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Table of Contents
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
IPC-4931
Requirements for Electronic
Textiles (E-Textiles),
Conductive Fibers and
Conductive Yarns
Working Draft
June 2017
June 2017
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
IMPORTANT – PLEASE READ BEFORE REVIEWING
1. Content in orange is taken directly from an IPC printed
electronics substrates standards as a frame of reference for
similar sections and language we will/may want to include in
this standard. We need you to determine which topics are
relevant, which can be removed and which are missing.
During development of this standard, we will modify the text
so it is specific to e-textiles.
2. The test methods listed in several sections come from a
survey IPC conducted to the e-textiles community. We need
you to indicate if you use other test methods or if you feel an
industry test method is necessary.
3. Do not comment on editorial or formatting issues. This is
an early working draft, so we need comments to be
substantive and technical.
The deadline for comments is Friday, July 14.
If you have questions about this standard, need a comment
form or want to be added to the D-72 E-Textiles Materials
Subcommittee so you will get future documents, meeting
announcements, etc., email [email protected]
Future announcements will be sent to D-72 only.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
IPC-4931, Requirements for Electronic Textiles (E-Textiles), Conductive Fibers and
Conductive Yarns
June 2017
1 SCOPE
This standard establishes the classification system, qualification and quality conformance requirements and
electrical/electronic performance requirements for electronically-integrated textiles (e-textiles). This
standard also covers similar requirements and performance variables for conductive fibers and conductive
yarns, which are essential components of e-textiles.
E-textiles include Woven Textiles, Knit/Knitted Textiles, Nonwoven Textiles, Laminated Textiles, Braided
Textiles, Embroidered Textiles, Printed Textiles.
This standard does not cover preprocessed or non-electronically integrated textiles or nonconductive fibers
or yarns.
1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this standard is to provide and define key characteristics and test methods used for
procuring e-textiles, conductive fibers and conductive yarns.
1.2 Classification System
The system described in ____ through ___ identifies e-textiles and conductive yarns.
1.2.1 Designating Materials
A materials designation is intended for use by designers on master drawings to designate their base
material choice. At the end of this standard is a series of material specification sheets , which are identified
by specification sheet numbers. Each specification sheet outlines engineering and performance data for a
printed electronics base material type. The designer should select the appropriate base material
specification sheet as required to meet the operational specifications of the end product’s application (e.g.,
consumer, automotive, aerospace).
An example base material designation would be IPC-4921/2, for which “/2” refers to the specification sheet
detailing Polyester Naphthalate (PEN)/Biaxially Oriented Polyethylene Naphthalate (BOPEN).
If the designer requires further material specification details (such as thickness), the designer should
highlight those details in cross-sectional views or notes on the master drawing.
If the designer is using a material which is not in one of the approved IPC-4921 specification sheets, the
designer shall select the material type from 1.2.2.2. Users and suppliers should consider submitting new
specification sheets for consideration in this standard (see 1.8).
1.2.2 Adding Details When Designating Materials
Designers may add details to the procurement documentation for substrate materials.
The additional details designation shall follow this format:
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
Standard designation / Specification Sheet number or Base Material Type / Base Structure / Base
Reinforcement Type / Base Material Thickness
Where:






