Module 9 – Specific Aspects of the Evaluation of

Comments

Transcription

Module 9 – Specific Aspects of the Evaluation of
Module 9 – The Contributions of
Program Evaluation to Poverty
Reduction
Introductory Discussion
• How can evaluation help determine the
contribution of programs to poverty
reduction?
2017-08-12
2
Clarify the Causal Relations
Between the Project/Program
and Poverty
IMPACT
IMPACT
EFFECTS
OUTCOMES
DIRECT
OUTPUTS
RESULTS
INPUTS
INPUTS
2017-08-12
Effect on living conditions
• infant and infant/juvenile mortality
• incidence of specific diseases
Access, utilization and satisfaction
• number of children who were vaccinated
• % within 5 kms of a health centre
Goods and services produced
•number of nurses
• availability of medications
... Then there
will be an
impact on
poverty if the
project
reaches its
objective
Financial and material resources
•primary health care expenditures
3
Causal Relations Between a
Project/Program and Poverty
• Poverty and the impact on poverty (in a broad
sense) are among the criteria for evaluating the
success of programs.
• The definition of poverty is quite broad (revenues
and consumption, health, education, access to
basic services, security, etc.). Therefore, most
public policies and development aid programs
contribute to poverty reduction.
• But, for each specific project or program, it is
necessary to identify the dimensions of poverty
on which the contribution will focus and to
precisely identify the various groups of
beneficiaries.
2017-08-12
4
Need for a National Evaluation
System
• The measurement of impacts on poverty
requires specific investigations which, in
some respects, go beyond the project or
program level.
2017-08-12
5
A National Evaluation System
The ‘logical framework’ outlines four levels
of monitoring and evaluation activities
Impacts
Outcomes
Impact on the standard of living
Who are the beneficiaries?
(access, utilization and satisfaction)
Outputs
Goods and service produced by the
project
Inputs
Resources generated for the project
2017-08-12
6
A National Evaluation System
• Identification of the information needed to
evaluate the impact:
– The evaluation of the global effect of the
measures implemented on well-being and
poverty levels: “ The evaluation of impacts
and the monitoring of beneficiaries require
specific data,the collection of which requires
a concerted effort.”
2017-08-12
7
A National Evaluation System
Questions
Information
Frequency
Breakdown
Source of Information
Impact evaluation
Groups whose health,
resources, level of employment
and level of education have
improved as the result of the
governments’ intervention and
program?
GDP
% below the poverty
line
P-alpha indices
Data on income,
consumption,
employment, health and
education of households
Yearly
(Every 5 years (can be
annual for small
samples)
Country
Province / district /
Socio-economic group
(SEG)
National accounts
1.
Household budgets or
Integrated Survey
2.
Price statistics
Evolution of poverty (passage
from one side of the poverty
line to the other: allocation of
resources within the
household)
See above
Every 3 to 5 years
Some collectivities /
SEGs
Surveys of households and
panels
Poverty distribution maps
Information produced
by a census of the
population and a followup survey
Decennial survey and
periodic surveys
Collectivities / parishes
Census, surveys of
households
Monitoring of results (beneficiaries)
Do poor people have more
access to services and
programs?
Distance to travel for
each socio-economic
group (per household or
collectivity)
Annual
Province / District / SEG
Survey on service delivery or
CWIQ (Core Welfare
Indicator Questionnaire)
Do they use these services and
programs?
Utilization rates
(registration rates, etc.)
Annual
Province / District / SEG
Survey on service delivery or
CWIQ
Are the programs and services
adapted to the
Satisfaction indicators
Annual
Province / District / SEG
CWIQ and Participatory
Poverty Evaluation
2017-08-12
8
Some Sources of Information
• National and local data:
–
–
–
–
National accounts
Data on public expenditures and services
Price index
Production data
• Household data:
– Census
– Surveys: Integrated Survey, Demographic and Health
Survey (DHS), labour market, service utilization, etc.
2017-08-12
9
How Can One Be Sure the Impact
Results from the Program?
The project contributes
only to poverty
reduction
Impact on poverty
Measured effects
Its objective is specific to
the project
Objective
Level of uncertainty
The attribution issue is especially important when it comes to
the impact. One must be able to say what would have
happened, in respect to poverty, without
the project or the program!
2017-08-12
10
How Can One Be Sure the Impact
Results from the Program?
• Questions that must be answered:
– Has the professional training program
contributed to job placements, or would
these people have found work anyway?
– Has the supply of textbooks contributed to
the improvement of education levels or is
this improvement caused by other factors?
– Has the micro-financing project improved
the standard of living of families or has their
standard of living improved due to other
factors?
2017-08-12
11
How Can One Be Sure the Impact
Results from the Program?
• Going back to quantitative methods with a
comparison group, their difficulties, and
the ways that are being explored to
overcome them…
“Despite the billions of dollars spent on development
assistance each year, there is still very little known
about the actual impact of projects on the poor”.
Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty,
A Handbook for Practitioners, Judy L. Baker
2017-08-12
12
Detailed Presentation of your Case
• Your own experience of the evaluation of a
project or program’s contribution to
poverty reduction
2017-08-12
13

Similar documents