַ ִהין‬
ֹ ‫וְ עִ שָ רֹן‬
‫ש הָ אֶּ חָ ד‬
ֹ ֶּ‫וְ נֵסֶּ ְך ְרבִ יעִ ת הַ ִהין יָיִ ן ַלכֶּב‬
Five types of voluntary Minchah offerings – Leviticus 2:1-7
And when any will offer a meal offering to the Lord, his
offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it,
and put frankincense on it…
ֹ '‫וְ נֶּפֶּ ש כִ י תַ ְק ִריב ָק ְרבַ ן ִמנְ חָ ה לַה‬
ָ‫יִ ְהיֶּה ָק ְרבָ נ ֹו וְ יָצַ ק עָ לֶּיהָ שֶּ מֶּ ן וְ נָתַ ן עָ לֶּיה‬
:‫לְ ֹבנָה‬
Menorah & Wisdom – Talmud, Bava Batra 25b
R. Yitzchak said: He who desires to become wise should turn to
the south [when praying]… for the Menorah was in the south.
‫ הרוצה שיחכים ־‬:‫אמר רבי יצחק‬
ֹ ‫ ומנורה בדרו‬. . .‫ידרים‬
Commentary of R. Samson Raphael Hirsch on Exodus 25:29
What is the significance of the Menorah? …The lighted Menorah, radiating light, is symbolic of light,
and Light represents knowledge and understanding… spiritual light, enlightenment and insight:
“[God’s word is] a lamp for our feet and light for our path” (Psalms 119:105) ‫נֵר לְ ַרגְ לִ י ְדבָ ֶּרָך וְ אוֹר לִ נ ְִתיבָ ִתי‬
“For the Commands is a lamp, and Teaching is light.”(Proverbs 19:9) etc.
‫כִ י נֵר ִמ ְצוָ ה וְ תו ָֹרה אוֹר‬
Chanukah Lighta – Talmud, Shabbat 23a
R. Yehoshua ben Levi said: All oils are fit for the Hanukkah
lamp, but olive oil is of the best. Abaye observed: Initially,
Master (Rabbah bar Nachmani) would go looking for
sesame oil, saying: The light of this is more lasting; but
when he heard this statement of R. Yehoshua ben Levi, he
went looking for olive oil, saying, This yields a clearer light.
‫ כל השמנים כולן‬:‫אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי‬
‫ אמר‬.‫ ושמן זית מן המובחר‬,‫יפין לנר‬
‫ מריש הוה מהדר מר אמשחא‬:‫אביי‬
.‫ האי משך נהורי טפי‬:‫ אמר‬,‫דשומשמי‬
‫כיון דשמע לה להא דרבי יהושע בן לוי‬
‫ האי צליל‬:‫ אמר‬,‫מהדר אמשחא דזיתא‬
.‫נהוריה טפי‬
© Rabbi Dr Raphael Zarum, London School of Jewish Studies
Twitter: SuperSedra
Olive Oil in Greek Culture
 Olive is the sacred tree of the goddess Athena
 Athens, the capital of Greece, took its name
from the goddess Athena.
 Zeus had decreed that the city should be
given to the god who offered the most useful
gift to the people. Poseidon created a salt
water spring by striking the ground with his
trident. Athena struck the bare soil with her
spear and caused an olive tree to spring up.
The people were so delighted with the olive
that Zeus gave the city to Athena and named
it after her.
 Athena is often shown with an olive branch, a
symbol of peace and plenty
 Athena is goddess of primarily wisdom, but
also of strategic warfare, and much more
 A major coin has Athena’s head with olive
wreath on her helmet, and other side with
owl and olive branch
 The first cultivation of the olive tree
worldwide took place in Greece, and more
specific in Crete. This happened about 3500
BCE, in the Early Minoan times.
 In this period the olive tree was in a wilder
form in comparison to the tree we know
 After 2000 BCE the cultivation of the olive
tree in Crete grew significantly and became
essential to the island’s economy.
 From Crete began the first export of the olive
oil not only in mainland Greece but in
Northern Africa and Asia Minor as well.
