Intraoperative Duplex Scanning for Carotid Endarterectomy

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Intraoperative Duplex Scanning for Carotid Endarterectomy
Eur J VascEndovasc Surg 16, 153-158 (1998)
Intraoperative Duplex Scanning for Carotid Endarterectomy
O. K. Steinmetz ~, K. MacKenzie, P. Nault, F. Singher and J. Dumaine
The Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Objectives: To evaluate the results of intraoperative duplex scans during carotid endarterectomy.
Design: Retrospective case review.
Materials: One-hundred consecutive intraoperative carotid duplex scans performed during carotid endarterectomy
between July 1993 and December 1995 at a university teaching hospital.
Methods: Abnormalities of the B-mode image and~or the Doppler flow analysis were classified. The results of intraoperative
carotid duplex scans (ICDS) were related to the events of the intraoperative course, perioperative neurologic morbidity
and mortality, and to residual carotid stenosis.
Results: Abnormalities of the ICDS were demonstrated in 13 cases (13%). Abnormalities were classified into four types:
L internal carotid artery spasm (n=9); II, high distal resistance flow (n=2); III, high grade residual stenosis (n= 1);
IV, intraluminal thrombosis (n= 1). Immediate intraoperative exploration and revision of the endarterectomy was
performed based on the ICDS in two cases (type Ill and IV) and the findings of ICDS were confirmed. The other 11 cases
with abnormal ICDS (types L II) were not revised and duplex scans done 1 month postoperatively (available in 10 cases)
showed normal carotid artery flow. intraoperative angiography was performed selectively in five cases and confirmed the
results of lCDS. Reversible abnormalities of the ICDS were not associated with perioperative morbidity or residual carotid
stenosis.
Conclusions: Intraoperative carotid duplex scanning can be used to assess the immediate technical adequacy of carotid
endarterectomy. B-mode image and Doppler flow abnormalities which are reversible can be distinguished from those
which require immediate revision.
Key Words: Intraoperative duplex scan; Carotid endarterectomy.
Introduction
can reveal anatomical details of the repair but provides
no information about the haemodynamics of blood
Carotid endarterectomy reduces the risk of stroke in flow through the repaired arterial segment. In addipatients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic tion, angiography requires clamping of the endcarotid stenosis. 1-3 Success of carotid endarterectomy arterectomised artery and injection of contrast, and
depends on performing the procedure with a low therefore implies at least a theoretical risk of distal
perioperative neurological morbidity and mortality. embolisation. More recently pulsed Doppler spectral
Since 30-50% of perioperative stroke morbidity post- analysis post-carotid endarterectomy has been used
carotid endarterectomy is caused by immediate carotid for the intraoperative evaluation of carotid endarthrombosis, 4 any modality which identifies precursors terectomy. 6'8 This technique provides information on
of carotid thrombosis, such as intimal flaps or residual the flow through the arterial segments but offers no
carotid stenosis, may be useful in decreasing the risk direct information on the internal arterial morphology.
of these complications. It has also been suggested by Duplex scanning is a well tested modality for the
previous studies that residual carotid stenosis and evaluation of carotid bifurcation lesions in both preflow abnormalities identified at the time of surgery operative and postoperative patients. 9 Theoretically, it
may result in recurrent carotid stenosisd '6
is a very attractive modality since it is non-invasive
Intraoperative arteriography has been used to assess and provides direct anatomical detail through analysis
the technical adequacy of carotid endarterectomy. 7 It of the B-mode images and haemodynamic information
through the interpretation of the directed Doppler
flow patterns.
*Please address all correspondence to: O. K. Steinmetz, Division of
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility
Vascular Surgery, Suite $10.18, Royal Victoria Hospital, 687 Ave.
des Pins Ouest, Montreal, Quebec,Canada H3A 1A1.
of intraoperative carotid duplex scanning during
1078-5884/98/080153+06512.00/0 © 1998W.B.Saunders Company Ltd.
154
O.K. Steinmetz et al.
carotid endarterectomy. We evaluated the relationship
between identified abnormalities of the B-mode image
or the Doppler flow patterns and the results of intraoperative angiography, the need for immediate intraoperative
revision,
perioperative
neurological
morbidity, and residual carotid stenosis.
