approaches and methods

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approaches and methods
APPROACHES AND
METHODS…..
In The Teaching of English
Pamela Allen, ESL
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MORE TO THINK ABOUT!
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THE DIRECT METHOD
TPR (Total Physical Response)
THE SILENT WAY
CLT (Communicative Language
Teaching)
Strategies worth using…..
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Can you “Jigsaw”?
You are responsible for imparting the material and
information to your peers! If you leave it out, they
have lost something; if you include it, they have it
now and always! 
In your “learning team”…..
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* Read and discuss the information and ideas
associated with the method. Relate to your teaching
experiences.
*Create/present a skit showing teacher/student
involvement and responses to the method. (Multiple
Intelligences at work.)
*Chart important details/info about the method to
post as your group “teaches” all of us. 
Articulatory Phonetics
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* Involves movement of air from lungs through vocal cords.
* Includes oral and nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, lips,
tongue, and teeth
* Look at 6.1 on page 236 in Introduction to
To Language. Find the oral and nasal cavity
structures.
Major Places of Articulation
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As we discuss the articulation sounds, practice in your
groups by making the movements yourself. Use the mirror on the
table to see what all happens.
*Labiodentals: produced by touching the bottom lip to the
upper teeth (f) (v)
*Interdentals: produced by inserting the tip of the tongue between
the teeth; the “th” sound; for some, the tongue merely touches behind
the teeth….forming more of a dental sound
(think) (these)
Alveolars:
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All seven of these sounds are pronounced by the tongue
being raised in various ways to the alveolar bridge.
* (t) (d) (n) tongue tip raised touching ridge or slightly in
front of it.
* (s) (z) sides of front tongue raised, tip lowered so air
escapes over it.
* (l) tip of tongue is raised, rest of it remains low,
*(r) curl the tip of the tongue back behind alveolar ridge or
bunch up the tongue behind the ridge.
WHICH WERE HARD FOR YOU TO DO?
Morphology: The Study of Word Formation Rule Productivity 
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*There is internal organization in word formation.
Rule example: add “er” to a verb to make “ noun”.
teach + er = teacher
*”Structure” is important in determining meaning.
* Morphological processes (inflection) is used freely to form
new words from free and bound morphemes.
Affix: a morpheme attached to a word
Prefix: an affix attached to front of word
Suffix: an affix attached to the end of a word
*We can generally predict the meaning of
of the word by the morphemes…but not
always!
Morphological complex words whose meanings
are not predictable must be…..
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..... “listed in our mental lexicons”. Store them in your
memory for future use:
Unpredictable “un” forms:
unloosen
loosen; let loose
undo
reverse by doing
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The Rules Do Not Always Apply…..
Think about the process that forms plurals from singular nouns.
These words are exceptions to the English inflectional rule of plural
formation: child, man, foot, mouse
Certain verbs/past tense are also exceptions to the rule:
go, sing, bring, run, know
When children are learning English, they first learn the “regular rules”,
then discuss the exceptions. As they “get more of an ear for English”,
it will start to make more sense. 
Compounding: Can You Dig It?
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* Some recent compounds: Youtube, Facebook, carjack,
powernap
noun + noun = noun (SGC) “girlfriend”
adjective + adjective = adjective “icy-cold”
noun + adjective = adjective “headstrong”
With two words in different categories,
the second determines the “head” category.
The meaning of the compound is not
always the sum of its parts……..
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Example: “She has a red coat in her closet.”
“She has a Redcoat in her closet.”
Some compounds reveal a different meaning/relationship between
the parts:
“Cathouse” does not mean a house for cats”.
When the words are together, we usually stress the first word.
Syntax Review
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Syntax = Greek orgin + “together +
sequence/order/arrangement
Normal word order/ English: firmly fixed
Subj.+verb+object or subj.verb complement
Poetry: word order can shift to heighten word
connection and emotional impact
Rule of Syntax: > phrases > sentences
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Word Order:
Declarative statements:
subj+verb+object
“I like cake.”
Interrogative-questions:
modal verb+subj+verb+obj.
“Does Brian like cake?”
Adjectives before nouns:
coconut cake
Lexical
Categories
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Nouns: person ,place, thing
Verbs: action or being
Adjectives: describe nouns
Determiners: the, a, an
Prepositions: express
location/function –
“to for, in, an, at, of, with
Syntax Challenges: ELLs
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Question formation
Modal verbs: do, does, will, could, would, should
Adjective placement
Passive voice: Brian has eaten the cake.
Semantic Challenges: ELLs
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Multiple meaning words: miss
“Miss Jones is my teacher.”
“I will miss her during the summer”
Idioms & American phrases:
“It was raining cats and dogs this morning.”
“Time really flies in Praxis review class.”
“ Please turn off the lights”.
Sociolinguistics
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The way “society” impacts the learning and
use of language….. Be it good or not, it is
there!
“It arises out of need, work, joy, affection,
tastes, generations…it goes beyond the
dictionary.” Walt Whitman
Culture + language
Language & Society
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Dialects
Regional Dialects
Phonological differences
Lexical differences
1.
Social Influences: English
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Literary genre: a category of literary work
determined by tone, content, fiction, length….
Groups: Prose, poetry, drama
Subgroups: many!
Vocabulary: Three Tiers
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Tier 1: Basic vocabulary – rarely require direct instruction;
sight words, early reading words; typically no multiple
meanings…. book, girl, sad, run, dog, see
Tier 2: High frequency, multiple meanings –
reading comprehension, across different domains, mature
language situations (adult talk, literature), strong influence
on speaking/reading, direct instruction…..masterpiece,
fortunate, mature, concept
Tier 3: Low frequency, content/context specificoccurs in specific domains, subjects in school, hobbies,
occupations, technology, science, medical…
economics, chemistry, amino acids, opera,
Homonyms, Homophones, Homographs=
English Language Confusion!
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Homonyms:, sound same, spelled differently,
different meanings - bear, bare
Homophones: sound same, spelled differently,
different meanings – be, bee; son, sun
Homographs: sound differently, spelled same,
different meanings –
desert (dry environment)
desert (to leave)

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