 Very soon the cultivation passed to mainland
Greece and the olive tree and its blessed
product, the olive oil became synonyms of
the Greek nutrition through centuries.
 Aristotle (384-322 BCE), in his book The
Athenian Constitution states that the olive
tree was protected by law by the State.
 In the Iliad, Homer tells us that Odysseus and
Diomedes washed away with hot water and
then rubbed their bodies with olive oil.
 When the first Olympic Games took place in
Olympia in 776BCE an olive-tree branch, cut
with a gold-handled knife from a wild olive
tree, was the award to the winners
symbolising Peace, Wisdom and Victory.
 The Greeks believed that the vitality of the
sacred tree was transmitted to the recipient
through the branch.
 Olive groves were considered sacred ground
and only pure men and women were allowed
to cultivate them.
 Later, the prize that the Olympic Champions
were given was a wreath made from an olive
branch, the “kotinos”
 This award lasted over 1000 years until the
ancient Olympic Games came to an end.
 The product itself was also often awarded.
The most impressive example of the value of
the olive oil was its use at the Panathenaic
Games which took place every four years with
the occasion of Athens’ most important
celebration, the Panathenea, in honour of the
goddess Athena. The winners of the athletic
games were given a huge quantity of olive oil,
as much as five tons depending on the sport –
this was enough to make them rich.
Ongoing Importance
 Greece became the world's most important
exporter of qualitative olive oil.
 The love and high esteem of the Greek olivegrower for the tree is passed on from
generation to generation, from family to family.
 With the birth of a child an olive tree is
planted which will grow and develop along
with the child. When the child starts school at
age six, the olive tree is ready to produce its
 The blessed tree grows up with the family,
only it will have a much longer life and will
still be around to be tended by the next
generation, and the one after that. Each year,
it yields its annual crop of olives in return for
the labour and love expended on it.
© Rabbi Dr Raphael Zarum, London School of Jewish Studies
Twitter: SuperSedra
The Greek Influence in Israel
Mishnah – Megillah 1:8
A Sefer Torah may be written in no foreign language other than Greek.
‫בספרים לא התירו שיכתבו אלא יונית‬
The Septuagint (See Talmud, Megillah 9a/b)
 From the Latin word septuaginta (meaning seventy), is a translation of the
Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Koine Greek.
 The title refers to the seventy Jewish scholars who performed the translation
sometime during the 3rd and 2nd century BCE.
“In Greece men not only talked philosophy, they lived it: The sage… was the pinnacle
and ideal of Greek life.” (Will Durant, The Life of Greece)
Persecutions of the Greeks
2 Maccabees 6:1-11
Not long after this the king sent an Athenian senator to force the Jews to
abandon the customs of their ancestors and live no longer by the laws of God;
also to profane the Temple in Jerusalem and dedicate it to Olympian Zeus, and
that on Mount Gerizim to Zeus the Hospitable, as the inhabitants of the place
They also brought into the Temple things that were forbidden, so that the
altar was covered with abominable offerings prohibited by the laws. A man
could not keep the Shabbat or celebrate the traditional feasts, nor even admit
that he was a Jew. At the suggestion of the citizens of Ptolemais, a decree was
issued ordering the neighbouring Greek cities to act in the same way against
the Jews: oblige them to partake of the sacrifices, and put to death those who
would not consent to adopt the customs of the Greeks. It was obvious,
therefore, that disaster impended. Thus, two women who were arrested for
having circumcised their children were publicly paraded about the city with
their babies hanging at their breasts and then thrown down from the top of
the city wall…
Talmud - Shabbat 23a
Women are obligated in the mitzvah of lighting Chanukah lights, for
they too were concerned in that miracle.
‫ שאף‬,‫נשים חייבות בנר חנוכה‬
.‫הן היו באותו הנס‬
.‫ שבת כג‬- ‫רש״י‬
‫היו באותו הנס ־ שגזרו יוונים על כל בתולות הנשואות‬
.‫ ועל יד אשה נעשה הנס‬,‫להיבעל לטפסר תחלה‬
© Rabbi Dr Raphael Zarum, London School of Jewish Studies
Twitter: SuperSedra
Learning from Elishah Ben Avuyah (Acher)
Greek Influence – Talmud, Chagigah 15b
But what of Acher? Greek song never ceased from his mouth.
