Teaching Eye Contact: Using a Social

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Teaching Eye Contact: Using a Social
Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
Teaching Eye Contact & Gesture
Using a Social-Communicative
Approach
NCSHLA Convention
Raleigh, NV
Thursday March 30th 2017
2:00-3:30pm
Session 13
Joselynne Jaques
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Disclosures
Joselynne Jaques is the owner and head
speech-language pathologist of HOPE
Therapies, an in-home and in- school based
therapy company based in Irvine, CA. She is
paid to provide workshops and certification
programs on the spark* (Self-Regulation
Program for Awareness and Resilience for all
Kids) program.
No non-financial relationship exists.
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Overview of seminar
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Reason for investigating eye contact
Typical eye contact use in adults
Typical eye contact development
Eye contact in individuals with autism
Approaches to teaching eye contact &
outcome
6. A social-communicative approach to
teaching eye contact - what is it,
considerations & why use it?
7. Summary & questions
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
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Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
Learning Outcomes
Leave with the tools to:
1. Identify 5 main functions of eye contact
2. Describe 2 main reasons why eye contact is
difficult for people with autism
3. Identify three key factors for determining
what function to work on and how
4. Improve eye contact using at least 3 socialcommunicative strategies for teaching eye
contact
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
4
Why look at eye contact?
• Moved from Canada in 2003
• Individuals with autism taught
communication using interaction and play
• Never had seen a child being taught eye
contact by being told "look at me" or by
holding a reinforcing object up until the
child looked
• Dr. Heather MacKenzie, mentor & I began
investigating eye contact
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
What is Eye Contact?
• Form of nonverbal communication - looking
into/in direction of another person's eyes
• Following an invisible line running from the
other person's eyes towards you
• Cone of gaze
• range of gaze directions that give
perception of "looking at" another person
• centered around the bridge of the nose &
near the pupil of the eyes
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
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Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
Typical Adult Eye Contact
• Neurotypical adults spend up to 61% gazing
at that other person in conversation
• Listeners make more eye contact than
speakers
• Each gaze lasts about three seconds
• Two people look at each other
• for less than a second
• occur, on average, 31% of time during
interaction
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Eye Contact Uses
Way to transmit important information to each
other during communication/social
interactions
Five main functions
1) Providing and gaining information
2) Regulating interactions
3) Expressing emotion
4) Exercising self-control
5) Facilitating goals
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
8
1) Providing & Gaining
Information
• Eye contact used to make inferences about others'
cognitive activity, focus of attention, whether
they’re interested and attentive & what they may
already know about the topic
• May trigger theory-of-mind calculations,
supporting inferences about others' interests &
intentions
• A lot of eye contact = perceived to be intimate,
attentive, competent & powerful
• Too little, too much, or context-inappropriate eye
contact can induce anxiety in others
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
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Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
2) Regulating Interactions
• Eye contact helps organize and regulate
turn-taking
• Most eye contact at end of speaker turn –
passing conversational ‘baton’
• Least eye contact at start of speaker turn
• If listener doesn’t make some eye contact or
seems distracted, speaker may have
problems finishing thoughts
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
3) Expressing Emotion
Many emotions conveyed with eye contact
Prolonged eye contact = flirting or romantic
attraction, general interest/closeness,
creepiness among strangers
Avoiding eye contact = indifference,
evasiveness, coldness, submissiveness,
defensiveness, embarrassment, sadness,
disinterest or disgust
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
4) Exercising Self-Control
Direct, fixed eye contact = sign of hostility,
aggression or anger, deception, threat
Increased contact = trying to be persuasive or
ingratiating
Avoiding eye contact = perceived to be
indifferent, evasive, cold, submissive,
defensive, embarrassed, sad, disinterested or
disgusted
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
4
Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
5) Facilitating Goals
Eye contact can be useful in helping gain
information or assistance
For example, how you get the attention of a
store clerk, waiter or teacher - you try to
'catch their eye' in order to get what you
need
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Typical Eye Contact
Development
Age
Development
From birth
Prefer human faces and direct eye contact
7-11 weeks
Scan the faces of others intently
4 months
Look longer & smile when someone makes direct eye
contact versus slight gaze aversion
3 years
Able to indicate when someone making eye contact versus
looking away - skill not fully learned until age 11
Preschoolers
Look longer at adults than older children when interacting
5-10 year olds
Less eye contact than preschoolers especially in social
