Design recommendations

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Transcription

Design recommendations
Design recommendations
for pump stations with vertically installed Flygt axial
and mixed flow pumps
Contents
Systems Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Flygt PL and LL pump introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
General considerations for pumping station design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Pumping station with multiple pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Pump bay design alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Pump station model testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Computational modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Corrective measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Installation alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Installation components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Cable protection and suspension for tube installed pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Installation of pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Flygt cable seal units for pressurized tube (column) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for Flygt designed discharge arrangements . . . . 14
Appendix 2: Submergence diagram for open sump intake design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix 3: Sump layout alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Appendix 4: Pump bay alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
This document is intended to assist application engineers, designers, planners and users of sewage and
storm water systems incorporating Flygt axial and mixed flow pumps installed in a column.
A proper design of the pump sump is crucial in order to achieve an optimal inflow to the pumps. Important
design requirements to be met are: uniform flow approach to the pumps, preventing pre-rotation under the
pumps, preventing significant quantities of air from reaching the impeller and transport of settled and floating solids. The Flygt standard pump station design can be used as is, or with appropriate variations upon
review by Flygt engineers.
Pump and sump are integral to an overall system that includes a variety of structures and other elements
such as ventilation systems and solids handling equipment. Operating costs can be reduced with the help
of effective planning and suitable operation schedules. Our personnel and publications are available to
offer guidance in these areas. Transient analysis of pump system behaviour, such as air chamber dimensioning, valve selection, etc., should also be considered in wastewater pump station design. These matters are
not addressed in this brochure, but we can offer guidance.
Please consult our engineers to achieve optimum pump performance, maximum pump life, and a guarantee that product warranties are met. The design recommendations are only valid for Flygt equipment. We
assume no liability for non-Flygt equipment.
Systems Engineering
Our Systems Engineering team offers in-depth expertise in the design and execution of comprehensive solutions for water and wastewater transport
and treatment.
Our know-how and experience are combined with a
broad range of suitable products for delivering customized solutions that ensure trouble-free operations for customers. Our engineers utilize our own
custom developed computer programs to provide
evaluations for your specific project design.
Flygt not only can provide assistance with the selection of products and accessories but can provide analysis for complex systems and/or piping
networks.
We also provide hydraulic guidance and assistance
for flow-related or rheological issues. Assistance
can include but is not limited to hydraulic transient
calculations, pump starting calculations, and evaluation of flow variations.
Additional services
• Optimization of pump sump design
for our products and specific sites
• Assistance with mixing and aeration
specifications and design of
appropriate systems
• System simulation utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
• Guidance for model testing – and
organizing it
• Guidance for achieving the lowest
costs in operations, service and
installation
• Specially developed engineering
software to facilitate designing
Flygt PL and LL pump introduction
Flygt submersible vertically installed axial flow
pumps (PL) and mixed flow pumps (LL) have been
used in a wide variety of storm water stations and
sewage treatment plants, land drainage and irrigation systems, fish farms and power plants, shipyards,
amusement parks and many other applications
where large volumes of water have to be pumped.
Flygt submersible PL and LL pumps
offer important advantages such as:
• Compact motor and pump unit
• No separate lubrication system
• No external cooling system
• Low operating sound level
• Quick connection and disconnection
for installation and inspection
• Minimal station superstructure
• Simple pipe work
Flygt PL and LL pumps are usually installed in a vertical discharge tube on a support flange incorporated in the lower end of the tube. No anchoring is required because the weight of the pump is sufficient
to keep it in place. The pumps are equipped with
an anti-rotation gusset. This arrangement provides
the simplest possible installation – the pump is just
lowered into the discharge tube by hoist or crane.
Retrieval of the pump is equally simple.
The range of services is comprehensive, but our
philosophy is very simple: There is no substitute for
excellence.
Flygt axial flow pumps (PL)
4
Flygt mixed flow pumps (LL)
General considerations
for pumping station design
The proper design of the pump sump is crucial in
order to achieve an optimal inflow to the pumps.
Ideally, the flow at the pump inlet should be uniform
and steady, without swirl, vortices or entrained air.
• Non-uniform flow at the pump intake can reduce
efficiency and cause pulsating loads on the
propeller blades, resulting in noise and vibrations.
• Unsteady flow can also cause fluctuating loads,
noise and vibrations.
• Swirl in the intake can change the head, flow,
efficiency and power in undesirable ways. It can
also augment vortices.
• Vortices with a coherent core cause discontinuities
in the flow and can lead to noise, vibration and
local cavitation. Vortices emanating from the free
surface can become sufficiently powerful to draw
air and floating debris into the pump.
• Entrained air can reduce the flow and efficiency,
causing noise, vibration, fluctuations of load and
physical damage.
Experience with designs already in use provides valuable guidelines for the design of multiple pump stations. Adaptations of existing and well-proven designs
can often provide solutions to complex problems even
without model tests. We have extensive experience
based on many successful projects, and the services
of our qualified engineers are always available.
For special applications beyond the scope of this
brochure, please contact our local system engineer
for assistance.
