Diapositiva 1

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Diapositiva 1
Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia
Edifici ESAB
Carrer Esteve Terradas, 8
08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE FUTURE PIG WELFARE
POLICY IN EUROPE ON THE SPANISH SECTOR
Francesc Borrisser-Pairób, Zein Kallasa, Nuria Panella-Rierab , Maria Avenab, Beatriz
Martínezc, María Dolores Garridod, Alvaro Olivarese; Miguel Ibáñeze; M. Angels Oliverb,
José María Gila
a Centre
for Agro-food Economy and Development, Castelldefels, Barcelona.
Product Quality program, finca camps i armet, e-17121 Monells, Girona.
c Estación Tecnológica de la Carne, Instituto Tecnológico Agrario, Jta. de Castilla y León, Guijuelo.
d Facultad de Veterinaria, Tecnología de los alimentos, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia.
e Facultad de Veterinaria, Producción Animal, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid.
b IRTA-Monells,
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
1. INTRODUCTION: Background
 ANIMAL WELFARE is becoming a relevant FACTOR affecting
CONSUMER PREFERENCES.
 Consumers are DEMANDING animals being reared, fed and
housed AS CLOSELY AS POSSIBLE as they would in their
NATURAL CONDITIONS.
 The growing CONCERNS about ANIMAL WELFARE in EU are
being extensively debated, resulting in CONTINUOUS CHANGES
in regulations and POLICIES.
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
1. INTRODUCTION: Background
 EU regulations have led to BANS of a number of INTENSIVE
farming methods.
 In this context, PIG WELFARE has received and is still receiving
special attention as pork is the MOST PRODUCED and
consumed meat in the EU.
 For instance, the Council Directive 2008/120/EC has BANNED
the use of SOW STALLS by January 2012.
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
1. INTRODUCTION: Background
 About 97.6 million pigs (79.3% of the total EU pig production) are
CASTRATED in the EU, 48.7% of which were surgically CASTRATED
WITHOUT ANAESTHESIA
 Castration can be LEGALLY performed without anaesthetics during
the first SEVEN days after birth
 After that should only be performed under
ANAESTHESIA and must include a prolonged
ANALGESIA by a VETERINARIAN
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
1. INTRODUCTION: Background
 CASTRATION of ENTIRE MALES’ pigs is carried out:
 To ENCOURAGE the DEPOSIT OF INTRAMUSCULAR FAT
 To PREVENT aggressive BEHAVIOR problems
 To AVOID the RISK of obtaining meat with BOAR TAINT
BOAR
TAINT
Off-odour and flavour related to the accumulation of
Androstenone and Skatole in the fat tissue
Consumers REACT DIFFERENTLY to this
SMELL and therefore it can affect
CONSUMERS’ ACCEPTABILITY of pork
There is an associated MEAT
5
(sensory) QUALITY problem
Trade-off
ANIMAL
WELFARE
MEAT
QUALITY
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
1. INTRODUCTION: Background
 Many alternatives to AVOID CASTRATION have been explored
 Genetic SELECTION and gender selection for ‘low-taint’ pigs
 Different MANAGEMENT and rearing strategies
 Slaughter at a YOUNGER age and lower weight
 DETECTION of boar taint at slaughter line
 MIXING of tainted with untainted meat
 MASKING
unpleasant
odours
and
flavours
with
the
appropriate masking strategy such as spices, marinades or
heat treatment.
 If the castration is applied, the IMMUNOCASTRATION
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
1. INTRODUCTION: Background
 Focusing only on the CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCES gives only a
PARTIAL VIEW OF THE PROBLEM.
 The consumer FINAL CHOICE of a food product is a MIXTURE
between the SENSORY EXPERIENCE (Intrinsic cues) and the
other descriptors of the products (Extrinsic cues).
 The opinions and attitudes of SPANISH STAKEHOLDERS from
the whole pork CHAIN regarding this POLICY CHANGE
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
1. INTRODUCTION: Objective
 Thus, the objective of this paper is twofold:
1. To assess STAKEHOLDERS’ OPINIONS and ATTITUDES of
the Spanish pork supply chain towards the potential market
of the production of entire male pigs and the impact of a
potential mandatory banning of piglet castration.
2. To analyze the DETERMINANTS FACTORS of fresh meat
PURCHASING for BUTCHERS, as the main retailers in the
Spanish pork chain supply
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
2. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
 4 FOCUS GROUPS (26 participants) as a QUALITATIVE METHOD
were applied to analyze OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES.
 A FACE-TO-FACE SURVEY of 127 butcheries in Madrid and
Barcelona was carried out to identify the determining FACTORS
FOR
PURCHASING
PIG
MEAT,
HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP).
using
the
ANALYTICAL
2. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
2 Focus Groups
Barcelona
Madrid
2 Focus Groups
Barcelona
Madrid
Focus Group 1
Farmers
Slaughterhouses
Sacrifice,
cutting
plants
Pig meat
industry
Fresh meat
and meat
processing
Focus Group 2
Government
Agricultural
intuitions
authorities
HORECA
Hotels,
Restaurants
, Catering
and
Catering
Supermarket
Fresh and
processed
meat
Butcheries
Fresh and
processed
meat
Face-toface
surveys
Consumers
associations
2. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
Butchers' main factors for purchasing fresh
pig meat
Dark red
Light red
Color of the meat
Cherry red
Castrated
Boars
Gender of the pig
Female
Low
Average
Intramuscular fat
content
High
Low
Average
External fat content
High
Foreign
Spanish
Local
Origin of the meat
4. RESULTS
 Participants believed that in Spain there would be NO IMPORTANT
IMPLICATION since a LARGE PART of the market is already based
on entire males.
 BOAR TAINT IS SELDOM FOUND in the fresh meat due to the fact
that animals in Spain are slaughtered at an EARLY AGE (6 months
old) and that GENETIC TYPES have changed
 Serious problem for the IBERIAN PIG SECTOR.
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
4. RESULTS
 In PROCESSED PRODUCTS because it is easier to mask it.
 Participants agreed that Spanish CONSUMERS ARE NOT READY
to pay a PREMIUM for meat coming from animals raised under
HIGHER WELFARE STANDARD CONDITIONS because animal
welfare is a comparatively recent issue in Spain.
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
4. RESULTS
 Los consumidores en España aún NO ESTÁN PREPARADOS para
pagar realmente por el bienestar animal. Lo que pagan ahora son
una minoría.
 El consumidor NO QUIERE Y NO ASOCIA el animal con la carne.
(Corderito del Norit con la paletilla).
 NO CASTRAR nos cargamos los productos de Calidad
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
4. RESULTS
Attributes of pig meat
Origin
(wA1)
14.89%
External fat
(wA2)
12.65%
Intramuscular fat
(wA3)
24.98%
Pig gender
(wA4)
25.80%
Color
(wA5)
21.69%
wL1.1
wL1.2
wL1.3
wL2.1
wL2.2
wL2.3
wL3.1
wL3.2
wL3.3
wL4.1
wL4.2
wL4.3
wL5.1
wL5.2
wL5.3
61.06%
31.54%
7.39%
18.73%
62.04%
19.23%
21.90%
61.07%
17.03%
67.66%
25.16%
7.17%
20.14%
70.81%
9.05%
wL1.1: Local
wL2.1: High
wL3.1: High
wL4.1: Female
wL5.1: Cherry red
wL1.2: Spain
wL2.2: Average
wL3.2: Average
wL4.2: Entire
wL5.2: Light red
wL1.3: Foreign
wL2.3: Low
wL3.3: Low
wL4.3: Castrated
wL5.3: Dark red
wL1.1
wL1.2
wL1.3
wL2.1
wL2.2
wL2.3
wL3.1
wL3.2
wL3.3
wL4.1
wL4.2
wL4.23
wL5.1
wL5.2
wL5.3
 Results are in ACCORDANCE TO WHAT OBTAINED from the focus















