What Do Young People Say About HIV and AIDS

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What Do Young People Say About HIV and AIDS
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mary Huang
Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
University Putra Malaysia
In 2004 6,000 young people (15 – 24)
years were infected each day bringing
to 10 million the total number of young
people living with HIV
Distribution of Malaysian PLWHs by Age
Groups
Total Cases Between 1986 to 2005
28804
24234
30000
25000
20000
11989
15000
10000
578
5000
997
0
<13
13-19
<13
13-19
20-29
20-29
30-39
30-39
40+
40+
Percentage of women infected by
HIV in Malaysia is increasing
19860
100
1995
4.15
2005
11.59
0%
95.85
88.41
20%
40%
Female
60%
Male
80%
100%
Total women infected
by year - Malaysia
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
HIV
AIDS
Deaths
1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2003
Study by NS Sidek, 2004 in STB Sg. Besi
Know ledge score
%
High level (15-28 correct answ ers)
25.0
Medium level (10-15 correct answ ers)
37.5
Low level (<10 correct answ ers)
37.5
Attitude score
%
Good attitude (35-45 correct answ ers)
18.8
Mediocre attitude (25-34 correct answ ers)
76.3
Poor attitude (<25 correct answ ers)
5.0
Sexual behavior
%
Have experienced sexual intercourse
Yes
61.3
No
38.8
Age at first sexual intercourse
Mean Age
Use of contraception
14.67
%
Never
73.5
Som etim es
20.4
Alw ays
6.1
Who they had Sex with
Female friends only
65.3%
Sex Workers only
10.2%
Female friends & sex workers
8.2%
Female as well as male friends
4.1%
Males friends
12.2%
How sex took place?
Voluntarily
77.6%
After much persuasion
12.2%
By force
8.2%
Others
2.0%
HIV/AIDS
Young
Malaysians
PRACTICES AND
BEHAVIOR
7, 045 Adolescents (14 – 21)
% Distribution by Drug Use & Types of Drugs
Used
PRACTICES
•Ever Used Drugs
• Types: Total N
 Marijuana
 Heroin
 Morphine
 Codeine
 Solvent
 Ecstasy
Serenti
100
205
74.8
66.1
46.2
43.3
28.6
50.5
Out-Sch In-Sch
13.8
108
70.1
24.1
9.2
27.8
10.2
38.0
3.4
191
31
11.6
8.9
88.9
23.1
23.7
Tertiary
5.4
21
47.6
4.8
9.5
28.6
19.0
23.8
% Distribution of Methods of Drug Use
Method of Drug Use Serenti
(205)
Smoke
66.1
OutSch
(108)
69.4
Sniff
2.1
Chasing
Inject
Ever shared needles
in the last 2 years
In-Sch Tertiary
(191)
(21)
39.3
47.6
13.8
19.4
9.5
65.7
27.8
4.7
9.5
51.2
27.8
10.5
4.8
78
100
-
100
% Distribution by Sexual Behavior
Serenti Out-sch In-Scho Tertiary
Ever Engaged in
Penetrative sex
Penis-Vagina
Anal Sex
Oral Sex
Sex with a drug
user: Yes
No
Don’t Know
75.7
24.2
1.2
6.5
69.0
11.9
26.7
19.3
6.0
9.9
-
4.7
2.6
3.9
20.8
54.1
25.1
4.2
70.9
24.9
-
4.0
48.0
48.0
Condom Use among Respondents who
had ever had Penetrative Sex
All the time
8.2
OutSch
189
18.0
Never
48.4
49.7
28.0
Sometimes
43.4
21.3
52.0
 Condom Use
Serenti
159
In-Sch. Tertiary
25
-
16.0
KNOWLEDGE
Ever Heard HIV
Could define HIV correctly
Ever Heard AIDS
Could define AIDS correctly
No.
5103
2071
5641
3320
%
90.0
36.5
99.5
58.6
Known to 90% of School Students
• Caused by a virus
• Food or stress cannot give you AIDS
• Contracted by sharing needles or having many
partners
• It is a serious disease caused by a virus that
cannot travel through the air
• Can be passed on from an infected mother
to her child
Known to 80% of the Students
Not restricted to homosexuals
Cannot be cured even if diagnosed early
Not all gay men have AIDS
Not a disease restricted to bisexual males
Medical problem in which the body cannot fight off
infections
Known to 70% of the Students
Development of secondary infections
Confirm positive blood test for HIV antibody –
means that a person is infected
There is no cure for AIDS
A person does not need to have symptoms
in order to infect others
Anybody can get AIDS
We can be infected without knowing it
Known to 60% of the Students
There is no vaccine (new medication)
which can prevent you from getting
HIV
Cannot be avoided by exercising daily
Known to < 50% of the Students
Only 37.0% knew that
an infected person can
still look good and feel
well
HIV Antibody Test
Looks for antibodies in the blood, not the HIV virus.
Must be accompanied by pre- and post-test
counseling.
Window Period - the period during which antibodies
cannot be detected despite the possible presence
of HIV. Can be up to six months but a person
with HIV is infectious from day one.
Tests conducted are confidential.
