Unite d`Habitation

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Unite d`Habitation
Design Theory – 6
Housing
Semester – 6
Meghna S.
Social issues in Housing
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Security & safety
Affordability
Mobility (financial)
Conflicts
Inequality
Ownership issues – property rights
Design issues in Housing
• Services
• Infrastructure & Amenities
• Increments in houses with growth or
change in family
• Environmental issues
• Building material and technology
• Maintenance
Group housing
• “Group Housing” means a building unit constructed or to
be constructed with one or more floors having more than
two dwelling units having common service facilities.
(as per Govt of India)
• Group housing: Housing structures designed to meet the
special needs (such as housing, health, and
socialization) of certain segments of the population, such
as youth, the elderly, or the developmentally disabled.
Group housing refers to the following types of structures:
family care facilities, group care facilities (category I and
category II), care units, and nursing homes.
Chawls of Mumbai
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Chawls are often 4 to 5 stories with about
10 to 20 units, which literally mean 'rooms'
on each floor.
Examples of industrial housing
A usual tenement in a chawl consists of
one all purpose room, that functions both
as a living and sleeping space, and a
kitchen that also serves as a dining room.
A frequent practice is for the kitchen to
also serve as a bedroom for a newly
married couple, to give them some degree
of privacy.
Families on a floor have to share a
common block of latrines, each block
containing typically 4 to 5 latrines.
People living in a chawl have little privacy.
Chicago School
• Chicago's architecture is also known as Commercial
style.
• Commercial Style" to describe the innovative tall
buildings of the era rather than proposing any sort of
unified "school".
• Promotion of the new technologies of steel-frame
construction in commercial buildings, and developed a
spatial aesthetic which co-evolved with, and then came
to influence, parallel developments in European
Modernism.
• A "Second Chicago School" later emerged in the 1940s
and 1970s which pioneered new building technologies
and structural systems such as the tube-frame structure.
Chicago school
• Some of the distinguishing features
of the Chicago School are the use
of steel-frame buildings with
masonry cladding (usually terra
cotta), allowing large plate-glass
window areas and limiting the
amount of exterior ornamentation.
• Sometimes elements
of neoclassical architecture are
used in Chicago
School skyscrapers.
• Many Chicago School skyscrapers
contain the three parts of a
classical column.
Louis Sullivan's
• FLW’s prairie style of architecture Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co. Building
Unite d'Habitation
• The Unité d'Habitation is a modern housing
design principle developed by Le Corbusier, with
the collaboration of painter-architect Nadir
Afonso.
• The concept formed the basis of several housing
developments designed by him throughout
Europe with this name.
• The most famous of these developments is
located in Marseille
Unite d'Habitation
• Le Corbusier focused on “communal living for all
the inhabitants to shop, play, live, and come
together in a “vertical garden city.”
• a neighborhood within a mixed use, modernist,
residential high rise
• Le Corbusier’s idea of the “vertical garden city”
was based on bringing the villa within a larger
volume that allowed for the inhabitants to have
their own private spaces
• “City within a city” that is spatially, as well as,
functionally optimized for the residents
Unite d'Habitation
• Le Corbusier incorporated his five
points :
– Pilotis (For example, the buildings
large volume is supported on
massive pilotis that allow for
circulation, gardens, and gathering
spaces below the building)
– Roof garden/terrace creates the
largest communal space within the
entire building
– incorporated patio into the façade
system minimizes the perception of
the buildings height, as to create an
abstract ribbon window that
emphasizes the horizontality of
such a large building.
– Beton brut – Brutalist style
– Modular proportion establishment
Assignments
– Housing by Charles Correa (Vashi,
Belapur)
– Housing by B. V. Doshi
– Housing by Louis Kahn in Ahmedabad
Housing in India
• Gated community : any type of neighborhood that has controlled
access, either for its residents or for certain group
• Advantages:
- Safety
- Economic Impact
- Same architecture language – controlled development
• Disadvantages:
- Exclusion / Isolation : poor social impact on society
- Monotony
• Examples: Lavasa city, any commercial scheme in today’s context
etc
Housing in India
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Core city: organically developed city from a small settlement. Have its own
pace of development – generally natural, significant CBD, market areas,
neighborhoods created on the basis of caste, religion, economy or any other
socio-economic factor
no controlled access to any areas
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Advantages:
Safety due to strong neighbourhoods
More sustainable model
Variety and enrichment
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Disadvantages:
Conflicts
Cities within a city due to different development of different timings
Any old city of India – old Delhi, Ahmedabad, patan etc

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