is a respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses belong to the

Comments

Transcription

is a respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses belong to the
is a respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses
belong to the family of Oortomeksoveriday (Name:
Orthomyxoviridae), which often affect the pigs. This
type of virus causing outbreaks of influenza in pigs
periodically in a number of countries including the
United States and Mexico (on the basis of the
scourge), Canada, South America and Europe and
East Asia [1] [2]. Swine flu viruses, leading to injuries
and high levels of disease, but is characterized by low
rates of death from the disease in the pig [3]. Influenza
viruses remain deployed in the pigs throughout the
year, but most cases of epidemic spread among pigs
in the late autumn and winter, as is the case in
humans. [4].
Swine influenza virus transmission to humans is
relatively rare, especially the cooking of pork before
consumption leads to disruption of the
virus The virus does not cause the symptoms of
influenza to humans and in most cases, knowledge of
personal injury is only the analysis of the disease in the
blood concentration of antigen. And the infection
usually affects people working in the field of pig
breeding only where there is constant contact, which
increases the likelihood of HIV transmission. Since the
mid-twentieth century have been recorded fifty human
cases infected with swine flu, and usually the
symptoms of infection are similar to flu symptoms,
pharyngitis and common Kaanqan high body
temperature and fatigue and muscle pain and headache
and cough.
Viruses known to cause symptoms of influenza virus
in two pigs and a bird flu virus C, a virus and is
common among pigs. Although the ability of both a
and c virus infection, however, that the human
species that infect the human serological differ from
those to which infect pigs. And the virus usually does
not move between the various factions of living only if
there is restructuring of the virus, then the virus could
move between human and pigs and birds.
A virus infects both humans and pigs and birds, have
been identified and are currently four sub-types of
influenza A virus has been isolated in pigs: H1N1,
H1N2, H3N2, H3N1. [5]. However, most influenza
viruses have been isolated - through the infection in
2009 - was of swine viruses, H1N1. Was to isolate the
classical swine flu virus (influenza virus type H1N1)
for the first time from pigs in 1930 [6].
C flu virus infects both humans and pigs, but only a
rare move for the people and that the lack of genetic
diversity and host organisms of the virus. The cause
of the virus outbreak in Japan in 1996 and 1998 and
California. [7]
Influenza disease is common in pigs, it is estimated
that about half of the pigs in the United States are
exposed to the virus during their lives. [22] is spread
by direct contact between animals and patients
another safe, and this increases the risk of
transmission of the disease in Mistira containing large
numbers of pigs. And transmit the disease either
through contact with pigs noses with each other or
through droplets resulting from coughing and
sneezing. As wild boar are believed to play an
important role in the transfer of infection between
farms. [23] [24]
Involved in pig raising and sponsorship are more
vulnerable to the disease. Swine flu viruses infect
humans occurs when communication between people
and infected pigs. The infection also occur when
moving objects contaminated people to pigs. Pigs can
be infected by bird flu or human influenza. When avian
influenza viruses infect different types of pigs that can
be mixed with pork and show a new hybrid viruses.
[25]
And pigs can be moved once again modified viruses
to humans and can be transferred from one person to
another, and believes that the transition occurs
between human beings the same way seasonal
influenza through contact with something of the flu
viruses and then touching the mouth or nose through
coughing and sneezing
Infection of pigs caused high fever and cough and
sneeze and breathing problems and lack of appetite,
and in some cases the infection may lead to abortion.
Despite the low death rate (1-4%), but the infection will
lead to a decrease in the rate of 12-pound weight
during the 3 to 4 weeks, thus causing financial loss to
farmers. [27]
According to the Centers for Disease Control and
prevention (CDC), the swine flu symptoms in humans
similar to the symptoms of seasonal influenza is the
sudden rise in temperature, cough and pain in
muscles and strain. It seems that this new strain is
causing more diarrhea and vomiting, more than the
regular flu. [28] can not differentiate between the
common flu and avian influenza among pigs only
through laboratory examination determines the type
of virus, the CDC urged doctors in the United States
on the development of swine flu in the diagnosis
differential for all patients with symptoms of influenza
and the injured person had been infected with swine
flu in one or were infected with influenza States of
America. [29]
Prevention depends largely on farm management is to
prevent the spread of infection, and are therefore
raising the level of hygiene and sterilization and
health care and isolation of sick animals. The
reduction of the density of pigs in each farm to
prevent the spread of infection dramatically,
