Herrammientas para una Mejor Enseñanza

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Herrammientas para una Mejor Enseñanza
Herrammientas para una Mejor
Enseñanza
Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Argentina
ESSARP Junio 2005
Activities, Methods, and Tools for
Better Teaching
Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
June 2005
Buenos Aires, Argentina
ESSARP
Enfoque del Día:
—  Antecedentes
—  Herramientas generales:
—  Mejores Prácticas
—  Variación de retención con diferentes metodologías
—  Emociones en el aprendizaje
—  Sentido y Significancia
—  Ambientes de aprendizaje
—  Herramientas específicas (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock)
—  Metodologías de Enseñanza que consolida
información en memoria de largo plazo
—  Aplicación en nuestras escuelas
Today’s Focus:
—  Background
—  Two presumptions
—  General Tools:
—  Best practices
—  Retention varies with Methods
—  Emotions and Teaching
—  Sense and Meaning
—  Learning Environments
—  Specific Tools (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock)
—  Evidence-based teaching methods for long-term retention and
more efficient teaching
—  Classroom applications
Antecedentes
—  Educación Comparativa
(¿“qué es inteligente” a través
de las culturas?)
—  Sistemas Comparativos
—  Estilos Individuales
—  Todos los grados (Kinder Universidad)
—  Enfoque de disciplinas
cruzadas en el aprendizaje,
especialmente en los campos
de la ciencia cognitiva
(neurología, psicología,
pedagogía, antropología
cultural y lingüística).
Background
—  Comparative education
(“What is intellligent” in
different cultures)
—  Comparative educational
systems
—  Individual learning styles
and cognitive preferences
—  Taught all grades (Kinder University)
—  Interdisciplinary focus
(espcially neuroscience,
psychology and education)
Premiso:
Memoria + Atención = Aprendizaje
Criterios de Memoria a Largo Plazo
1.  Valor de supervivencia
2.  Experiencia emocional
3.  Relacionado con recuerdos anteriores
—  ¿Tiene esto sentido?
—  ¿Qué significado tiene esto en mi vida? (El
Significado es MÁS importante que el
Sentido)
Premise:
Memory + Attention = Learning
Criteria for information to go into long-term
mempory:
1.  Survival value
2.  Emotional link (personal)
3.  Association (related to past knowledge)
—  Does the information make sense?
—  What significance does this have in my life
(“significance” or “meaning” is often more
important than “sense”).
Premiso:
Lo mejor de los mundos…
—  Un profesor que pueda crear un lazo emocional
positivo mientras entrega información de
contenido de calidad será recordado para
siempre.
—  ¿Quién fue su profesor favorito? Alguien que
probablemente pudo alcanzar sus emociones y
metió adentro de tu memoria de largo plazo.
Premise:
The best of both worlds…
—  A teacher that can have a positive emotional
impact on you while transmitting quality
information is more likely to be remebered…
—  Who was your favorite teacher? It is likely that it
was someone who touched you both emotionally
as well as through content.
Mejores Prácticas
por Steven Zemelman, Harvey
Daniels, y Arthur Hyde (2005):
1. 
CENTRADO EN ESTUDIANTE
2. 
EXPERIENCIAL
3. 
HOLÍSTICO
4. 
AUTÉNTICO
5. 
EXPRESIVO
6. 
REFLECTIVO
7. 
SOCIAL
8. 
COLABORATIVO
9. 
DEMOCRÁTICO
10. 
COGNITIVO
11. 
DE DESARROLLO
12. 
CONSTRUCTIVISTA
13. 
DESAFIANTE
Best Practice
by Steven Zemelman, Harvey
Daniels, y Arthur Hyde (2005):
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
STUDENT-CENTERED
EXPERIENTIAL
HOLISTIC
AUTHENTIC
EXPRESSIVE
REFLECTIVE
SOCIAL
COLLABORATIVE
DEMOCRATIC
COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENTAL
CONSTRUCTIVIST
CHALLENGING
El Cerebro, Aprendizaje y Emoción
—  “Cuando un concepto lucha con una emoción, la
emoción casi siempre gana.”