It is told of Acher that when he used to rise to go from the
Bet HaMidrash, many heretical books used to fall from his
.‫אחר מאי ־ זמר יווני לא פסק מפומיה‬
‫ בשעה שהיה‬,‫אמרו עליו על אחר‬
‫עומד מבית המדרש הרבה ספרי מינין‬
.‫נושרין מחיקו‬
Boundaries – Talmud, Chagigah 15a
Our Rabbis taught: Once Acher was riding on a horse on the
Sabbath, and R. Meir was walking behind him to learn Torah
from his mouth. Said Acher to him: Meir, turn back, for I have
already measured by the paces of my horse that thus far
extends the Sabbath limit (techum). He replied: You, too, go
back! [Acher] answered: Have I not already told you that I
have already heard from behind the Veil, “Return you
backsliding children” (Jeremiah 3:14), except Acher.
‫ מעשה באחר שהיה רוכב על‬:‫תנו רבנן‬
‫ והיה רבי מאיר מהלך‬,‫הסוס בשבת‬
:‫ אמר לו‬.‫אחריו ללמוד תורה מפיו‬
‫ שכבר שיערתי‬,‫ חזור לאחריך‬,‫מאיר‬
‫ אמר‬.‫בעקבי סוסי עד כאן תחום שבת‬
:‫ ־ אמר ליה‬.‫ אף אתה חזור בך‬:‫ליה‬
‫ כבר שמעתי‬:‫ולא כבר אמרתי לך‬
‫מאחורי הפרגוד שובו בנים שובבים ־‬
.‫חוץ מאחר‬
Learning from Acher – Talmud, Chagigah 15b
But how did R. Meir learn Torah at the mouth of Acher? Behold
Rabbah b. Bar Hana said that R. Yochanan said: What is the
meaning of the verse, “For the priest’s lips should keep
knowledge, and they should seek the Law at his mouth; for he
is the messenger of the Lord of hosts?” (Malachi 2:7). This
means that if the teacher is like an angel of the Lord of hosts,
they should seek the Law at his mouth, but if not, they should
not seek the Law at his mouth! —
Resh Lakish answered: R. Meir found a verse and expounded
it [as follows], “Incline thine ear, and hear the words of the
wise, and apply your heart to my knowledge.” (Proverbs 22:17)
It does not say, ‘to their knowledge’, but ‘to my knowledge’.20
R. Chanina said, [he decided it] from here, “Listen, O daughter,
and consider, and incline your ear; forget also your own people,
and your father's house…” (Psalms 45:11). The verses
contradict! There’s no contradiction: one refers to an adult and
the other to a child.
When R. Dimi came [to Babylon] he said: In the West [Israel],
they say: R. Meir ate the date and threw the pit away…
Rabbah ben Shila once met Elijah. He said to him: What is the
Holy One, blessed be God, doing? He answered: God utters
traditions in the name of all the Rabbis, but in the name of R.
Meir he does not utter. Rabbah asked him, Why? — Because
he learnt traditions from the mouth of Acher. Said Rabbah to
him: But why? R. Meir found a pomegranate; he ate the fruit
within it, and the peel he threw away!