especially in the process of controlling the infection
by the vaccine is usually only fail. In recent years, the
vaccine used has become ineffective in many cases a
result of the evolution of the virus mutate and
continuous.
the prevention of transmission from pigs
Although the possibility of human infection from the
injury a few pigs (recorded 50 cases since the midtwentieth century), but farmers are advised to contact
them and from the use of pig nose and mouth masks
to prevent infection. It also advised the farmers to
receive the vaccine against swine flu. [30]
the prevention of transmission between humans
Hijacked train in Mexico, wearing masks and bricks
Akipthd following probability of transmission between
humans:
Hand-washing with soap and water several times a
day.
Avoid approaching the person with the disease.
The need to cover the nose and mouth when coughing
Bmnadel paper.
Importance of the use of masks to the nose and
mouth to prevent the spread of the virus.
Avoid touching the eye or nose in the case of
contamination of the hands in order to prevent the
spread of germs.
If you have you or a member of your family from flulike symptoms, the physician treating you Mkhalt of
the pigs, you may be sick with influenza.
Infection must be diagnosed quickly by taking a
sample from the nose or throat to determine whether
you are infected with swine flu.
^ - Swine Flu: Your Health Questions Answered
2. ^ Swine influenza. The Merck Veterinary Manual.
2008. Retrieved on May 6, 2009
3. ^ Illinois Department of Public Health
4. ^ Straw, B.E., J.J. Zimmerman, S. D’Allaire, and D.J.
Taylor, D.J., eds. 2006. In: Diseases of Swine, 9th ed.,
Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA. p. 201-244.
5. ^
LEKCHAROENSUK
P,
LAGER
KM,
VEMULAPALLI R, WOODRUFF M, VINCENT AL,
RICHT JA. Novel Swine Influenza Virus Subtype H3N1,
United States, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2006,
Volume 12, N°5, 787-794
6. ^ Bikour, M. H., E. H. Frost, S. Deslandes, B. Talbot, and
Y. Elazhary. 1995. Persistence of a 1930 swine influenza
A (H1N1) virus in Quebec. J. Gen. Virol.
7. ^ Matsuzaki Y, Sugawara K, Mizuta K, et al (February
2002). "Antigenic and genetic characterization of
influenza C viruses which caused two outbreaks in
Yamagata City, Japan, in 1996 and 1998". J. Clin.
Microbiol. 40 (2): 422–9
8. ^ Alfred Crosby, America's Forgotten Pandemic,
Cambridge University Press, 1985; Andrew Price-Smith,
Contagion and Chaos, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.
9. ^ Taubenberger JK, Morens DM (2006). "1918 Influenza:
the mother of all pandemics". Emerg Infect Dis 12 (1):
15–22
10.
^ Vana G and Westover KM. Origin of the 1918
Spanish influenza virus: a comparative genomic analysis.
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008 Jun;47(3):1100-10. 2008 Feb
14
11.
^ Swine Influenza A Outbreak, Fort Dix, New
Jersey, 1976. Emerging Infectious Diseases
(2006-01). PDF
12.
^ "What Can We Learn From the 1976 Flu
Debacle?"،13.
Glenn Beck Fox News،14. April 27,
15.
^ http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/key_facts.htm Key
Facts About Swine Flu (CDC)
16.
^ Jason George (April 28, 2009). "Swine flu: Last
U.S. swine flu death in 1988 in Wisconsin". Chicago
Tribune.
17.
^ "DA probes reported swine flu 'outbreak' in N.
Ecija". Gmanews.tv. Retrieved on 2009-05-06.
18.
^ "Gov't declares hog cholera alert in Luzon".
Gmanews.tv. Retrieved on 2009-05-06.
19.
^ Maria Zampaglione (April 29, 2009). "Press
Release: A/H1N1 influenza like human illness in Mexico
and the USA: OIE statement". World Organisation for
Animal Health. Retrieved on May 6, 2009.
20.
^ Influenza A(H1N1) - update 16
21.
^ US navy halts aid vessel over flu. BBC NEWS.
Wednesday, 6 May 2009
22.
^ "Deadly new flu virus in US and Mexico may go
pandemic". New Scientist. 2009-04-24. Retrieved on 2009-
05-06.
23.
^ [V Trifonov, H Khiabanian, B Greenbaum, R
Rabadan (30 April 2009). "The origin of the recent swine
influenza
A(H1N1)
virus
infecting
humans".
Eurosurveillance
4
(17).
http://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V14
N17/art19193.pdf.]
24.
^ "Influenza Factsheet". Center for Food Security
and Public Health, Iowa State University.
25.
^ Mary J. Gilchrist, Christina Greko, David B.
Wallinga, George W. Beran, David G. Riley, and Peter S.
Thorne. The Potential Role of Concentrated Animal
Feeding Operations in Infectious Disease Epidemics and
Antibiotic Resistance. Environ Health Perspect. 2007
February; 115(2): 313–316.
26.
^ Vicente, J.; Leon-vizcaino, L.; Gortazar, C.; Jose
Cubero, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Martin-atance, P. (2002),
"Antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in
European wild boars from southcentral Spain", Journal
of wildlife diseases 38 (3): 649.
27.
^ reuters ،28. 25-04-2009
29.
^ ،‫ة‬30.
25-04-2009
31.
^ The Merck Veterinary Manual
32.
^ "Swine Flu and You". CDC. 2009-04-26. Retrieved
on 2009-05-06.
33.
^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (April
26, 2009). "CDC Health Update: Swine Influenza A
(H1N1) Update: New Interim Recommendations and
Guidance for Health Directors about Strategic National
Stockpile Materiel". Health Alert Network. Retrieved on
May 6, 2009
34. ^ Ramirez A, Capuano AW, Wellman DA, Lesher
KA, Setterquist SF, Gray GC (June 2006). "Preventing
zoonotic influenza virus infection". Emerging Infect. Dis.
12 (6): 996–1000

Similar documents