Aquaculture systems

Comments

Transcription

Aquaculture systems
Overview of
Aquaculture
World annual average per capita consumption
of fish and fishery products
(kg/capita)
11.5
12.5
1970s
1980s
14.5
1990s
16.7
16.7?
2006
2030
World Fish Production
(1951-2006)
160.0 Million tonnes
140.0
Capture (marine waters)
Capture (inland waters)
Total aquaculture
120.0
Million tonnes
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
1951
1956
1961
1966
1971
1976
1981
1986
1991
1996
2001
2006
Global Aquaculture Production (includes plants)
60
80
Volume
70
Value
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
0
1950
10
0
1960
1970
1980
Year
1990
2000
Production value (million US$)
Production quantities (million
tonnes)
70
Global Aquaculture Production
70
Production quantity (tonne x 106)
60
50
40
Production quantity
(tonne x 106)
China vs Rest of Asia
60
Asia
China
40
20
0
1950
30
Rest of
Asia
1970
Year
1990
20
10
Rest of World
0
1950
1960
1970
1980
Year
1990
2000
Contribution to food-fish supply
120
million tonnes
100
80
50.0%
Aquaculture
Capture
AQ share
40.0%
30.0%
60
20.0%
40
10.0%
20
0
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
0.0%
2005
Aquaculture Production
50,000,000
45,000,000
40,000,000
35,000,000
30,000,000
25,000,000
20,000,000
15,000,000
10,000,000
5,000,000
0
Crustacea
Herbivores
Plankton Feeders
Carnivores
Molluscs
Omnivores
19
80
19
82
19
84
19
86
19
88
19
90
19
92
19
94
19
96
19
98
20
00
20
02
20
04
Tons
Aquaculture Production
Year
Aquaculture Production
100%
80%
Mariculture
60%
Freshwater
40%
Brackish
20%
Year
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
1982
0%
1980
Percentage Production
Aquaculture Production in Major Environments
Contribution of fish to human diet (2003)
WORLD
15.5
LIFDC's
19.4
6.7
South America
North and Central America
7.7
Oceania
9.8
Europe
10.0
18.7
Africa
Asia
22.0
0
5
10
15
20
Fish as percentage of total animal protein intake
25
Fish is the most valuable exported agricultural
commodity from developing countries
Net exports of selected agricultural commodities by developing countries
US$ billions
20.0
1982
1992
2002
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
-5.0
Fish
Coffee
Cocoa
Bananas
Rubber
Sugar
Tea
Rice
Tobacco
Meat
Fish exports (1976–2005)
US$ billion
Developed countries or areas
Developing countries or areas
40
US$ billion
30
20
10
1976
78
80
82
84
86
88
90
year
92
94
96
98
2000
2002
2004
World Fish Trade 2005 (by value)
Exports
Imports
Others
7%
Developing
countries
18%
Japan
18%
Others
20%
USA
5%
Japan
2%
EU (25)
25%
USA
15%
Developing
countries
48%
EU (25)
40%
Commodity breakdown (Trade)
8%
19%
42%
8%
4%
1%3%
3%
12%
Tuna
Shrimp
Salmon
Pelagics
Demersals
Cephalopods
Fishmeal
Fish oil
Others
• Aquaculture still is the fastest growing
food producing sector in the world.
• Aquaculture now accounts for almost
50% of the global food fish.
• In 2006 51.7 million tonnes of aquatic
animals worth USD 78.8 billion were
produced globally.
• Given the projected population growth,
an additional 27 million tonnes of aquatic
food will be required by 2030, at least to
maintain the current per caput
consumption.
• Since 1970, aquaculture sector
maintained an average annual rate of
growth of 8.7 percent worldwide, and
• 6.5 percent per year when excluding
China.
• The rate of growth of aquaculture
production between 2004 and 2006
were 6.1 percent in volume and 11.0
percent in value.
Aquaculture trends and forecast
• Aquaculture will intensify, diversify, and expand
• Production of all species groups (including
seaweeds) will be increased
• New species will appear
• All environments will be increasingly utilized
• More and more resources will be used in
increasing quantities.
• More people will be involved in aquaculture
production.
• More and more constraints to be faced!
Photograph by HBOI
Fisheries stock enhancement
Photograph by HBOI
Ornamentals
Photograph by HBOI
Bait production
Photograph by HBOI
Biomedical
Commercially Cultured Species
Photograph by HBOI
Catfish
Tilapia
Trout
Salmon
Striped Bass
Oysters
Clams
Shrimp
Research and Development Species
Snapper
Cobia
Flounder
Pompano
Sturgeon
Tuna
Conch
Lobster
Photograph by HBOI
Aquaculture Systems
• Open
– Netpens, cages, longlines, bottom
culture
• Semi-closed
– Ponds, raceways, tanks
• Closed
– raceways, tanks
Water Systems
• Flow-through: one time use of
water
• Recirculation: reuse of water
Aquaculture systems: Closed
• Water is reused - little or no effluent
• Sophisticated water filtration and treatment
• Recirculating aquaculture systems,
aquariums
Photograph by HBOI
Aquaculture systems: Flow-through
Water
Source
Effluent
Photographs by HBOI
Pretreatment
Rearing
Tank
Aquaculture systems:
Recirculating
Water
Source
Post treatment
Effluent
Pretreatment
Water treatment
Biofiltration
Disinfection
Rearing
Tank
Photographs by HBOI
Recirculating aquaculture systems
Advantages
• Environmental control
• Free of outside contaminants
• Fewer regulatory constraints
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•
•
Higher costs
Higher skill level
Complex system, potential problems
Must provide all feed
Buildup of toxins & pathogens
Open systems:Ponds
Ponds
Open systems:Net Cages
Tilapia cages
Red tilapia
Closed systems: Circular Tanks
Rectangular tanks
Tilapia Aquaponics
Aquaponics
Aquaponics
Aquaponics

Similar documents