‫ורבי מאיר היכי גמר תורה מפומיה‬
‫דאחר? והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר‬
)‫ מאי דכתיב (מלאכי ב׳‬:‫רבי יוחנן‬
‫כי שפתי כהן ישמרו דעת ותורה‬
‫יבקשו מפיהו כי מלאך ה׳ צבאות‬
‫ אם דומה הרב למלאך ה׳‬,‫הוא‬
‫ ואם‬.‫צבאות ־ יבקשו תורה מפיהו‬
ִ‫לאו ־ אל יבקשו תורה מפיהו‬
‫ רבי מאיר קרא‬:‫אמר ריש לקיש‬
‫אשכח ודרש (משלי כ״ב) הט אזנך‬
‫ושמע דברי חכמים ולבך תשית‬
‫ אלא‬,‫ לדעתם לא נאמר‬.‫לדעתי‬
:‫ רב חנינא אמר מהכא‬.‫לדעתי‬
‫(תהלים מה) שמעי בת וראי והטי‬
.‫אזנך ושכחי עמך ובית אביך וגו׳‬
‫ הא ־‬,‫קשו קראי אהדדיִ ־ לא קשיא‬
.‫ הא ־ בקטן‬,‫בגדול‬
‫ אמרי‬,‫כי אתא רב דימי אמר‬
‫ רבי מאיר אכל תחלא‬:‫במערבא‬
.‫ושדא שיחלא לברא‬
,‫אשכחיה רבה בר שילא לאליהו‬
‫ מאי קא עביד הקדוש‬:‫אמר ליה‬
‫ קאמר‬:‫ברוך הוא? אמר ליה‬
,‫שמעתא מפומייהו דכולהו רבנן‬
.‫ומפומיה דרבי מאיר לא קאמר‬
‫ אמאי? ־ משום דקא גמר‬:‫אמר ליה‬
:‫ אמר ליה‬.‫שמעתא מפומיה דאחר‬
‫ תוכו‬,‫אמאי? רבי מאיר רמון מצא‬
ִ ‫ קליפתו‬,‫אכל‬
© Rabbi Dr Raphael Zarum, London School of Jewish Studies
Twitter: SuperSedra
[ctd.] He answered: Now God says: Meir my son says: When a
man suffers, to what expression does the Shechinah give
utterance? ‘My head is heavy, my arm is heavy’. If the Holy
One, blessed be He, is thus grieved over the blood of the
wicked, how much more so over the blood of the righteous
that is shed.
‫ מאיר בני‬:‫ השתא קאמר‬:‫אמר ליה‬
‫ בזמן שאדם מצטער שכינה‬:‫אומר‬
,‫מה לשון אומרת ־ קלני מראשי‬
‫ אם כך הקדוש ברוך‬.‫קלני מזרועי‬
‫הוא מצטער על דמן של רשעים ־ קל‬
.‫וחומר על דמן של צדיקים שנשפך‬
The Two Models of Interaction
 Date skin without the pip – Rambam’s use of Aristotle’s Golden Mean (Hilchot Deot, Ch.1 & 2)
 Pomegranate juice without the husk – R. Joseph Karo on Pythagorus theorem in his Kesef
Mishnah on Kilayim 6:2, see also the relevant Tosafot Yom Tov)
Elisha ben Avuyah, oil and Chanukah
Ethics of the Fathers 4:25-27
25. Elisha the son of Avuyah would say: One who learns Torah
in their childhood, what is this comparable to? To ink inscribed
on fresh paper. One who learns Torah in their old age, what is
this comparable to? To ink inscribed on erased paper.
26. Rabbi Yossi the son of Judah of Kfar HaBavli would say:
One who learns Torah from youngsters, whom is he
comparable to? To one who eats unripe grapes and drinks
[unfermented] wine from the press. One who learns Torah
from the old, whom is he comparable to? To one who eats
ripened grapes and drinks aged wine.
27. Said Rabbi Meir: Look not at the vessel, but at what it
contains. There are new vessels that are filled with old wine,
and old vessels that do not even contain new wine.
Talmud - Shabbat 23a
R. Yehoshua ben Levi said: All oils are fit for the Hanukkah
lamp, but olive oil is of the best. Abaye observed: Initially,
Master (Rabbah bar Nachmani) would go looking for
sesame oil, saying: The light of this is more lasting; but
when he heard this statement of R. Yehoshua ben Levi, he
went looking for olive oil, saying, This yields a clearer light.