Materials and Methods
Patients
One-hundred consecutive carotid endarterectomies in
95 patients were assessed by intraoperative duplex
scan. All procedures were performed by one surgeon
between July 1993 and December 1995 at the Royal
Victoria Hospital, a university teaching hospital. The
mean age of the patients was 69 years (range 48-83),
including 72 men and 23 women. Within the study
population the prevalence of hypertension was 71%,
smoking 43%, coronary artery disease 63%, hyperlipidaemia 15%, diabetes 26%, and lower extremity
peripheral vascular disease 17%.
The indications for operation were prior stroke in
30 cases, asymptomafic >80% carotid stenosis in 29,
transient ischaemic attacks in 23, and amaurosis fugax
in 18.
was applied to the head of a 7.5 MHz transducer and
the transducer was then passed through a sterile plastic
sleeve into the operative field. Acoustic coupling was
assured by filling the wound with saline solution.
The endarterectomised artery was interrogated in the
longitudinal and transverse planes in four positions:
the common carotid artery (CCA), the external carotid
artery (ECA), the proximal internal carotid artery
(ICA), and the distal ICA within the limits of the
incision. Pulsed Doppler flow velocity signals were
then analysed and recorded at each of the four positions keeping the Doppler beam angle at 60 degrees
to the long axis of the artery. The criteria used to
determine the degree of luminal stenosis by velocity
and spectral analysis were those previously described
by Taylor and Strandness} ° The B-mode image was
assessed for carotid artery luminal diameter and for
the presence of intraluminal defects or flaps. Scans
were classified as either normal or abnormal using the
criteria in Table 1. The four types of abnormalities
recorded in the study period were: type I, internal
carotid artery spasm; type II, high distal resistance
flow pattern; type III, high grade residual stenosis;
type IV, intraluminal thrombosis. Small intimal flaps
or defects less than 3 mm on the B-mode image without
corresponding Doppler flow disturbance were not
routinely recorded.
Operative procedure
Follow-up
Carotid endarterectomy was performed under general
anaesthesia with an intraluminal shunt in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery in all cases. Patch closure of the endarterectomy site was employed in 22
cases (saphenous vein 18, dacron four), and primary
closure with continuous 6-0 or 7-0 polypropylene
suture in the remainder. Patch closure was employed
selectively in patients with small calibre internal carotid arteries (unable to pass 12F shunt distally). All
procedures were performed after systemic anticoagulation with heparin, and patients were maintained on oral acetylsalicylic acid 325 mg daily during
the immediate perioperative period and indefinitely
postoperatively.
Data was collected on the intraoperative and the perioperative course and this was correlated with the
results of the intraoperative duplex scan. In particular,
intraoperative revision of the endarterectomy on the
basis of the duplex findings, further diagnostic tests
such as intraoperative angiography, and the occurrence of perioperative neurological events were
recorded. The results of follow up CDS done 1 month
postoperatively, available for 88 cases, were used to
assess residual carotid stenosis. Results of CDS performed beyond that date, available in 70 cases, were
analysed to assess recurrent carotid stenosis. The mean
total follow-up of the entire population was 9.3 + /
7.3 months.
Intraoperative carotid duplex scan
Results
Intraoperative duplex studies were performed with
the Acuson 128 duplex imager (Mountain View, California). After closure of the arteriotomy, acoustic gel
Eighty-seven of 100 intraoperative duplex scans were
interpreted as normal by the study criteria. In 13 cases
an abnormality of the B-mode image or the Doppler
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg Vol 16, August 1998
-
Intraoperative Duplex Scanning for Carotid Endarterectomy
155
Table 1. Classification of intraoperative duplex scans (IDS): duplex findings for normal scans and for class I-IV abnormalities.
Classification of IDS
Characteristics
B-mode image
Doppler velocities
Spectral analysis
Normal
Normal
ICA peak systolic velocities <120 cm/s
ICA diastolic velocities <120 c m / s
No spectral broadening
Type I
spasm
Smooth tapering of ICA
No focal lesion
Non-focal elevation of ICA peak
systolic velocities >120 c m / s
ICA diastolic velocities <120 cm/s
Minimal systolic broadening
Type II
high distal resistance
Normal
ICA peak systolic velocities <30 c m / s
Absent diastolic flow
Narrow, monophasic
waveform
Type III
residual stenosis
Normal o r
Visualisation of stenofic
lesion
Focal elevation of ICA peak systolic
velocities >120 c m / s
ICA diastolic velocities >120 cm/s o r
ICA diastolic velocities <120 c m / s
Marked spectral broadening
Type IV
intraluminal thrombosis
Visualisation of intraluminal
thrombus
Normal o r
Elevated ICA systolic velocities o r
Absent systolic and diastolic flow
~depending on degree of thrombus
deposition and luminal narrowing
Mild to severe spectral
broadening ~depending on
degree of thrombus
deposition and luminal
narrowing
Table 2. Intraoperative duplex scan (IDS) abnormalities: summary of actual duplex abnormalities in 13 abnormal IDS in study group.