Knowledge about transmission
You
CANNOT
get HIV by…
Sharing food/drinks
– 95.9%
Studying/schooling together
- >90%
You
CANNOT
get HIV by…
Kissing on cheek–
81.8%
Peck on lips 36.9%
Playing together
Hugging – 79.8
You
CANNOT
get HIV by…
Sharing of
beds/house/ho
me equipments
Using public
facilities i.e.
swimming pool,
telephones etc.
Blood
Exchange of infected blood
1.
Sharing of contaminated needles
or syringes
2. Blood transfusion or organ
transplant.
Mother to Child
1.
During pregnancy.
2. While giving birth.
3.
When breastfeeding.
About 30% of babies born to HIV+ women are infected with
the virus. However, the possibilities can be reduced with
anti-HIV therapy such as using AZT.
NOT SURE????
Transmission Knowledge
By donating blood – 61.8%
Exchange of Saliva - 46.1%
Risk of contracting HIV/AIDS from a
blood transfusion in a hospital is low –
63.3%
Anal sex without the use
of the condom is a means
of contracting the virus 79.3%
Transmission Knowledge
Mosquito bites can transmit
the virus – 52.2%
A person can only get HIV/AIDS if
he/she has sexual intercourse with a sex
worker – 23.2%
Source of Information on HIV/AIDS
Radio
Magazines
Newspapers
T.V.
School
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
The Person Who Provided the Information
on HIV and AIDS
Mother
Father
Friends
Teachers
Dr/Nurses
0
10
20
30
40
Feelings About Information
X response
X interested
X want more
Want More
E but confuse
Enough
0
10
20
30
40
Total: 6,564 Students
Langkawi
Penang
Melaka
Kelantan
0
500
1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000
Distribution of Students
by Sex
Males
Females
Median Age: 15 years
Places Where the study was Carried out
Serenti
13
Factory
51
Tertiary
681
Secondary
5,426
Primary
393
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Percent of youths who have
heard of HIV and STIs
100
80
60
47.9
37.8
35
33.5
39.7
40
20
0
All
Kelantan
Melaka
Penang
Langkawi
HIV
STIs
Mean score on the knowledge
of HIV transmission
7.8 7.7
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.2
7
6.8
6.6
6.4
6.2
6
5.8
7.1 7.2
6.9
6.8
All Respondents
6.5 6.5
Kelantan
Melaka
Penang Langkawi
Secondary school
Percent who provided incorrect response
to the modes of HIV transmission
42.5
45
43.6
42.3
40
33.4
35
29
30
24.8 23
25
20
15
14.8 13.9
10.8
10
5
0
)
s) o)
o)
o) es) es) o) es) No) es
e
(Y r (N
(Y s (N ir (N (Y (Y o (N (Y s (
s
e
n
y
d
m
p
it
rs
A
ug cu gh rke atio qu bab han ndo eth
r
s
g
d
g
n
o
u
of arin hro x w do Mo r to ing t co g to
n
e
ld ou vin
T s e od
h
io Sh
o
t
t
o
th Li
lo
c
H
i
h
t
e
B
i
M
j
w
w
In
x
e
x
s
Se
g
n
i
av
H
• 55% respondents  HIV person can be
identified
• 47% respondents  HIV can be cured
• Unaware of the consequences of
unprotected sex
– 32.7% STIs
– 27.1% unwanted pregnancy
– 18.5% HIV
• Young people most likely to mention that
parents (86.3%), followed by health
workers (76.8%), friends (69%),
schoolmates (64.3%) as persons whom
they turn to for help from risky behavior
Health personnel
Community
leaders/volunteers
Relatives
Peer educat ors
Friends
Workshop/Seminar
Internet
Pamphlets
Magazines
Newspapers
Television
Radio
School
From where they obtained
Information on HIV/AIDS
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Sources of Information on
HIV/AIDS and STIs
70
61.4
59.3
60
48.1
50
40
44.2
37.7
35
29.4
26.7
30
25.8
HIV
19.6
18.7
20
15.1
10
0
s
s
er
se
r
r
u
ctu
/n
e
l
s
/
r
rs
to
c
e
ch
Do
a
Te
Si
gs
n
i
bl
F
ds
n
rie
r
he
t
Fa
M
r
he
t
o
STIs
Preferred Sources of Information
70
60
50
40
30
HIV
20
STIs
10
0
s
se
ur
n
/
rs
to
D
oc
a
Te
rs
e
ch
S
gs
n
li
ib
i
Fr
ds
n
e
r
he
t
Fa
M
er
h
ot
Percent who felt that they have sufficient
knowledge to protect young people
from HIV and STIs
70
61.6
60
52.2
50
50
40
FLE Educator
30.7
30
20
10
0
HIV
STIs
Peer group
WHAT YOUNG PEOPLE WANT?
• Improving knowledge on HIV/AIDS among the
youths and educators
– Knowledge tends to be superficial
– Not aware of specific modes of transmissions myths
and misconceptions about disease  perpetuate stigma &
discrimination
– Need to educate young people & teach them life skills 
negotiation, conflict resolution, critical thinking,
decision-making & communication, improve selfconfidence & ability to make informed choices,
postponing sex until they are mature
– Increasing knowledge thro schools, communities, media

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