Advanced Binary
Photronics’ Advanced Binary product family includes both e-beam and
laser-based processes that deliver superior critical dimension uniformity
for higher yielding and better performing devices. In applications where
sub-wavelength printing using traditional chrome on quartz reticle is
required, reticles manufactured using Photronics advanced binary
processes are employed to minimize the effects of non-linear pattern
transfer (or mask error enhancement factor) from the reticle to the wafer.
The Advanced Binary product family currently includes NanoRange, our
our revolutionary laser-based dry-etch process for reticles and the
the electron-beam based UltraRes process for applications where
resolution and pattern hold high priority.
The Photronics NanoRange process
was developed by coupling exhaustive
research on uniformity error sources and
techniques for error reduction, with the
inherent throughput advantages of the
ALTA 3500 laser tool. Knowledge gained
from investigations into substrate materials,
photo-resists, spin spray develop techniques, dry etching, metrology and laser tool
optimization have been incorporated into a
process that improves CD uniformity by
over 30% while helping meet the advanced
reticle cycle time needs of our customers.
A critical process step is the use of laser-based
chrome dry etching to achieve sub-25nm
uniformity across dual axis and multiple
pitch condition. Using the NanoRange
process, we can achieve greater than needed
resolution to address 180nm node poly layer
requirements. The process can also handle
X only, single feature
X and Y single feature
X and Y, dense & iso
X and Y through pitch
X only, single feature,
full field (110 x 110mm)
X+Y, single feature, full field
X+Y, iso+dense, full field
X+Y, through pitch (0-50% die area)
X+Y, through pitch (50-75% die area)
X+Y, through pitch full field
mild to moderate OPC approaches
with a throughput that is much more
cost-effective than raster to vector
e-beam solutions.
NanoRange Critical
Dimension Specifications
Minimum image size (inspectable)
Minimum OPC feature size
-Edge jog
-Opaque serif
-Clear serif
-Opaque scatter bar
-Clear scatter bar
Line linearity (0.7µm to 2µm, clear or dark)
The NanoRange process is designed
specifically for 6” X 6” X .250” 4X and 5X
reticle applications. Achievable CD uniformity (expressed as range) varies with field
UltraRes Family
Photronics’ UltraRes process is used in cases where customers have
employed specific high-resolution image enhancement strategies
that require higher image fidelity than is achievable using laser-based
writing approaches. UltraRes process is typically employed in cases
where contact holes with high fidelity and minimal corner rounding
are desired or when complex OPC is employed and subsequent
inspections are rendered difficult. Most commonly employed at the
180nm node, isolated feature resolution below 150nm with <50nm
OPC jogs is possible.
The UltraRes process is available on a variety of e-beam platforms
(ETEC MEBES 4000 and 5000 series, Hitachi HL 800 and 950,
Toshiba EBM 3500 and Leica ZBA 320) and at a variety of beam
size and pitch conditions, though for most
applications sub-25nm ranges are routinely
Target features
Technology node
CD targeting
Reticle field size
CD uniformity (range)
Contact holes/OPC features
180nm and lower
<±30nm (mean to target)
<110mm X 110mm
<35nm dual axis dense and isolated
energies (10keV [MEBES], 20keV [Leica] and 50keV [Hitachi and
Toshiba]). For older technologies, the writing strategy is executed
with a ZEP 7000 resist using a multi-pass gray scaling technique to
offset the high exposure dose associated with the ZEP 7000 resist.
As in the NanoRange process, dry etching is also used to achieve
tightly controlled critical dimension ranges of less than 35nm. For
newer technologies, the ZEP 7000 resist is altered to a chemically
amplified resist (CAR) process.
Mature Technologies
Photronics strongly supports a wide range of mature technology solutions down to 0.18µm wafer
printing, for a wide variety of mask and reticle applications. These technologies continue in
volume production and Photronics has built industry leading services strategies to help customers
maximize returns while extending their use of these systems.
Reduction Reticles
Photronics has made unparalleled investments
in a variety of advanced e-beam and laser
lithography systems, defect inspection and
repair systems, and metrology and cleaning
systems to image and qualify reticles for
customer use on advanced DUV and I-line
wafer steppers and scanners. All industrystandard lithographic platforms are supported,
UT1X reticles
CD tolerance
± 0.05µm
CD range
including: ASML, Canon, Nikon and SVGL,
with magnifications of 4X and 5X being most
common. Photronics has demonstrated competence on large volumes of reticles with 2X, 2.5X
and 10X magnifications. Reticles for G-line,
I-line and other mature technology applications
are manufactured using industry-standard
legacy lithography and inspection systems.
CD tolerance
± 0.04µm
Pattern placement to
reference grid
± 0.05µm
CD range
Glass sizes/type
5 x 5 x .090 quartz
Defect criteria
0 > 0.25µm
6 x 6 x .120 quartz
6 x 6 x .250 quartz
Ultratech 1X Reticles
Defect criteria
0 > 0.50µm
Photronics maintains a close working relationship
with Ultratech Stepper that allows for valueadded collaboration on customer-specific application issues. Photronics supports all Ultratech
1X models in all of the regional markets we
Pattern placement to
reference grid
± 0.15µm
Glass sizes/type
5 x 5 x .090 quartz or
cut to 3 x 5
serve. Our manufacturing sites have wide-ranging experience in supporting 3 X 5, 5 X 5 and
6 X 6 reticles for integrated circuit, thin film
head, advanced packaging and micro-machining
6 x 6 x .250 quartz
1X Photomasks
Photronics also services the mature photomask
market by providing 1:1 photomasks. These
masks are either direct-written on our e-beam
or laser systems or are manufactured from
reticles using photorepeaters. Photronics offers
a wide variety of 1X photomask manufacturing
approaches to meet all of the technology,
delivery and cost needs of every customer.
Contact prints (copies) from master masks are
also available.
Available sizes
4”, 5", 6", 7" square,
7.25" dia
Available substrates
Typical registration
(Varies by size and substrate)
4" Quartz
Soda lime
± 0.15µm
± 0.50µm
5" Quartz
Soda lime
± 0.20µm
± 0.60µm
6" Quartz
Soda lime
± 0.25µm
± 0.75µm
7" Quartz
Soda lime
± 0.35µm
± 1.00µm
Quartz, Soda lime
Typical CD tolerance
Masters± 0.15µm
Copies± 0.30µm
Typical defect criteria
Masters ≤ = [email protected]µm
Copies ≤ = [email protected]µm
4" Soda lime
± 0.75µm
5" Soda lime
± 1.00µm
6" Soda lime
± 1.50µm
7" Soda lime
± 2.00µm
* Available specifications vary by manufacturing location. Tighter specifications and/or other sizes are available upon request. Contact your Photronics sales representative for more
information on a solution to meet your needs.
Photronics, Inc. • T: 203-775-9000 • F: 203-775-5601 • Email: [email protected] • Web:
© 2005 All Rights Reserved. CyberMask, Sub-Wavelength Reticle Solutions, SRS, and MaskTrac are trademarks of Photronics, Inc.
All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective companies.

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