R. Yehoshua ben Levi said: All oils are fit for ink, and olive
oil is of the best. The scholars inquired: Best for kneading
[the soot] or for smoking [the glass vessel]? Come and
hear: For R. Shmuel ben Zutra taught: All oils are fit for ink,
but olive oil is of the best, both for kneading and for
‫כז‬-‫כה‬:‫פרקי אבות ד‬
‫ הַ ּלוֹמֵ ד ֶּילֶּד‬,‫אֱ לִ ישָ ע בֶּ ן אֲ בּויָה אוֹמֵ ר‬
‫ לִ ְדי ֹו כְ תּובָ ה עַ ל ְניָר‬,‫לְ מָ ה הּוא דוֹמֶּ ה‬
,‫ וְ הַ ּלוֹמֵ ד זָ ֵקן לְ מָ ה הּוא דוֹמֶּ ה‬.‫חָ ָדש‬
.‫לִ ְדי ֹו כְ תּובָ ה עַ ל נְ יָר מָ חּוק‬
‫הּודה ִאיש כְ פַ ר הַ בַ בְ לִ י‬
ָ ְ‫ַרבִ י יוֹסֵ י בַ ר י‬
‫ הַ ּלוֹמֵ ד ִמן הַ ְקטַ נִים לְ מָ ה הּוא‬,‫אוֹמֵ ר‬
‫ לְ אוֹכֵ ל ֲענָבִ ים ֵקהוֹת וְ שוֹתֶּ ה יַיִ ן‬,‫דוֹמֶּ ה‬
‫ וְ הַ ּלוֹמֵ ד ִמן הַ זְ ֵקנִים לְ מָ ה הּוא‬.‫ִמגִ ת ֹו‬
‫ לְ א ֹוכֵל ֲענָבִ ים בְ שּולוֹת וְ שוֹתֶּ ה‬,‫דוֹמֶּ ה‬
.‫יַיִ ן יָשָ ן‬
‫ ַאל ִת ְס ַת ֵכל‬,‫ַרבִ י מֵ ִאיר אוֹמֵ ר‬
‫ יֵש ַק ְנ ַקן‬.‫ אֶּ ּלָא בַ מֶּ ה ֶּשיֶּש ב ֹו‬,‫נְקן‬
ַ ‫בַ ַק‬
‫ וְ יָשָ ן שֶּ אֲ פִ ּלּו חָ ָדש אֵ ין‬,‫חָ ָדש מָ לֵא י ָָשן‬
:‫ב ֹו‬
‫ כל השמנים כולן‬:‫אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי‬
:‫ אמר אביי‬.‫ ושמן זית מן המובחר‬,‫יפין לנר‬
,‫מריש הוה מהדר מר אמשחא דשומשמי‬
‫ כיון דשמע לה‬.‫ האי משך נהורי טפי‬:‫אמר‬
‫להא דרבי יהושע בן לוי מהדר אמשחא‬
.‫ האי צליל נהוריה טפי‬:‫ אמר‬,‫דזיתא‬
‫ כל השמנים יפין‬:‫ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי‬
:‫ איבעיא להו‬.‫ ושמן זית מן המובחר‬,‫לדיו‬
‫ דתני רב שמואל‬,‫לגבל או לעשן? תא שמע‬
‫ כל השמנים יפין לדיו ושמן זית‬:‫בר זוטרא‬
‫ רב שמואל‬,‫ בין לגבל בין לעשן‬.‫מן המובחר‬
‫ כל העשנים יפין לדיו‬:‫בר זוטרא מתני הכי‬
.‫ושמן זית מן המובחר‬
.‫ שבת כג‬- ‫רש״י‬
.‫ צליל נהוריה ־ צלול ומאיר‬.‫משוך נהוריה ־ אינו ממהר לכלות כשמן זית‬
‫ וגורר השחרורית‬,‫ שמעשנין כלי זכוכית בעשן שמן זית עד שמשחיר‬:‫לגבל ־ מצאתי בתשובות הגאונים‬
.‫ וממחה אותו לתוך הדיו‬,‫ ומגבל בו ומייבשו בחמה‬,‫ונותן בו שמן קימעא‬
© Rabbi Dr Raphael Zarum, London School of Jewish Studies
Twitter: SuperSedra
The Seven Shepherds
Moaz Tzur, 6th verse
O bare Your holy arm and hasten the time of salvation
Take vengeance for your servants upon the wicked nation
For deliverance has too long been delayed;
And the evil days are endless.
