Fluid Deficit Nurses Notes

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Fluid Deficit Nurses Notes
Fluid Volume Deficit
 Dehydration = the fluid intake of the body is not enough to meet the needs of
the body
 You must restore fluid volume, replace electrolytes if its indicated, and find the
cause and treat the fluid volume deficit
 3 Types: isotonic dehydration, hypotonic dehydration and hypertonic
dehydration
Isotonic dehydration
 Water and electrolytes are lost in the same proportions
 aka hypovolemia
 most common type of dehydration
 Causes a reduction in circulating blood volume = the tissues aren’t perfusing
well and getting their nutrients
Hypertonic dehydration
 water is loss more than electrolyte loss.
 Fluid is going to moves from the intracellular compartment into the plasma and
interstitial fluid spaces,
 Fluid moves outside of the cell and the cell is going to shrink
Hypotonic dehydration
 Lose Electrolyte more then water
 When fluid shifts between compartments it causes a decrease in plasma volume.
 Fluid moves from the interstitial fluid spaces/ plasma into the cells
 cause a plasma volume deficit and causing the cells to swell
Causes
 Isotonic dehydration = Inadequate intake of fluids and solutes
 Excessive losses of isotonic body fluids
 Hypertonic dehydration = excessive perspiration, hyperventilation (insensible
loss), ketoacidosis, prolonged fevers, diarrhea, early-stage kidney disease, and
diabetes insipidus
 Hypotonic dehydration = Excessive fluid replacement (hypotonic), Kidney
disease, Chronic malnutrition
Assess
 Tachycardia
 Weak thread pulse
 Decreased blood pressure and orthostatic (postural) hypotension
 Flat neck and hand veins
 Diminished peripheral pulses
 Increased rate and depth of respirations
 Lethargy or in severe cases lead to coma
 Skeletal muscle weakness
 Decreased urine output
 Dry skin
 Poor turgor
 Dry mouth
 Constipation
 Thirst
Interventions
 Monitor
 Monitor urine output
 Give fluids
 give the antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiemetic,
 antipyretic medications,
 Monitor electrolyte values

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