Standard designation is IPC-4921.
Specification Sheet number is an approved IPC-4921 specification sheet.
If no specification sheet exists, the designer shall select a Base Material Type designation from
1.2.2.2. If the material type is not included in 1.2.2.2, the designer shall create a designator for the
material.
Base Structure is selected from 1.2.2.3.
Base Reinforcement Type is selected from 1.2.2.4.
Base Material Thickness is selected from 1.2.2.5.
The following is an example of a detailed designation using an IPC-4921 specification sheet as the Base
Material Type:
IPC-4921 / 2 / 1 / F / 7 would be PEN/BOPEN in sheet form, nonreinforced, with a thickness range
of ≥ 0.250 mm to < 0.400 mm.
The following is an example of a detailed designation using a material which is not represented in an IPC4921 specification sheet:
IPC-4921 / OR3 / 1 / F / 7 would be Fluorinated Ethylene-Propylene (FEP) in film form,
nonreinforced, with a thickness range of ≥ 0.250 mm to < 0.400 mm.
The detailed designation is intended for use on material purchase orders by fabricators ( see Section 6).
Designers should not use the detailed designation on master drawings to indicate their material selection.
Designers shall specify on master drawings only the material type, because the detailed designation is
lengthy and requires fabricator-level knowledge in making the detailed selections.
1.2.2.1 Base Material Family
Utilizing the base material family designation prefix in Table 1-1, the type of printed electronics base
material shall be designated per 1.2.2.2.
Table 1-1 Base Material Family Designation
Designation
Family
C
M
OR
G
O
Ceramic
Metal
Organic
Glass
Other
1.2.2.2 Base Material Type
The printed electronics base material type shall be designated per Table 1-2.
Table 1-2 Base Material Type Designation
Designation
C1
C2
CO
Base Type
Alumina (Al2O3)
Aluminum Nitride (AlN)
Ceramic, Other
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
M1
M2
M3
M4
MO
OR1
OR2
OR3
OR4
OR5
OR6
OR7
OR8
OR9
OR10
OR11
OR12
OR13
OR14
OR15
ORO
G
GO
TPU
TPE
PEF
Aluminum (Al)
Copper (Cu)
Copper-tungsten
Stainless Steel
Metal, Other
Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP)
Epoxy
Fluorinated Ethylene-Propylene (FEP)
Polycarbonate (PC)
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN)
Biaxially Oriented Polyethylene Terephthalate (BOPET, PET)
Polyethylene Terephthalate w/Glycol (PETG)
Polyetherimide (PEI)
Polyimide (PI)
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Silicone
Cellulose
Cellulose Blend
Organic - Other
Borosilicate (Alkali-Free) Glass
Glass - Other
Thermoplastic Polyurethane
Thermoplastic Elastomer
Polyethylene Furanoate (PEF)
1.2.2.3 Base Structure
The base structure shall be designated per Table 1-3.
Table 1-3 Base Structure Designation
Designation
1
2
3
4
5
6
Base Structure
Film
Sheet
Composite – Woven
Composite – Nonwoven (e.g., fillers)
Laminate
Other
1.2.2.4 Base Reinforcement Type
The base reinforcement type shall be designated per Table 1-4.
Table 1-4 Base Reinforcement Type Designation
Designation
A
B
C
D
E
Base Reinforcement Type
Ceramic
Metal
Organic
Glass
Composite
June 2017
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
F
June 2017
Nonreinforced
1.2.2.5 Base Material Thickness
The base material thickness designation using Table 1-5 shall be reported on the specification sheet.
Table 1-5 Nominal Base Material Thickness Designation
Designation
Base Reinforcement Type (Thickness)
1
< 0.020 mm
[< 787 µin]
2
≥ 0.020 mm to <0.025 mm
[≥ 787 µin to < 984 µin]
3
≥ 0.025 mm to < 0.075 mm
[≥ 984 µin to < 2953 µin]
4
≥ 0.075 mm to < 0.100 mm
[≥ 2953 µin to < 3937 µin]
5
≥ 0.100 mm to < 0.150 mm
[≥ 3937 µin to < 5906 µin]
6
≥ 0.150 mm to < 0.250 mm
[≥ 5906 µin to < 9843 µin]
7
≥ 0.250 mm to < 0.400 mm
8
≥0.400mm
X
Specified in document
1.3 Surface Treatments
This specification recognizes that printed electronics base materials may be subjected to various surface
treatments to improve hardness, optical enhancement, wetting and adhesion by the functional material.
Additionally, these treatments may provide functionality such as gas barrier, liquid barrier or planarization.
Example surface treatments include:

Chemical
o Acid-etched
o Alkali-etched
o Anodic oxide
o Corona
o Plasma

Mechanical
o Sandblasting
o Calendering
o Mechanical galvanizing
o Cast-coated
o Extruded