IDS abnormalities
Characteristics
Abnormality
B-mode image
Peak systolic velocities
Waveform
Intraoperative
action
Outcome
Type I
spasm
n=9
Smooth tapering of ICA
in all cases
Median 157 cm/s
Range (127-352 cm/s)
Minimal spectral
broadening
Angiogram
confirmd n = 5
None n = 4
No evidence of
restenosis (mean
8.3 mos) (8 patients)
Normal ICA flow
pattern at I mos, <50%
stenosis of ICA at
23 mos (1 patient)
Type II
high distal
resistance
n=2
Normal
16 cm/s
29 cm/s
No diastolic flow
Narrow,
monophasic
waveform
None
Normal ICA flow
pattern at 9 and
19 mos
Type III
stenosis
n= 1
Common carotid artery
plaque at proximal end
point
296 c m / s
Diastolic velocity
>120 c m / s
Marked spectral
broadening
Immediate
revision
50% stenosis ICA at
I mos
50-79% stenosis ICA at
24 mos
Type IV
intraluminal
thrombosis
n=l
Intraluminal filling defect 472 c m / s
of mixed echogenecity
Mild spectral
broadening
Immediate
thrombectomy
and revision
No F / U duplex
Stroke-free at 18
months
spectral analysis, or both, was identified. These abnormalities are listed in Table 2.
Distal internal carotid artery spasm was identified
on ICDs in nine cases (type I abnormality, see Table 2).
Intraoperative arteriography, performed in five cases,
confirmed the diagnosis of internal carotid artery
spasm. None of these cases in which internal carotid
artery spasm was identified were revised in the operating room. Eight of these nine patients had followup duplex scans performed 1-month postoperatively
and all eight were normal. One of these eight was
found to have a mild <50% restenosis of the internal
carotid artery on CDS at 23 months.
Intraoperative duplex scan showed a high resistance
flow pattern within the internal carotid artery in two
cases (type II abnormality, see Table 2). The preoperative angiogram on both of these patients had
shown a carotid string sign. Intraoperative revision
was not attempted in either case and internal carotid
artery flow patterns h a d normalised in both cases on
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg Vol 16, August 1998
156
O . K . Steinmetz et al.
initial follow up duplex scans at 1-month, and have
remained normal at last follow-up at 9 and 19 months
postoperatively.
In two cases, immediate revision of the endarterectomy was performed on the basis of the findings on the intraoperative duplex scan. In one a high
grade residual stenosis was demonstrated at the proximal end point of the endarterectomy (type III abnormality, see Table 2). When the arteriotomy was
reopened a proximal intimal flap was discovered
within the common carotid artery. The flap was repaired and the arteriotomy was revised with a vein
patch. CDS at 1 month showed normal flow through
the proximal common carotid artery, but a mild <50%
stenosis on later exams but has remained asymptomatic 24 months post-surgery. In the other case in
which intraoperative revision was performed, the Bmode image revealed an intraluminal filling defect of
mixed echogenicity at the endarterectomy site with
minimal Doppler flow abnormality (type IV abnormality, see Table 2). The arteriotomy was opened
immediately and fresh thrombus adherent to the site
of the endarterectomy was found but no technical
abnormality was detected. Thrombectomy was performed and a vein patch was used to close the arteriotomy. This patient has not had follow-up duplex
scan but remains stroke free at 18 months post-surgery.
In this series, primary closure of the endarterectomy
site was performed in 78 cases and patching in 22
cases. IDS result was independent of the method of
closure (p>0.25; Z2 test).
One perioperative death, and three perioperative
neurological events occurred within 30 days of operation. These patients all had normal ICDS. The perioperative death was caused by multiple organ failure
after combined carotid endarterectomy coronary bypass. Two perioperative neurological events resulted
in permanent neurological deficits (one contralateral
to the operated artery, one ipsilateral posterior hemispheric stroke) and both were evident 48 h post combined carotid endarterectomy coronary artery bypass.