child-child interaction but increases when listening by age
10; girls generally use more eye contact than boys
Age 11
Eye contact matches five functions of typical adults
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Eye Contact & Individuals
with Autism
Inconsistent or lack of eye contact is one of earliest
indicators of autism in children
Four reasons have been hypothesized:
1) Lack of Interest - people with autism are not
interested in other people
2) Don't see function - do not see that other people's
eyes & faces are a source of information
3) Processing load – speaking is demanding from a
processing point of view
4) Sensory overload - looking at person’s face and
eyes is over-stimulating and results in increased
autonomic nervous system activation
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
5
Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
Eye Contact &
Individuals with Autism
• Some concluded observing human eyes is first
step to becoming verbal, providing linguistically
supportive social relationships
• Longitudinal studies found positive correlations
between joint attention in parent-child
interactions & vocabulary development
• But joint attentional skills reach a ceiling by two years
of age &, thereby, lose their predictive ability
• Suggested that poor eye contact may impact
vocabulary growth & language development in
general
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Eye Contact & Autism
• Some believe poor eye contact adversely
affects educational gains
• Causal relationship between eye contact & learning
criticized - Akhtar & Gernsbacher (2007) concluded
that joint attention & eye contact weren't
necessary/sufficient for word learning based on
typically developing children, autism, Williams &
Down syndrome
• Children learn words without being engaged in
direct eye contact & joint attention (e.g. children
with visual impairments)
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Eye Contact & Autism
YET
• Eye contact may help children with autism
develop social, cognitive and affective
processes that guide interactions with others
• Children's eye contact may contribute to
the development of social cognition by
helping them develop theory of mind
• Eye contact & information derived from
making eye contact helps interpret the
actions & intentions of others
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
6
Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
Interventions to Date
• Behaviorists approach
• eye contact is foundational to verbal
development and further learning
• 1960s & 1970s : eye contact as a
conditioned reinforcement to observing
faces – poor generalization, functionality
questioned
• 1980s onward: eye contact in social
interactive activities (peer training, role
playing)- continued prompt
dependence, modest gains
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
So what now?
Recommend an approach that is:
1) Developmentally appropriate
2) Culturally grounded
3) Respectful of the individual with autism's
experiences, strengths and needs
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Ask Yourself
Do we want to make the person with autism more
uncomfortable and less able to express his
thoughts and ideas clearly or do we want him to
make eye contact?
We have to help him find some middle ground
where he
• can make necessary & sufficient eye contact
• can continue to process information without
sensory over-stimulation
• is not dismissed by others as 'odd' or 'weird'
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
7
Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
Social-Communicative
Goals
Teach eye contact so they can use it to:
* see if the other person is listening
* see if the other person is understanding what
you're saying
* let another person know you're interested in
what they're saying
* let the other person know when to speak
* let another person know you like them
* let another person know you're angry
* convince someone or get help or attention
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
How to teach eye
contact?
You give student a natural reason to look
1) move into student’s line of vision
2) increase vocal animation
3) pause for long period of time
4) increase overall body animation
5) use gestures
6) give deictic directions (require listener to look to
understand "point the pen over there")
BUT continue interaction, increase prompting if no
response in five to ten seconds
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Teaching Eye Contact
For individuals with comprehension skills to
understand with visual support, explaining
these reasons why one makes eye contact
can be helpful
Work on striking a balance between
preventing overload while helping them gain
needed information
Examples
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
8
Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
Body Self-regulation
• Low/inconsistent eye contact often equals
low body self-regulation - the ability to
modulate ones hands, voice volume, feet,
breathing & whole body at the appropriate
speed/volume/calmness to the situation
• Body self-regulation can be addressed
through programs that involve copying
others movements which improves eye
contact
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Review
•
•
•
•
Eye contact is a social tool, not a learned
behavior
Examining the development of eye contact &
normal functions of adult eye contact provides
benchmarks for intervention
Must be sensitive to the reasons why someone
with autism may not make consistent eye
contact
Using natural opportunities to develop eye
contact helps individuals with autism
understand the social reasons for eye contact
26
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
References
Argyle, M., & Cook, M. (1976). Gaze and mutual gaze. Cambridge, England:
Cambridge University Press.
