Pre-Adolescent Strength Training, Myths and Truths

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Pre-Adolescent Strength Training, Myths and Truths
Pre-Adolescent Strength
Training, Myths and Truths
Gregory B. Biren, PhD, RCEP, CSCS
Health and Exercise Science
Rowan University
[email protected]
http://users.rowan.edu/~biren/
Objectives of Session
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Discuss why resistance training can be a vital component
to health and performance in the pre-adolescent
Discuss safety of resistance training in this population
Review guidelines for resistance training in preadolescent
Understand training “inside out” vs “outside in”
Discuss program development
Hands on demonstration of resistance training exercises
Defining Resistance Training
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Appling “resistance” to movement for purpose of ⇑:
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endurance
strength
power
speed
proprioception
Resistance can be in form of:
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free weights
machines
tubing
medicine balls
body weight
water resistance
Why Involve the
Pre-adolescent in Resistance Training?
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Popularity & Competitiveness of Youth Sports
– enhanced performance in sports
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Lowering Risk of Injuries Associated with Overuse
Alternate route for Attaining Higher Levels of
Fitness & Health
*Education of the Value of Resistance Training
allows Young Athletes to Prepare for Future
Athletic Involvement
Health Benefits of Resistance
Training in Pre-Adolescent
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⇑ muscle endurance & strength
– health related components of fitness
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Effective in influencing body composition
– health related component of fitness
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⇑ bone density
– pre-adolescent years significantly influence
body density later in life
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Psycho-social well being
Concerns of Resistance
Training in Pre-Adolescent
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In past resistance training thought to be a high risk activity
for injury
Reports of sprains, strains, lumbo-sacral injuries, epiphyseal
fractures
– any physical activity is associated with potential injuries
„ most sports & typical pre-adolescent activities place far >
stresses than properly performed resistance training
„ Proper programs can ⇓ risk of injuries
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Most injuries reported associated with resistance training
are due to:
– lack of knowledge of proper training techniques
– excessive loading
– lack of supervision
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Pre-adolescence is ideal time to educate youth on proper
lifting techniques
Are Resistance Training
Exercises Safe for Youth?
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Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity
and Health
– ≥6 yrs. participate in activities that enhance muscle
strength/endurance
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Academy of Pediatrics
American College of Sports Medicine
National Strength and Conditioning Association
National Strength and
Conditioning Association
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A properly designed and supervised resistance
training program is safe for children
– can increase strength of children
– enhance motor fitness skills and sports performance
– prevent injuries in youth sports and recreational
activities
– improve the psychosocial well-being of children
– enhance the overall health of children
Do Children Have the Ability to
Achieves Gains Similar to Adults?
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Children as young as 6 have benefited from resistance
training
Strength gains up to 74% following 8 weeks of
progressive resistance exercises (PRE’s)
– 30-50% are typical gains
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No difference b/t males & females in relative strength
gains in pre-pubescent
Strength gains:
– Neural adaptations – motor unit activation, recruitment of FT
fibers, and firing rates: motor skill performance play a role
– Muscular hypertrophy - pre-adolescents have lower testosterone
– Pre-adolescent strength gains come more from neural adapations
Injury Prevention with Resistance
Training in Pre-adolescents?
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Research supports idea of injury prevention in adolescents
– research in pre-adolescent injury prevention is less abundant
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Identify typical areas of injury
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Rotator cuff muscles
Elbow joint ligaments
Lumbar strains
Knee ligaments
Resistance training strengthens not only the muscles but
connective tissue & bone as well
Trains muscles eccentrically
Corrects muscle imbalances
Guidelines to Establish for Resistance
Training In Pre-Adolescent
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Mandatory adult supervision
– knowledgeable in proper lifting mechanics
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Appropriate maturity of pre-adolescent
Focus should always be on technique rather than
competition
– pre-adolescent should be educated on why each exercise is valuable
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Activities should be as social as possible
– pre-adolescent should have FUN with activities (promote lifelong
involvement)
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Exercise environment should be inspected
Proper warm including range of motion exercises
Proper spotter when needed
Frequency of 1-2 sessions per week, intensity which allows
∼15 reps of 2-3 sets per body part
Demonstration of Exercises
Training from the “Inside Out”
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“Core”
– Abdominals (rectus abdominus, obliques,
transverse abdominus, etc.)
– Erector spinae group
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Shoulder Girdle
Rotator Cuff
Hip flexors, extensors, ab/adductors
Progression of Abdominal Exercises
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Pelvic tilt
Pelvic tilt with crunch
Pelvic tilt with single
hip flexion/extension
Pelvic tilt with double
hip flexion/extension
Core Exercises for
Trunk Flexors
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Abdominal Flexion with Rotation
Lateral Flexion
Full Sit Ups**
Slant Board Exercises
Stability Ball Exercises
Medicine Ball Exercises
Core Exercises for
Trunk Extensors
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Prone Back Extension (arms to side)
Back Extension with Opposite Arm and Leg
Superman Exercises
Slant Board Exercises
Medicine Ball Exercises
Shoulder Girdle
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Functions:
– designed for ↑ mobility (reaching & throwing)
– designed to provide a BASE for upper extremity
movements
*Weakness in girdle predisposes to shoulder joint
injuries
– especially injuries associated with throwing or
striking
Few athletes focus on exercising these areas
Shoulder Girdle Exercises
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Scapular Retraction
“Setting the Scapula”
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reverse flys
“Y” retraction
“I” retraction
“M” retraction
Prone Press Ups
Vertical Press Ups
Medicine Ball Exercises
Rotator Cuff
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Muscles provide a large stabilizing component
to the Gleno-Humeral joint
Must create a depressive forces: help prevent
impingement
Cause internal and external rotation of the
Gleno-humeral joint
Rotator Cuff Exercises
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Internal and External Rotation with:
– Elastic tubing
– Free weights
– Manual resistance
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Modified Empty Can Exercises
(supraspinatus)
Hip Exercises
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Manual, elastic tubing, Plyometric exercises
for:
– Hip Flexion
– Hip Extension
– Abduction/Adduction
Comments and Questions???
Thank You For Your Time
Gregory B. Biren, PhD, RCEP, CSCS
Health and Exercise Science
Rowan University
[email protected]
http://users.rowan.edu/~biren/

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