One was transient and involved the hemisphere ipsilateral to the endarterectomy and was evident within
6 h of surgery. All three patients who suffered perioperative neurologic deficits had normal duplex evaluations performed at the time that the deficit was
identified. Follow-up CDS were also normal (mean
7 + / - 7.2 months) in these three patients. One other
patient suffered a late ipsilateral stroke at 6 months,
both ICDS and follow-up CDS were normal.
Carotid duplex scans 1-month post-surgery were
available for 88 cases. Eighty-three (94.3%) of these
were normal. There was an abnormality in five (5.7%),
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg Vol 16, August 1998
including one asymptomatic carotid occlusion, and
four cases of mild <50% stenosis of the ICA. In one of
these latter cases with less than 50% carotid stenosis,
ICDS was abnormal. In this case ICDS showed a high
grade stenosis at the proximal end point due to a
proximal plaque in the CCA which required immediate
revision (type IV, see Table 2). The site of the stenosis
identified on follow-up duplex scans was at the distal
end point in the internal carotid artery. In the other
four cases in which follow-up duplex revealed an
abnormality, the ICDS was normal.
Mean follow-up for the study population was 9.2 + /
- 7 . 3 months (n=88). In 11 (12.5%) cases there was
evidence of internal carotid artery stenosis on their
last follow up duplex scan. Six (6.8%) had mild <50%
stenosis, and five (5.7%) had >50% stenosis. The patient
with a type III abnormality on ICDS, and mild residual
internal carotid stenosis on CDS performed 1 month
post-surgery progressed to have a greater than 50%
internal carotid stenosis on follow-up duplex scan at
24 months. One patient with internal carotid artery
spasm on ICDS (type I abnormality, see Table 2) and
normal CDS at 1 month post-surgery, developed a
mild (<50%) internal carotid artery stenosis 23 months
postoperation.
Discussion
The goal of carotid endarterectomy is to reduce the
risk of stroke in patients with carotid stenosis. The
operation is successful both in symptomatic and
asymptomatic patients when performed with a low
perioperative stroke rate. 1-3 Perioperative strokes after
carotid endarterectomy occur by several mechanisms
including postoperative thrombosis or embolism,
cerebral ischaemia during cross-clamping of the carotid artery and reperfusion injury or cerebral haemorrhage after unclamping. 11'12 Thrombosis and
embolism account for 30%-50% of all postoperative
neurological events, 4'12 and almost all of these result
from technical errors during the repair that are preventable, or can be detected and repaired prior to
completion of the operation. 4
Performance of a technically perfect carotid endarterectomy requires meticulous operative technique.
Some surgeons feel that carotid endarterectomy can
be accomplished safely with an acceptable operative
stroke rate without the use of intraoperative assessment of the repair. 13 However, intraoperative inspection and palpation have been shown to be
insensitive methods for detecting significant abnormalitiesY 3'14Blaisdell and co-workers documented
Intraoperative Duplex Scanning for Carotid Endarterectomy
the high incidence of unsuspected abnormalities by
intraoperative angiography after carotid endarterectomy. 7 Others have confirmed these findings, and
have suggested that routine use of intraoperative
arteriography decreased the incidence of perioperative
neurologic complications} 5-~8Angiography does, however, carry the risk of subintimal injection, distal embolisation, and allergic reaction to contrast.
Many surgeons have turned to alternate intraoperative techniques for evaluating the adequacy of
the carotid reconstruction. Continuous wave Doppler,
pulsed Doppler spectral analysis, B-mode ultrasound,
duplex scanning and angioscopy have all been used
successfully. 8'19-23 In this study, duplex scanning was
chosen to assess the carotid arteries because it is
non-invasive, it is easily learned, and provides both
anatomical visualisation and spectral flow data. 9m'24
The results of duplex scanning have been well correlated with both angiography 25and pathological findings at the time of carotid endarterectomy, 25-28 and
intraoperative scans have a predictable relationship
to postoperative studies} 4 In addition, duplex can
distinguish reliably between reversible abnormalities
such as carotid artery spasm, and irreversible abnormalities that require operative intervention. 24
Our intraoperative duplex scans were classified by
evaluation of the B-mode images, and the Doppler
flow characteristics. During the study period, a grossly
abnormal B-mode image such as seen with intraluminal thrombosis or platelet deposition was considered an indication for immediate re-exploration of
the carotid, but minor B-mode abnormalities were not.