O thrust the Red One into the shadows of death,
and set up for us the seven shepherds
,‫חֲ שוֹף זְ רוֹעַ ָק ְד ֶֽׁ ֶּשָך וְ ָק ֵרב ֵקץ הַ יְ שּועָ ה‬
,‫נִקמַ ת ַדם עֲבָ ֶֽׁ ֶּדיָך מֵ אֻ מָ ה הָ ְרשָ עָ ה‬
ְ ‫נְ קֹם‬
,‫ָארכָה ֶֽׁ ָּלנּו הַ יְ שּועָ ה‬
ְ ‫כִ י‬
,‫וְ אֵ ין ֵקץ לִ ימֵ י הָ ָרעָ ה‬
‫ַאדמוֹן בְ צֵ ל צַ לְ מוֹן‬
ְ ‫ְדחֵ ה‬
‫הָ ֵקם ֶֽׁ ָלנּו רוֹעִ ים ִשבְ עָ ה‬
But who were the seven shepherds?
Talmud, Sukkah 52b
Who were the seven shepherds? David in the middle,
Adam, Shet and Metushelach on the right,
Avraham, Ya'akov and Moshe to the left.
Exodus 25
(31) And you shall make a Menorah of pure gold; of
hammered workmanship shall the Menorah be made; its
shaft, and its branches, its bowls, its bulbs, and its flowers,
shall be of the same. (32) And six branches shall come from its
sides; three branches of the Menorah from the one side, and
three branches of the Menorah from the other side… (37) And
you shall make for it seven lamps; and they shall light its
lamps, that they may give light opposite it.
:‫ סוכה נב‬- ‫תלמוד בבלי‬
,‫ױמאן נינהו שבעה רועים? דוד באמצע‬
,‫אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו‬
.‫אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו‬
‫שיתָ ְמנ ַֹרת זָ הָ ב טָ הוֹר ִמ ְקשָ ה‬
ֹ ִ ָ‫לא וְ ע‬
ָ‫ֵתיעָ ֶֹּשה הַ ְמנו ָֹרה יְ ֵרכָּה וְ ָקנָּה גְ בִ יעֶּ יה‬
‫ לב‬:‫כַפְ ת ֶֹּריהָ ּופְ ָרחֶּ יהָ ִממֶּ נָה יִ ְהיּו‬
‫וְ ִששָ ה ָקנִ ים י ְֹצ ִאים ִמ ִצ ֶּדיהָ ְשֹלשָ ה‬
‫ּושֹלשָ ה ְקנֵי‬
ְ ‫ְקנֵי ְמנ ָֹרה ִמ ִצ ָדּה הָ אֶּ חָ ד‬
‫שיתָ אֶּ ת‬
ֹ ִ ָ‫ לז וְ ע‬:‫ְמנ ָֹרה ִמ ִצ ָדּה הַ ֵשנִי‬
ָ‫ֵנרֹתֶּ יהָ ִשבְ עָ ה וְ הֶּ ֱעלָה אֶּ ת ֵנרֹתֶּ יה‬
: ָ‫וְ הֵ ִאיר עַ ל עֵ בֶּ ר פָ נֶּיה‬
:‫ כמין בזיכין שנותנין בתוכן השמן והפתילות‬- ‫(לז) את נרותיה‬
,‫ עשה פי ששת הנרות שבראשי הקנים היוצאים מצדיה‬.‫והאיר על עבר פניה‬
,‫ כדי שיהיו הנרות כשתדליקם מאירים על עבר פניה‬,‫מוסבים כלפי האמצעי‬
:‫מוסב אורם אל צד פני הקנה האמצעי שהוא גוף המנורה‬
© Rabbi Dr Raphael Zarum, London School of Jewish Studies
Twitter: SuperSedra