Coating
o Adhesion primer
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
o
o
o
o
June 2017
Epoxy primer
Pigmented
Film form
Antistatic
1.4 Manufacturing Temperature Classification
This specification recognizes that printed electronics base materials will be subjected to different
processing temperature conditions during manufacturing of the printed electronics product. The following
are manufacturing classifications.
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
1
2
3
4
5
6
–
–
–
–
–
–
0 °C to 50 °C*
50 °C to 125 °C*
125 °C to 200 °C*
200 °C to 250 °C*
250 °C to 300 °C*
> 300 °C
*Maximum dwell time(s) at temperature extremes shall be AABUS.
1.5 Quality Conformance
This standard establishes a quality conformance system for the suppliers to demonstrate the continual
conformance of the printed electronics base material to the quality requirements of the standard. See 4.9
for quality conformance inspection requirements.
1.6 Procurement Documentation
The procurement documentation shall provide sufficient information to the supplier so the supplier can
fabricate the printed electronics base material and ensure the user receives the desired product. The
procurement documentation should specify the requirements that can be selected from within this standard.
1.7 Material Characteristics
Printed electronics base materials made to this standard use established requirements to enable the
material to be applied in a broad range of applications. The printed electronics base materials made to this
standard may have characteristics that provide specific enhanced performance (e.g., oxygen/moisture
permeation rate). Both the user and supplier should review these enhancements. These enhancements
may meet or exceed the specification requirements and will be designated in the purchasing documentation
as agreed upon between user and supplier (AABUS) (see 1.7.1).
1.7.1 As Agreed Upon Between User and Supplier (AABUS)
AABUS indicates additional or alternate requirements to be decided between the user and the supplier in
the procurement documentation. Examples include contractual requirements, modifications to purchase
documentation and information on the drawing. Agreements can be used to define tes t methods,
conditions, frequencies, categories or acceptance criteria within a test, if not already established.
1.8 New Materials
The printed electronics base materials specification sheets in this standard represent known materials. As
new materials become available, they can be added to future revisions.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
Users and material developers are encouraged to supply information for printed electronics base materials
using the blank specification sheet included at the end of this standard for review by the IPC Printed
Electronics Base Material/Substrates Subcommittee (D-62).
The IPC Printed Electronics Base Materials/Substrates Subcommittee (D-62) will consider new or revised
specification sheets independent from revision of this standard. Approved new or revised specification
sheets shall become part of the standard, issued as an Amendment and/or in a full revision of the
standard.
1.9 Interpretation of ‘‘Shall’’
The imperative form of the verb “shall” is used throughout this standard whenever a requirement is
intended to express a provision that is mandatory. Deviation from a ‘‘ shall’’ requirement may be considered
if sufficient data are supplied to justify the exception. To assist the reader, the word ‘‘shall’’ is presented in
bold characters.
The words ‘‘should’’ and ‘‘may’’ are used whenever it is necessary to express nonmandatory provisions.
‘‘Will’’ is used to express a declaration of purpose.
1.10 Presentation
All dimensions and tolerances in this specification are expressed in hard SI (metric) units and bracketed
soft imperial [inch] units. Users of this specification are expected to use metric dimensions. All dimensions
≥ 1.0 mm [0.0394 in] will be expressed in millimeters and inches. All dimensions < 1.0 mm [0.0394 in] will
be expressed in micrometers and microinches.
2 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
IPC staff will build this section with the standards referenced in this document. The sections listed here
assume some of the SDOs that will have standards referenced.
The following documents of the issue currently in effect form a part of this standard to the extent specified
herein.
2.1 IPC
2.2 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
2.4 Underwriter Laboratories Standards
2.5 NCSL International
2.6 ISO
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
2.8 Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI)
3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1 Terms and Definitions
The definition of terms shall be in accordance with IPC-6903, IPC-T-50 and the following.
This section will list terms only called out in this standard. These can be original/new industry consensus
terms and definitions or those from other standards.
3.2 Specification Sheets
The individual item requirements shall be as specified herein and in accordance with the applicable
specification sheets. Where there is no specification sheet available, the individual requirements shall be
as specified in complementary documents such as the purchase order, master drawings or ordering data
sheets (see Section 6).
The user has the responsibility to specify on the procurement documentation materials capable of meeting
the requirements of this specification and end-item use.
Note: When possible, material call-out information should be reviewed with the supplier to obtain
concurrence that the part will meet the requirements listed in the specification sheet and, if necessary, to
update the procurement documentation accordingly.
3.3 Conflict
In the event of conflict, the following order of precedence shall apply:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Purchase order
Master drawing (see Section 6)
Specification sheets of this standard
Other sections of this standard
Applicable documents (see Section 2)
3.4 Material Requirements
The printed electronics base material shall be free from deleterious substances (e.g., RoHS compliant) and
formulated or prepared to meet the requirements of this standard.
3.4.1 Preferred Side for Printing
Any sheet of printed electronics base material having a preferred side for printing shall have that side
indicated by a designation marking AABUS. Any roll of printed electronics base material having a preferred
side for printing shall have that side indicated as being on the outside or inside of the roll by a designation
marking AABUS.
3.4.2 Sheet Material
Each sheet of printed electronics base material shall meet the requirements of 3.5 through 3.15 where
applicable.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
3.4.3 Roll Material
Each roll of printed electronics base material shall meet the requirements of 3.5 through 3.15 where
applicable. Inspection for defects and their marking shall be performed as follows:
Defects are allowed such that the total of all defective areas shall not exceed 5 % of the total roll area (roll
length x roll width). Each defect area shall be defined in a 60 cm x 60 cm [23.6 in x 23.6 in] increment and
suitably marked or flagged. Each defect area may contain single or multiple defects which are constrained
within a square no larger than 30 cm x 30 cm [11.8 in x 11.8 in] centered within the defect area. If multiple
defects are spaced such that they cannot be contained with a single 30 cm x 30 cm [11.8 in x 11.8 in] area,
then more than one 60 cm x 60 cm [23.6 in x 23.6 in] defect area shall be marked or flagged on the roll or
identified AABUS.
3.4.3.1 Skew of Roll Material
Each roll of printed electronics base material should be evaluated for skew. Skew will be determined using
a test method AABUS.
3.4.4 Storage Conditions
The storage conditions (duration, temperature, humidity, gas, etc.) of sheet and roll materials shall be
provided AABUS.
3.4.5 Chemical Compliance
The printed electronics base material should meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive
(RoHS) and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) and should be in compliance
with Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).
3.5 Visual Requirements
When tested in accordance with the following paragraphs, the printed electronics base material shall meet
the visual requirements specified in 3.5.1 through 3.5.5. Any defect within 6.5 mm [0.256 in] from the
outside edges of the sheet or roll shall be disregarded unless AABUS.
Examination of the test specimen shall be performed as follows:



The entire test specimen (sample unit per 4.9.2) shall be examined with normal or corrected 20/20
(also termed 6/6 or 1.0) vision at a distance of 45 cm to 60 cm (an arm’s length) for ≤ 15 seconds.
Collimated light may be used to detect all defects and to provide an overall view of quality.
White fluorescent light shall be used to simulate the conditions under which the product will be
viewed by the user.
Standard practice for viewing conditions shall be followed as per ASTM F1595 or an equivalent practice
method. If inclusions are seen, the worst appearing 50 mm x 50 mm [1.97 in x 1.97 in] area shall be
examined with 10 X magnification to determine the size of the inclusions. If no inclusions are seen with
normal or corrected 20/20 (also termed 6/6 or 1.0) vision, the entire specimen shall be recorded as having
no defects against the requirements of 3.5.3.
Glass specimens may necessitate an additional requirement of transparency. Any defects should not be of
a size or quantity to reduce transparency.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
3.5.1 Marking
Each material shall have a unique lot number traceable to all raw materials, processing parameters (if
surface treated), date of manufacture and storage conditions following manufacture. Each package shall
contain evidence of compliance AABUS.
3.5.2 Wrinkles, Creases, Streaks and Scratches
The depth of scratches and height of streaks shall be measured with a surface profilometer or an optical
interferometer. The material shall be free of wrinkles, creases, streaks and scratches or AABUS.
3.5.3 Inclusions
If opaque inclusions are identified on a specimen, a 50 mm x 50 mm [1.97 in x 1.97 in] area of the affected
area shall be further evaluated in accordance with ASTM D149 and shall withstand 500 Vac minimum for
one minute, or with an alternate test AABUS. The size of the inclusions shall not be greater than AABUS in
any direction.
3.5.4 Voids
When tested in accordance with IPC-TM-650, Method 2.1.13, the size of voids shall not be greater than
AABUS in any direction.
3.5.5 Holes, Tears and Delamination
The material shall be free of holes, tears and delaminations so as to be usable for the intended
applications.
3.6 Dimensional Requirements / Material Requirements
3.6.1 Linear Thickness
NEED CONTENT
 No survey responses on this
3.6.2 Nominal Diameter
NEED CONTENT
 No survey responses on this
3.6.3 Number of Splices
NEED CONTENT
 Need industry test method
 We specify Maximum 4-5 per 50 yard roll
3.6.4 Roll Width

Proprietary
The width of the printed electronics base material shall be measured with a suitable instrument and shall
be as specified in the procurement document (see Section 6). The width of the material shall be within ±
6.0 mm [± 0.236 in] of the values specified or AABUS.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
3.6.5 Roll Length

WE HAVE SPECIFIED "PUT UP" SIZE RANGES
The length of the printed electronics base material shall be as specified in the procurement document (see
Section 6). Each roll shall have a length in accordance with an AABUS value or as follows: The length of
each roll shall be within 0 % to 10 % over the value specified. Length shall be determined by a distance
counter accurate to within 2 %.
3.6.6 Thickness



ISO 5084
proprietary
ASTM D1777
When tested in accordance with ASTM D374M Method A or Method C or equivalent test method, the
deviation from the nominal thickness of the printed electronics base material shall be ± 10 % or AABUS.
3.6.7 Weight
NEED



CONTENT
ASTM
ASTMD 3776 / D3776M
ASTM D3776M-09A
3.6.8 Weight Tolerance
NEED CONTENT
 Proprietary
 Need industry test method
3.6.9 Yield
NEED CONTENT