David Sousa, How The Brain Learns, Corwin Press; 2nd edition (2000: 53)
The Brain, Learning and Emotion
—  “When a concept fights with an emotion, the emotion
almost always wins.”
David Sousa, How the brain learns, 2nd edition, Corwin Press (2000, p.53)
Retención varía con el método de
enseñanza:
—  Conferencia 5%
—  Lectura 10%
—  Audio Visual 20%
—  Demostración 30%
—  Discusión en grupos 50%
—  Practicar haciéndolo 75%
—  Enseñar a otros/uso inmediato del
aprendizaje 90%
(Resultados 24 horas después de una clase. Estudio original llevado por los Laboratorios de
Entrenamiento Nacional en Bethel, Maine, en los años 60’s, y posteriormente en los
Laboratorios de Entrenamiento Nacional de Alexandria, Virginia.)
Retention varies with methodology:
—  Lectures 5%
—  Readings 10%
—  Audio Visual 20%
—  Demonstration 30%
—  Small group discussion 50%
—  Rehersal (practice) 75%
—  Teaching others 90%
(Results 24 hours after a class. Orginial study done by the National Training Laboatories in Bethel, Maine in
the 1960s, and later replicated by the National Training Laboratories in Alexandria, Virginia.
El Uso del Efecto Primacía-Reciente
en la Clase
—  “Durante un episodio de aprendizaje, recordamos mejor
lo que viene primero, después recordamos lo que vino en
último lugar, y recordamos menos lo que viene justo
después de la mitad.”
—  Enseñe el material nuevo primero/evite trabajo de
secretaría al principio.
—  Evite preguntar a sus estudiantes que adivinen al
principio de una lección (respuestas falsas→recordadas
mejor que las respuestas correctas dadas más tarde).
David Sousa, How the brain learns, 2nd edition, Corwin Press (2000, p.88)
The Use of the Primacy-Recency
Effect in Class
—  During a period of learning, we remember best what happens
first, second best what happens last, and in last place we
remember what happens in the middle.
—  This means we should teach important informacion
(concepts) first (and avoid secreatrial duties like roll call).
—  It also means we should avoid asking students to guess at the
beginning of class as false answers are rememebred better
than correct information given later.
David Sousa, How the brain learns, 2nd edition, Corwin Press (2000, p.88)
Sentido vs. Significado en las
planificaciones de clases:
—  Los profesores gastan tiempo creando lecciones que
ayudan a los estudiantes a comprender (ayudarlos a
tener sentido), y no siempre el suficiente tiempo
haciéndolo relevante para sus vidas (significado).
—  Aprendizaje inicial implica atribuir significado y
valor a la información.
D. Sousa, How The Brain Learns, Corwin Press; 2da edición (2000: 54)
Sense and Meaning in
Classroom Planning:
— Teachers spend a lot of time making sure
their lessons make sense, but little time
ensuring they have meaning in the lives of
their students.
— Initial learning involves being able to attribute
significance and value to the information.
David Sousa, How the brain learns, 2nd edition, Corwin Press (2000, p.54)
Buenos Ambientes de Aprendizaje
por Dorothy Billington:
Siete factores en buenos ambientes de
aprendizaje:
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
Ambiente seguro
Libertad intelectual
Respeto
Auto-dirigido
Retos paulatinos
Aprendizaje activo
Retroalimentación
Por Dorothy D. Billington. PhD Seven Characteristics of Highly Effective Adult Learning Programs
Good Learning Environments
by Dorothy Billington:
Seven factors influence learning environments:
1.  Sense of security
2.  Intellectual liberty
3.  Respet
4.  Self-directedness
5.  Paced goals
6.  Active learning
7.  Feedback
By Dorothy D. Billington. PhD Seven Characteristics of Highly Effective Adult Learning Programs
EDUCATION
—  Sense of security
EDUCATION
—  Intellectual liberty
EDUCATION
—  Respet
EDUCATION
—  Self-directed learning
EDUCATION
—  Paced challenges
EDUCATION
—  Active learning
EDUCATION
— Feedback
El ambiente de aprendizaje
adecuado para el crecimiento:
—  “Un ambiente de aprendizaje adecuado para
el crecimiento incluye una atmósfera de
confianza, formas de interacción entre
compañeros, situaciones de aprendizaje que
estimulan los encuentros y, sobre todo,
arreglos de aprendizaje que permitan
maneras creativas de exploración haciendo
contacto con el mundo dentro y fuera del
aprendiz,” (Legutke & Thomas 1991, p.43).