Little is known of the natural history of the latter
abnormalities, including small intimal flaps less than
3 mm, and plaques of the common, external, or internal
carotid artery causing no significant haemodynamic
effect}9 Their contribution to carotid restenosis has
generated discussion, but remains controversial. Baker
et aI. 5 found 62 abnormal duplex scans among 316
carotid endarterectomies. Fifty-three of these were
considered minor and were not re-explored. At followup, recurrent stenosis over 75% was seen in 17% of
those arteries, but in only 4.3% of arteries with a
normal intraoperative scan. In contrast, Sawchuck et
al. 29 reported that 18 of 21 minor abnormalities that
were detected at operation were not seen on followup examination; and Reilly et al. 3° in following 108
carotid arteries that had intraoperative completion
duplex studies found little difference 15 months postoperation between arteries with normal intraoperative
scans and those with minor intraoperative abnormalities.
Some intraoperative flow disturbances at ICDS have
157
been shown to reverse spontaneously after operation. 21
We identified 11 such cases in this study. Nine were
due to spasm of the distal ICA, characterised by a
gradual taper of the artery on B-mode image, and nonfocal elevation of peak systolic flow velocities without
significant spectral broadening. Two showed a high
carotid artery resistance flow pattern characterised by
low peak systolic flow velocities, a narrow, monophasic wave form, and absent diastolic flow. These
findings, while considered abnormal by the study
criteria, were thought to be reversible, and no attempt
was made to correct these abnormalities by operative
revision. Normal follow-up duplex studies 1 month
postoperation confirm that these intraoperative abnormalities were reversible. There was no association
between these reversible intraoperative abnormalities
and residual carotid stenosis as demonstrated by the
results of follow-up duplex scans.
Intraoperative completion studies done to evaluate
the technical adequacy of carotid endarterectomy reveal major abnormalities requiring operative correction in 2-8% of cases. 11 Defects identified as
requiring operative revision include suture line structures, plaque stenoses, large intimal flaps, vessel kinks
and thrombosis of the carotid artery} m5 In our series,
the incidence of abnormal intraoperative duplex scans
was 13%, with a rate of immediate operative revision
of 2%. In one case a high-grade stenosis at the proximal
end point of the endarterectomy was identified and
in another case intraluminal thrombus formation was
identified at the endarterectomy site. In both cases,
exploration of the endarterectomy site confirmed the
existence of the abnormality, and both of these defects
were repaired immediately. Current thinking supports
the repair of these defects at the time of surgery;
however, the true natural history of these residual
defects if left unrepaired is not known. 11 It is thought
that postoperative neurological events as well as residual and recurrent carotid artery stenosis have their
origin in these vascular defects missed at the time of
surgeryJ 5'26m'32 In our series major duplex abnormalities which were not considered reversible were
revised immediately and no neurological events in
this series were caused by carotid thrombosis. We only
identified two major ICDS abnormalities which were
not considered reversible, and both of these were
revised in the operating room, therefore we cannot
make comments on the effect of residual duplex abnormalities on the development of recurrent carotid
stenosis. Bandyk et al. 6 have shown that the incidence
of recurrent carotid stenosis is adversely affected by
the presence of residual flow abnormalities at completion of the procedure.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg Vol 16, August 1998
158
O.K. Steinmetz et al.
In summary, intraoperative carotid duplex scanning
can be used to assess the immediate technical result
after carotid endarterectomy and can identify: minor
B-mode defects without haemodynamic significance,
reversible B-mode and flow abnormalities, and major
B-mode a n d / o r flow abnormalities. Attention to these
findings guide further intraoperative management,
and favour a low perioperative neurological event
rate.
Reversible duplex abnormalities can be recognised
readily, and revision of these lesions should be avoided
since they are not associated with perioperative neurologic morbidity, or residual or recurrent carotid
stenosis. Unexpected major duplex abnormalities of
the B-mode image a n d / o r Doppler flow patterns can
be identified. Current vascular surgical principles
would support immediate intraoperative revision of
such defects to avoid perioperative carotid thrombosis
stroke and residual carotid stenosis.
Acknowledgements
We thank Dr J. F. Blair for his instruction to the technique, Dr R. L.
Lewis for reviewing this manuscript, and D. Saubolle for her help
in preparation of this manuscript.
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Accepted 1 April 1998

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