Need industry test method
3.7 Mechanical Requirements
3.7.1 Abrasion Resistance (Cycles)
NEED



CONTENT
ISO 12947
SFS-EN ISO 12947-1/-2/-3/-4 Abrasion resistance
AATCSS 93-2011; ASTM D3884
3.7.2 Adhesion
NEED CONTENT – (N/cm)
 ASTM D1876-08 (2015) Standard fort testing Peel Resistance if Adhesive (T-Peel Test)
IPC-4931


Draft document for industry review only
AATCC test method
Tape or cross hatch
3.7.3 Adhesion Strength
NEED



CONTENT
ISO 2409;
Proprietary
ASTM D3359 - 97 Standard Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test
3.7.4 Adhesive Force
NEED CONTENT
 ASTM D1876-08 (2015) Standard fort testing Peel Resistance if Adhesive (T -Peel Test)
3.7.5 Breaking Strength
NEED





CONTENT
AATCC
Proprietary
Need industry test method
ASTM D3822
ASTM D6775
3.7.6 Elastomeric Strength
NEED CONTENT -- density – Kg/m 3

No survey responses on this
3.7.7 Elongation (MD/CD)
NEED





CONTENT
AATCC
LTD 06
ASTM D3822
ASTM D6775
ASTM D5278
3.7.8 Nominal Denier
NEED CONTENT
 AATCC
3.7.9 Nominal TEX
NEED CONTENT
 No survey responses on this
June 2017
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
3.7.10 Stretch
NEED





CONTENT
Proprietary
Need industry test method
LTD 06
ASTM D2594-04
MANUAL STRETCH - 10" SAMPLE
3.7.11 Tensile Strength
NEED



CONTENT – N/cm
Proprietary
Need industry test method
ASTM D3822
3.7.12 Tenacity CD
NEED CONTENT – N
 Proprietary
 Need industry test method
3.7.13 Tenacity MD
NEED CONTENT – N
 Proprietary
 Need industry test method
3.8 Surface Requirements
3.8.1 Surface Resistance
NEED



CONTENT
Proprietary
Need industry test method
ASTM
3.8.2 Surface Resistivity
NEED CONTENT – Ohm/sq





Proprietary
Need industry test method
ASTM
ASTM/DN
MULTI METER
June 2017
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
3.9 OPTICAL REQUIREMENTS
3.9.1 Color



ISO 105
all ISO 105 color fastness standards
AATCC 107-2013
When specimens are tested in accordance with ASTM E1478, TAPPI T-524 or TAPPI T-527, the color
shall meet the requirements of its intended application AABUS and shall be reported on the specification
sheet.
3.10 Chemical Requirements
Do we need to add any? The following are typical from other IPC standards. Sweat? Oils? Cleaning
agents?
3.10.1 Chemical Resistance
When specimens are tested in accordance with IPC-TM-650, Method 2.3.2, Method B or TAPPI T-494,
tensile strength and elongation following chemical exposure shall meet the requirements of its intended
application AABUS and shall be reported on the specification sheet.
3.10.2 Oxygen Gas Transmission
When specimens are tested in accordance with ASTM F2622 or ISO 15105, gas transmission shall meet
the requirements of its intended application AABUS and shall be reported on the specification sheet.
3.10.3 Water Vapor Transmission
When specimens are tested in accordance with ASTM E96, ISO 15106 or TAPPI T-448, water vapor
transmission shall be reported on the specification sheet.
3.11 Electrical Requirements
3.11.1 Electrical Resistance By Glue
NEED CONTENT – Ohm


Proprietary
ASTM
3.11.2 Linear Resistance
NEED



CONTENT
Need industry test method
ASTM
2pt or 4pt resistance
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
3.11.3 Resistivity
NEED CONTENT
 Proprietary
 AATCC RA-111 Draft Method Conductance Changes to Electronically-Integrated Textiles after
Home Laundering
 AATCC 76-2011
 ASTM
 Need industry test method
3.11.4 Shielding
NEED




CONTENT – MHz-GHz / dB
Proprietary
Need industry test method
ASTM/IEEE
CJ found a spec sheet which lists ASTM D4935
3.11.5 Top/Bottom Resistance
NEED CONTENT
 Need industry test method
 Proprietary
3.12 Environmental Requirements
Do we need anything on RoHS or REACH?
3.12.1 Air Permeability
NEED CONTENT
 Proprietary
 ASTM
3.12.2 Infrared (IR) Reduction
NEED CONTENT
 No survey responses on this
3.12.3 Flammability


UL
NFPA 1951, 1971,1975, 1977, 1983, 2112 – (tested by UL)
When specimens are tested in accordance with ISO 1210, UL 94 or ASTM D635, flammability classification
shall be reported on the specification sheet.
3.12.4 Temperature Range
NEED CONTENT – °C
 Various
IPC-4931


Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
Proprietary
Need industry test method
3.12.5 Temperature Operating Range
NEED






CONTENT – °C
Various
Need industry test method
Proprietary
ASTM D1777-96
ASTM D4974-04
ASTM D6207-3
3.12.6 Use Temperature
NEED






CONTENT – °C
Various
proprietary,
Need industry test method
ASTM D1777-96
ASTM D4974-04
ASTM D6207-3
Halogens ???
Is this an issue with these materials? Any others we need to specify?
The need to test materials for halogen content shall be AABUS. When required, the materials shall be
tested in accordance with IEC 62321 or BS EN 14582, and the results shall be reported on the
specification sheet.
3.13 Workmanship Requirements
The printed electronics base material shall be processed in such a manner as to be uniform in quality and
devoid of defects that will affect life, serviceability, processability or appearance as specified in 3.5.
3.14 Special Requirements
These are common with other IPC standards. Anything we need to specify for these materials?
When specified on the procurement documentation, some or all of the special requirements in 3.14 .1
through 3.14.2 shall apply. A notation in the procurement documentation will designate which are required.
3.14.1 Outgassing
When specified, printed electronics base materials shall be tested in accordance with the procedure
outlined below.
The degree of outgassing shall not result in a total mass loss (TML) of more than 1.0 % and collectible
volatile condensable material (CVCM) of less than 0.1 %. Mass loss shall be determined on test coupons
or production printed electronics base materials when tested in accordance with IPC -TM-650, Method 2.6.4
or ASTM E595. In lieu of testing, outgassing data from a NASA or OEM database shall be acceptable.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
3.14.2 Organic Contamination
Noncoated printed electronics base materials shall be tested in accordance with the procedure outlined
below. Any visual evidence of organic residue shall constitute a failure.
The printed electronics base material shall be tested in accordance with IPC-TM-650, Methods 2.3.38 or
2.3.39. Method 2.3.38 is a qualitative method in which very pure acetonitrile is dripped across the test
coupon or production printed electronics base material and collected on a microscope slide. It is dried and
compared with a slide having dried, uncontaminated acetonitrile on it for visual evidence of organic residue.
If evidence of organic contamination is detected by Method 2.3.38, Method 2.3.39 is used to determine the
nature of the contaminant by the use of infrared spectrophotometric analysis using the multiple internal
reflectance (MIR) method.
3.15 Physical Requirements
We listed none. Are there any? The following is what we have in other IPC standards.
3.15.1 Thermal Conductivity
A substrate’s thermal conductivity can be altered by the addition of fillers in the polymer, glass or ceramic
matrix.
When specimens are tested in accordance with ASTM D5470 or ASTM D6343 -14, thermal conductivity
shall meet the requirements of its intended application AABUS and shall be reported on the specification
sheet.
4 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISIONS
The supplier shall comply with IPC-9191 when providing product meeting or exceeding requirements
specified herein. This section defines the allowable methods (options) of ensuring product meets customer
specifications.
4.1 Responsibility for Inspection
Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, the supplier is responsible for the performance of all
inspection requirements as specified herein. Except as otherwise specified in the purchase order, the
supplier may use their own or any other facility suitable for the performance of the inspection requirements
herein, unless disapproved by the procuring authority. The procuring authority reserves the right to perform
any of the inspections set forth in the standard where such inspections are deemed necessary to ensure
supplies and service are performed to the prescribed requirements.
4.2 Test Equipment and Inspection Facilities
Test and measuring equipment and inspection facilities of sufficient accuracy, quality and quantity to permit
performance of the required inspection shall be established and maintained by the supplier. The
establishment and maintenance of a calibration system to control the accuracy of the measuring and test
equipment shall be in accordance with ANSI/NCSL Z 540.1.
4.3 Preparation of Samples
Unless otherwise specified herein, samples shall be prepared in accordance with standard in-house
procedures. If a referee method is required, it shall be AABUS.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
4.4 Standard Laboratory Conditions
Unless otherwise specified in the appropriate test method, laboratory conditions shall be established and
documented by the supplier.
4.5 Tolerances
Unless otherwise specified, all laboratory equipment/conditions shall have tolerances of ± 5 %.
4.6 Classification of Inspection
The inspections specified herein are classified as follows:



Material Inspection (see 4.7)
Qualification Inspection (see 4.8)
Quality Conformance Inspection (see 4.9)
4.7 Material Inspection
Material inspection shall consist of certified test data verifying the material is in accordance with the
referenced specification or requirements prior to such fabrication.
4.8 Qualification Inspection
Qualification testing shall be performed on the test specimens that are produced with eq uipment and
procedures normally used in production. The supplier shall supply upon request data certifying the printed
electronics base material meets the requirements of this standard using the test methods described herein.
Qualification testing samples may be combined for those lots with structurally similar construction. Where
the test is dimensionally dependent, combination is not permitted.
4.8.1 Characterization Testing
Group C testing in Table 4-1 is only required for characterization purpose for the qualification of a material.
Group C properties are those properties that would be useful for design and/or are characteristics of the
material.
4.8.2 Frequency
Each material (as outlined in the specification sheets) shall undergo qualification once. The supplier, upon
demand, shall provide certified data that show the supplied material is qualified to this standard.
Qualification retesting is not required unless AABUS.
4.9 Quality Conformance Inspection
Quality conformance inspection shall consist of Groups A, B and C testing as listed in Table 4-1. The
frequency of each group of inspections shall be performed and completed within 60 days, as follows:



Group A – Lot basis
Group B – Every 12 months
Group C – One-time characterization (see 4.8.1)
Table 4-1 Test Method Frequency
We will update this table as we create section 3.
Requirement
Paragraph
Test
Group
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.7.5
3.7.6
3.7.7
3.7.8
3.7.9
3.7.10
3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4
3.9.1
3.9.2
3.9.3
3.9.4
3.10.1
3.10.2
3.10.3
3.11.1
3.11.2
3.11.3
3.11.4
3.11.5
3.12.1
3.12.2
3.12.3
3.12.4
3.12.5
3.12.6
3.15.1
Wrinkles, creases, streaks
and scratches
Inclusions
Voids
Holes, tears and
delaminations
Bend
Coefficient of thermal
expansion (CTE)
Coefficient of hygroscopic
expansion (CHE)
Dimensional stability
Edge strength
Initiation tear strength
Propagation tear
strength
Tensile strength, elongation
and modulus
Density
Poisson’s ratio
Coefficient of friction
Surface energy
Surface hardness
Surface roughness
Color
Luminous transmittance and
haze
Refractive index
Surface gloss
Chemical resistance
Oxygen gas transmission
Water vapor transmission
Permittivity
Loss tangent
Volume resistivity
Surface resistance
Dielectric strength
Fungus resistance
Moisture absorption
Flammability
Halogens
Relative thermal index (RTI)
Glass Transmission (Tg)
temperature
Thermal conductivity
June 2017
A
A
A
A
A
B
C
A
B
B
B
B
C
C
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
4.9.1 Inspection of Product for Delivery
The sample specimens shall be subjected to the inspections specified in Table 4-1. Inspection of product
for delivery shall consist of Group A inspections. Products that have passed Group A inspection may be
shipped prior to obtaining the results of Group B inspection.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
4.9.2 Sample Unit
The definition of a sample unit shall be a minimum of 0.50 m 2 [5.38 ft 2] for sheet goods and 1 m [3.281 ft]
for roll goods.
4.9.3 Group A Inspection
4.9.3.1 Sampling Plan
The sampling plan shall be defined and documented in the supplier’s quality plan. The conformance testing
shall meet or exceed the sampling requirements found in Table 4-2 and Table 4-3. Additional testing
required by the user shall be included in the procurement documentation. The number of distinct samples
to be inspected is provided in Table 4-2 and Table 4-3 in the column labeled “Sample Size.”
Table 4-2 Sampling Plan for Group A Inspection for Sheet Goods
Total Number of
Sheets per
Lot Produced
≤ 200
201 to 1000
1001 to 10,000
≥ 10,001
Sample Size
6
12
18
24
Allowable Rejects
0
0
0
0
Each distinct sample to be inspected should be from a different sheet that has been randomly selected
from a lot. As an example, a lot of 500 sheets will require inspection of 12 distinct samples from 12
randomly selected sheets.
Table 4-3 Lot Sampling Plan for Group A Inspection for Roll Goods
Total Number of
Sheets per
Lot
Produced
Roll
Sample Size
6
Allowable Rejects
0
The distinct samples should be randomly selected over the entire length of the roll. The spacing (distance)
between distinct samples to be inspected should be AABUS.
4.9.3.2 Failures
If one or more specimens fail, the sample shall be considered to have failed. In the event of failure of any
inspection, information concerning the failure and corrective action taken shall be furnished to the user.
4.9.3.3 User Sampling Plan
It is recommended a user of the printed electronics base material inspect at least one sample unit per
inspection lot.
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
4.9.3.4 Rejected Lots
If an inspection lot is rejected, the supplier may remove the defective units and resu bmit for reinspection.
This sub-lot shall be considered as a new lot and will be subject to the original requirement.
4.9.4 Group B Inspection
Group B inspection shall consist of the tests specified in Table 4-1. Group B inspection shall be made on
sample units selected from inspection lots that have passed Group A inspection. Group B testing may be
combined for those lots with structurally similar construction. Where the test is dimensionally dependent,
combination is not permitted.
4.9.4.1 Sampling Plan
Two sample units will be randomly selected from a lot (sheet or roll) manufactured at distinct points in time
over a 12-month period.
4.9.4.2 Failures
If one or more specimens fail, the sample shall be considered to have failed. In the event of failure of any
inspection, information concerning the failure and corrective action taken shall be furnished to the user.
4.9.4.3 Noncompliance of Material
If a sample fails to pass Group B inspection, the supplier shall take corrective action on the materials or
processes, as warranted. The supplier shall also take corrective action on all units of product that can be
corrected, which were manufactured under essentially the same conditions, with essentially the same
materials, process, etc. Acceptance of the product shall be discontinued until corrective action acceptable
to the procuring authority has been taken. After the corrective action has been taken, Group B inspection
shall be repeated on additional sample units (all inspection or the inspection that the original sample failed,
at the option of the procuring authority). Group A inspections may be reinstituted; however, final
conformance shall be withheld until the Group B reinspection has shown the corrective action was
successful, AABUS. In the event of failure of any inspection, information concerning the failure and
corrective action taken shall be furnished to the procuring authority.
4.10 Statistical Process Control (SPC)
Statistical process control (SPC) utilizes systematic statistical techniques to analyze a process or its
outputs. The purpose of these analyses is to take appropriate actions to achieve and maintain a state of
statistical control and to assess and improve process capability. The primary goal of SPC is to continually
reduce variation in processes, products or services to provide product that meets or exceeds real or implied
customer requirements.
Implementation of SPC shall be in accordance with IPC-9191.
Depending on the progress made in implementing SPC on a particular product, an individual supplier may
demonstrate compliance to specification with any of the following:




Quality conformance evaluations
End-product control
In-process product control
Process parameter control
An individual supplier may choose to use a combination of the four assurance techniques listed above to
prove compliance. For example, a product with 15 characteristics may meet specifications by qualit y
conformance evaluations for two characteristics, in-process product evaluations for five characteristics and
IPC-4931
Draft document for industry review only
June 2017
process parameter control for five characteristics. The three remaining characteristics meet the
specification by a combination of in-process control and quality conformance evaluations. Evidence of
compliance to the specification at the level of SPC implementation claimed is auditable by the customer or
appointed third party.
Requirements are dynamic in nature and are based on what is accepted in the worldwide market.
Requirements may be stated as a reduction of variation around a target value, as opposed to just meeting
the specification, drawing, etc.
4.10.1 Reduction of Quality Conformance Testing
The primary goal of SPC is not the reduction of quality conformance testing. The primary goal of SPC is to
continually reduce variation in processes, products or services to provide product meeting or exceeding
real or implied customer requirements. However, as a result of the understanding and contr ol of highly
capable process and product parameters, quality conformance testing may be reduced in an orderly
fashion to an audit function. Once the criteria have been met, the reduction of end-product testing may be
accomplished.
5 PREPARATION FOR DELIVERY
5.1 Packaging
Printed electronics base materials shall be packed in a manner that will afford adequate protection against
corrosion, deterioration and physical damage during shipment and storage. The container shall conform to
the requirements of the consolidated freight classification rules or international freight rules in effect at the
time of shipment, except the fiber board, when used, shall be able to withstand storage, rehandling and
reshipment without the necessity of repackaging.
6 NOTES
6.1 Ordering Data
Purchase orders should specify the following:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
Title, number and date of the standard
Specification sheet number and revision date
Specific exemptions to the specifications, if any
Title, number and date of any applicable drawing
Information for preparation for delivery, if applicable (see Section 5)
Part identification and marking instructions
Specify preproduction inspection, if applicable (see Section 4)
Specific designation (see 1.2)
Thickness, width and length of material (see 3.6)
Other exceptions AABUS
6.2 Chemical Resistance
This comes from the PE substrates standard. Do we want something like this in this standard? Should we
move this to the Chemical Requirements section if we keep it?
It is not possible to establish a complete set of requirements for chemical resistance, since no printed
electronics base material can be expected to be resistant to all of the chemicals used in the industry.
Therefore, consultation should be made with the supplier when chemicals and processes to be used are
other than those specified in this standard and its associated test methods.

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