—  "... cálida interacción entre profesores y estudiantes,
y entre los mismos estudiantes. Esta interacción
amigable es, en nuestra opinión, el factor más
esencial en el aprendizaje exitoso de idiomas."
Sano, M., Takahashi, M. & Yoneyama, A. (1984). Communicative language teaching
and local needs. English Language Teaching Journal, 38/3, 170-177.
Herramientas específicas
Specific Tools
Identifying similarities and differences
(Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001)
—  Compare
—  Classify
—  Create metaphors
—  Create analogies
Summarizing (Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001)
—  “Rule-based strategy” (help students identify what is
trivial or redundant and identify topic sentences--or
write one themselves)
—  “Summary Frames”
—  Structures for organizing information (e.g., in a narrative,
identify the main characters, setting, time, etc.)
—  Reciprocal teaching
—  (1) Summarizing; (2) questioning; (3) clarifying; (4)
predicting
Note taking (Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001)
—  Note taking
—  Format:
—  Teacher-prepared
—  Student-prepared (informal
outlining, webbing)
—  (Combination)
Homework (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
—  Establish and
communicate
expectations
(homework policy)
—  Design homework
assignments with
purpose and identified
outcome.
—  Vary feedback
mechanisms.
Practice (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
—  Design practice that focuses
on specific elements of
complex skills (break down
skill areas)
—  Chart progress (accuracy
and speed)
—  Give time for practice (to
solidify conceptual
understanding of skills or
processes)
Nonlinguistic representations
(Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001)
—  Use of graphic organizers
—  Use of physical models
—  Mental pictures
♦ Drawings
♦ Mind maps
♦ Rubrics
Reinforcing Effort and Providing
Recognition (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
—  Explicitly teach about
effort
—  Keep track of effort and
achievement
—  Personalize recognition
—  Pause, prompt, and praise
—  Concrete symbols of
recognition
Cooperative Learning
(Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
—  Groups students in a variety
of ways using clear criteria
—  Consciously use informal,
formal and base group
organization
—  Ensure manageable group
size
—  Use as both a method as
well as a means.
Cooperative learning
(Allen, 2002)
—  “Cooperative learning physiologically engages
more of the brain's neural networks through the
stimulation of sensory information from
kinesthetic, visual, and auditory input....
cooperative learning taps into students’ ‘natural
capacities to be engaged socially and emotionally’
and supports their efforts to construct
knowledge and apply it in problem solving, says
Dickmann.”
Rick Allen (2002), descargada de ACSD: http://www.ascd.org
Set clear objectives
(Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
—  Set specific but flexible
goals
—  Be sure the objectives
are shared with the
student.
—  Develop contracts
where appropriate.
Provide precise feedback
(Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
—  Provide clear
understanding of
evaluation criteria (e.g.,
rubrics)
—  Focus feedback for
specific types of
knowledge and skill
—  Use student-led feedback
structures in addition to
teacher feedback.
Habits of Mind (Marzano, 1992)
The ability to generating and test
hypothese through:
—  Systems analysis
—  Problem solving
—  Historical investigation
—  Invention
—  Experimental inquiry
—  Decision making
And the ability to justify findings
and re-think problems.
—  ¿Desde qué punto de vista, ángulo o perspectiva
se plantea esto?
—  ¿ Cómo nos damos cuenta cuando sabemos?
—  ¿Qué evidencia hay de esto y qué tan confiable
es?