wA1
wA1
wA1
wA2
wA2
wA2
wA3
wA3
wA3
wA4
wA4
wA4
wA5
wA5
wA5
=
groups.
Butchers
prefer
meat
from
FEMALE
pigs
with
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
an
w
4.70%
1.10%
2.37% CONTENT
7.85%
2.43%
5.47%
15.25%
4.25% intramuscular.
17.46%
6.49%
1.85%
AVERAGED
FAT
in particular,
1.96%
=
wG_L1.1
9.09%
=
G_L1.2
G_L1.3
=
G_L2.1
=
G_L2.2
=
G_L2.3
=
G_L3.1
=
G_L3.2
=
G_L3.3
=
G_L4.1
=
G_L4.2
=
G_L4.2
=
G_L5.1
4.37%
=
G_L5.2
15.35%
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
=
G_L5.3
5. CONCLUSIONS
 The ban of PIGLET CASTRATION in Europe by 2018 might not be
considered a problem since already some percentage of entire
males is currently produced.
 Boar taint is not present in almost all fresh meat product
 Slaughtered at lower age
 Boar tainted processed product
 However, for the production of high quality products, mainly the
Iberian breed should be allowed in order to obtain an adequate
INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT and to avoid boar taint
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"
Thank you for your
attention
Paper prepared for presentation at the X CONGRESO NACIONAL DE ECONOMÍA AGRARIA
Córdoba, 9-11 de Septiembre 2015 "Alimentación y territorios sostenibles desde el sur de Europa"

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