Arnold, A., Semple, R. J., Beale, I., & Fletcher-Flinn, C. M. (2000). Eye contact in
children’s social interactions: What is normal behavior? Journal of Intellectual &
Developmental Disability, 25, 207–216.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). The eye direction detector (EDD) and the shared attention
mechanism (SAM): Two cases for evolutionary psychology. In C. Moore & P. J.
Dunham (Eds.), Joint attention: Its origins and role in development (pp. 41–59).
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Carbone, V., & O’Brien, L. (2013). Teaching Eye Contact to Children with Autism: A
Conceptual Analysis and Single Case Study. Treatment of Children, 36, 139–
159.
Carpenter, M., Katherine Nagell, and Michael Tomasello. 1998. Social cognition,
joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age.
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 63.176.
Greer, R. D., & Ross, D. E. (2008). Verbal behavior analysis: Inducing and expanding
complex communication in children severe language delays. Boston: Allyn &
Bacon.
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
9
Teaching Eye Contact:
Using a Social-Communicative Approach
NCSHLA 2017 Conference
Presented by: Joselynne Jaques
More References
Helgeson, D. C., Fantuzzo, J. W., Smith, C., & Barr, D. (1989). Eye contact skill
training for adolescents with developmental disabilities and severe behavior
problems. Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 24, 56–62
Kleinke, C.L. (1986). Gaze and eye contact: A research review. Psychological
Review, 100, 78–100.
Kylliainen, A, Hietanen JK (2004). Attention orienting by another's gaze direction in
children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 435–444.
Markus, Jessica, Peter Mundy, Michael Morales, Christine E. F. Delgado, and
Marygrace Yale. 2000. Individual differences in infant skills as predictors of
child-caregiver joint attention and language. Social Development 9.302–15
McDuffie, A., Yoder, P., & Stone, W. (2005). Prelinguistic predictors of vocabulary in
young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Speech, Language,
and Hearing Research, 48, 1080–1097.
Mirenda, P., Donnellan, A., & Yoder, D. (1983). Gaze behavior: A new look at an
old problem. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 397– 409.
Morales, Michael, Peter Mundy, Christine E. F. Delgado, Marygrace Yale, Daniel S.
Messinger, Rebecca Neal, and Heidi K. Schwartz. 2000. Responding to joint
attention across the 6- to 24-month age period and early language acquisition.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 21.283–98.
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
More References
Salley, B. J., & Dixon, W. E., Jr. (2007). Temperament and joint attentional predictors
of language development. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53, 131–154.
Tiegerman, E., & Primavera, L. H. (1984). Imitating the autistic child: Facilitating
communicative gaze behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental
Disorders, 14, 27–38.
Tomasello, Michael. 1995. Joint attention as social cognition. Joint Attention: Its
Origins and Role in Development, ed. by Chris Moore and Philip J. Dunham,
103–130. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Watson, L., Baranek, G., Roberts, J., David, F., & Perryman, T. (2010). Behavioral and
physiological responses to child-directed speech as predictors of
communication outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal
of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53,1052–1064.
Whalen, C., & Schreibman, L. (2003). Joint attention training for children with
autism using behavior modification procedures. Journal of Child Psychology
and Psychiatry, 44, 456–468.
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Questions?
Contact: Joselynne Jaques
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.hope-therapies.com
© J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
@ J.Y. Jaques & E.H. MacKenzie, 2017
Thursday March 30, 2017
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