Name - jennseymour
Unit 5 Study Guide
Directions: Using your notes on water, answer the following questions.
Objective 2.3.2 Water Cycle and River Systems and Groundwater
1. How does the water cycle maintain its balance?
Evaporation = Precipitation
2. Give the name of the water cycle that is being described.
a. water to water vapor evaporation
b. plants giving off water vapor Transpiration
c. water running on the ground runoff
d. water running through the cracks underground infiltration
e. water falling from the sky precipitation
f. water vapor to water condensation
3. In the river system, answer the following questions.
a. What part of the river system would be a good place for farming?
b. Where should you not build your town in case of flooding?
c. Why would people live in the floodplain if they knew it was going to
For access to freshwater, transportation, and farming
d. How do rivers obtain water to keep the system going? (2 ways)
Precipitation and runoff from mountains
4. What river basin is Charlotte located in, and where does it flow to?
Catawba River Basin and it flows to the Atlantic Ocean
5. Draw a basic diagram for groundwater, with the zone of saturation, zone of
aeration, watertable, an aquifer and aquitard are all drawn in the correct places
6. Give three differences between the zone of saturation and the zone of aeration.
Zone of Saturation
Lower in the ground
Pores spaces filled with
Zone of Aeration
Higher in the ground
Pores spaces are mostly
filled with air
7. Flooding Effects Questions
a. What would happen to the watertable line if there were a flood, raise or
lower in the ground? it would rise underground
b. What would happen to the size of the zone of saturation, increase or
c. What process would increase in the rivers, runoff or infiltration? runoff
8. What are 6 characteristics that define each of the river basins in NC?
Geography (what type of Beaches and flat lands Mountains
Biodiversity (types of
Palm trees, marine life, Bears, bobcats, pine
animals and plants)
birds, many reptiles
Warmer temperatures Cooler temperatures
and rainy precipitation and snowier
Wetlands (is there any?) Tons
High levels of
Low levels of
Populations (amount of
Higher density of
Lower density of
9. Define impermeable Pore space are unconnected and do not allow water to
10. Define permeable Pores spaces are connected and allow water to flow freely
11. Draw in the boxes one sample of rocks that have high porosity and one sample of
rocks that have a low porosity
Objective 2.4.1 Human Influence on Freshwater
12. a. Name the top 4 things that humans use water for all over the world.
b. Name the top 4 things that you use your water in your homes for.
Cleaning (dishes, clothes, house)
Consumption (cooking, drinking)
13. Draw a diagram showing a successful well (well A) and an unsuccessful well
(well B), the houses they belong to (house A and house B), and the line that they
must reach in order for the successful well to be successful and the unsuccessful
well to be unsuccessful.
14. a. What will be created when three or more houses are drawing a lot of
groundwater from their wells?
Cone of Depression
b. What will happen to the wells of those in the middle of the cone of depression?
They will lose access to freshwater
c. Which wells will generally pull the cleanest water?
The deepest wells
d. How can you make an unsuccessful well, successful?
Dig it deeper
15. How does water and pollution travel underground?
By infiltration with the freshwater in the zone of saturation
16. Fill in the chart using your notes on Groundwater Pollution
How does this affect the water that
When too much water is
There is a loss of water available
drawn from the ground,
to the wells in that area
forming a cone of
A natural element that
It can lead to poisonous conditions
comes from igneous and
Unique ecosystems are
biodiversity for the area
Loss of a filter of pollution and the
loss of biodiversity that could have
led to new resources
Overflow of water from
Debris and pollution that is along
the riverbanks is picked up and
When a dam is no longer
needed, it is removed and
the natural flow of water
returns on the river
When groundwater is
removed, caverns and
collapse into sinkholes
Salt Water Intrusion Wells near the coast will
draw salt water into the
Any sediments and pollution from
behind the dam is sent
Broken water and sewer pipes are
Broken when the sinkhole occurs,
polluting groundwater sources
The well is polluted with
undrinkable water and has to be
redrilled somewhere else
17. If we were to increase the amount of humans on this Earth, how would the
amount of water change for the following service? (would we need more or less
a. Amount of water needed for agriculture More water needed
b. Amount of water needed for cleaning (ourselves and our materials)
More water needed
c. Amount of water that is available for everyone Less water available
Objective 2.4.2 Water Quality
18. What would happen to the levels of biodiversity in a wetland or an estuary that
19. Do waste treatment plants help or hurt the quality of water that humans use in
their homes? helps the water quality
20. Where will the quality of water be better, near the source of the pollution or the
parts of the river that are downstream from the source?
near the source of the river
21. Which actually produces cleaner water, water from a well or water from a waste
treatment plant? water from a well
22. Where will most of the arsenic in groundwater come from, humans or the rocks of
the Earth? rocks of the Earth
23. What is most pollution in the groundwater, nonpoint pollution or point source
pollution? nonpoint source pollution
24. What will happen to the freshwater in a well near a coastal region, decrease or
increase the amount of salt water? increase in salt water
25. Where will there be cleaner water, near the cities or in more rural areas?
more rural areas
26. Which is easier to do, clean pollution near the source of it or clean up the
pollution that is spread? clean pollution near the source
27. When would the water be cleaner to drink, when there is more or less sediments
in the water? less sediments
Objective 2.3.1 Oceans
28. Define upwelling Cold water rising to replace warmer surface water
a. Why is upwelling a good thing?
It brings nutrients to the surface to feed fish and plants
29. Why are cold currents and warm currents the temperatures that they are?
It is all about the amount of solar radiation that the water receives
a. Where are they picking up their characteristics?
The locations that they flow through
30. What happens to density of salt water as you increase your depth in the water?
31. What happens to temperature of salt water as you increase your depth in the
32. Color the warm currents and cold currents on the map.
33. Why do the waters in the Arctic Ocean stay constantly cold, unlike the water near
the equator which has the thermocline?
They are not receiving a high angle or amount of solar radiation
34. What is the difference between a current and a gyre?
A current is a smaller amount of circulating surface water, whereas a gyre is a
larger amount of ocean water that circulates the surface water
a. Which is going to move more water in it? Gyre
b. Which one is more responsible for ocean traveling? Current
35. What direction will the Coriolis Effect cause ocean currents to spin in the
a. In the Southern Hemisphere? Counterclockwise
b. What is causing this spin? The rotation of the Earth