—  ¿De qué manera se conectan las cosas, los
eventos y las personas entre sí?
—  ¿Cuál es la causa y cuál el efecto?
—  ¿En qué forma encajan unas con otras?
—  ¿Qué es nuevo y qué es viejo?
—  ¿Hemos encontrado esta idea anteriormente?
—  ¿Qué importancia tiene y por qué significa algo?
The Art of Questioning
—  Provide explicit cues
—  Develop questions that elicit inferences
—  Generate analytic questions.
§  ¿Qué sabemos acerca de ….?
§  ¿Cómo sabemos ….?
§  ¿Por qué aceptamos o creemos que ….?
§  ¿Hay evidencia para ….?
Advanced Organizers
(Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
—  Preview and activate student knowledge
—  “Expository advance organizers” describe new content to
students
—  “Narrative advance organizer” present information to
students in story format.
—  “Skimming” information before reading advances knowledge
(preview)
—  “Graphic organizers” are one form of advance organizers.
Summary
—  There are general tools that facilitate student learning
(e.g., creating good learning environments; considering
the role of emotions in learning; primacy-receny; sense
and meaning)
—  There are specific tools that facilitate student learning
(e.g., note taking; summarizing; questioning; clear
objectives, cooperative learning; reinforcing effort;
feedback; nonlinguistic representations, organizers;
homework; in-class practice).
—  Both general and specific tools become second nature
to great teachers.
In practice:
— Choose one tool you have not
taken advantage of in the past
and think about how you will
apply it starting tomorrow:
General Tools
—  Creating good learning
environments;
—  Considering the role of emotions
in learning;
Specific Tools
—  Note taking;
—  Summarizing;
—  Questioning;
—  Primacy-receny;
—  Clear objectives;
—  Sense and meaning
—  Cooperative learning;
—  Reinforcing effort;
—  Feedback;
—  Nonlinguistic representations;
—  Organizers;
—  Homework;
—  In-class practice
Referencias
Abbott, J. & Ryan, T. (1999). Constructing knowledge, reconstructing
schooling. Educational Leadership, 57(3), 66-70.
Allen, R. (2002). Honing the tools of instruction: How research can improve
teaching for the 21st century. Curriculum Update 8, 1-3.
Ames, C. (1992). Classroom goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H.
Freeman. Billington, D. (1997). Seven characteristics of highly effective adult learning
environments. Retrieved January 4 2005 from www.newhorizons.com.
Coplen, W., Duffield, J., Swimpson, I., Taylor, D. (2005) Developing the moduel: Monitoring
student progress. PowerPoint. Descargada de www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/
schools/churchillwootton/CITW%20powerpt..ppt el 12 de octubre 2008.
Giordano, P. J. (2003). Critical moments in learning: Student, faculty, and alumni
experiences. Workshop presented at the meeting of the National Lilly
Conference on College Teaching, Oxford, OH.
Marzano (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Virginia:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Marzano, R., Pickering, D.J., and Pollock, J.E. (2001). Classroom instruction that
works: research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Virginia:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Sousa, D. (2000). How the brain learns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2000). Reconcilable Differences? Standards-Based
Teaching and Differentiation. Educational Leadership, 58(1), 6-12.
Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (2005). Best practice: new standards for
teaching and learning in America’s schools, 3rd ed.. New Hampshire:
Heinemann.
Más información
For more information:
Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa, Ph.D.
Universidad San Francisco de Quito
Edif. Galileo #101
Telf: 297-1700 x1338
[email protected]
—  Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa es Directora del Instituto del Cerebro, Mente
y Desarrollo Educativo, Directora del Centro de Evaluación y Excelencia
Académica, y Co-Directora de la Maestría de Educación para Médicos en
la Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador.
—  Tracey tiene su Maestría en Educación de la Universidad de Harvard en
Desarrollo Internacional y recibió su doctorado (PhD) en Educación con
su tesis en Neuroeducación / la Ciencia de Mente, Cerebro y Educación /
Neurociencia Educacional (Capella University) en agosto 2008.

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