Pumping station with multiple pumps
Multiple pump systems provide greater capacity, operational flexibility and increased reliability,
which is why pumping stations are usually equipped
with two or more pumps.
Transition to the sump, whether diverging, converging or turning, should result in nearly uniform flow at
the sump entrance. Obstacles that generate wakes
should not be allowed to interfere with the approaching flow. High velocity gradients, flow separation from
the walls and entrainment of air should be avoided.
Hydraulically, three zones of the pumping station
are significant: inlet, forebay and pump bay.
Pump bay
Forebay
Inlet area
• Inlet: An inlet conveys water to the pumping
station from a supply source such as a culvert,
canal or river. Usually, the inlet has a control
structure such as a weir or a gate.
• Forebay: The role of the forebay is to guide the
flow to the pump bays in such a way that it is
uniform and steady. Because the inflow to each
module should be steady and uniform, the design
of the forebay feeding the individual modules
is critical and should follow guidelines in this
brochure. Design of the forebay depends on
water approach to the pumping station commonly
encountered as parallel with the sump centerline,
the preferred layout, or perpendicular to the
sump centreline.
• Pump bay: In practice, only the design of the
pump bay can be standardized for a given pump
type. A properly designed bay is a prerequisite
for correct presentation of flow to the pumps, but
it does not guarantee correct flow conditions. A
bad approach to the pump bay can disturb the
flow in the pump intake. As a rule of thumb, the
approach velocity to the individual pump bays
should not exceed 0.5m/s (1.64ft/s). The dimensions
of the bay’s individual modules are a function of
pump size and the flow rate (see Appendix 4).
5
Front wide inlet to the station
When water approaches the station from a wide
supply source such as a culvert or canal, the pumps
should be placed symmetrically to the inlet centreline without changing direction of the approaching flow. If the width of the inlet is less than the total
width of the pump bays, the forebay should diverge
symmetrically. The total angle of divergence should
not exceed 20° for the Open Sump Intake Design
or 40° for the Formed Intake Design. The bottom
slope in the forebay should not be larger than 10°
(See Appendix 3). If these parameters cannot be
met, flow direction devices should be used to improve the flow distribution. Such arrangements and
more complex layouts should be investigated using
model tests in order to arrive at suitable designs.
High level front inlet
High front inlet or side inlet to the station
When the inlet to the station is located at higher level
or perpendicular to the axis of the pump bays, an inlet
chamber or overflow-underflow weir can help to redistribute the flow. A substantial head loss at the inlet area
is required to dissipate much of the kinetic energy from
the incoming flow. Alternatively, baffle systems can be
used to redirect the flow, but model tests are then required to determine their correct shape, position and
orientation. The distance between the weir or baffles
and the pump bays must be sufficient to allow eddies
to dissipate, and entrained air to escape, before the
water reaches the pump inlet (See Appendix 3).
High level side inlet
Culvert or canal inlet
6
Low level side inlet
Pump bay design alternatives
Enclosed intake design
Enclosed intake design are the least sensitive to disturbances of the approaching flow that can result from
diverging or turning flow in the forebay, or from single
pump operation at partial load. Therefore, enclosed
intake design are nearly always the preferred choice
and recommended for stations with multiple pumps
with various operating conditions.
Corner fillets
Enclosed suction intake
Open sump intake design
This intake design is the most sensitive to non-uniform approaches. If used for more than three pumps, the length
of the dividing walls should be at least 2/3 of the total
width of the sump. If flow contraction occurs near the
sump entrance because of screens or gates, the sump
length should be increased to 6D or more, depending on
the degree of contraction.
Dividing wall
Corner fillets
Dividing wall
Flow straightening vane (splitter)
Enclosed intake design in concrete
Corner fillets
L-shaped flow straightening vane (splitter)
Open sump intake design for Flygt LL pumps
Enclosed suction intake
Corner fillets
Dividing wall
Dividing wall
Flow straightening vane (splitter)
L-shaped flow straightening vane (splitter) with cone
Enclosed intake design in steel
Open sump intake design for Flygt PL pumps
Enclosed intake design can be constructed in either
concrete or steel. The intake reduces disturbances and
swirl in the approaching flow. The inclined front wall
prevents stagnation of the surface flow. Geometrical
features of the intake provide smooth acceleration and
turning as the flow enters the pump. The minimum
inlet submergence should not be less than nominal
diameter (D).
Open sump intake design includes devices such as
flow straightening vanes (splitters) that alleviate the effects of minor asymmetries in the approaching flow.
The minimum required submergence of the pump inlet
with open sump intake design is a function of the flow
rate, the pump inlet diameter and the distribution of the
flow at the approach to the pump. Minimum submergence diagrams are shown in the Appendix 2. Each
7
diagram has three curves for various conditions of the
approaching flow. Because vortices develop more readily in a swirling flow, more submergence is required to
avoid vortices if the inlet arrangement leads to disturbed
flow in the sump. Hence, the upper curve in the submergence diagrams is for a perpendicular approach,
the middle one is for the symmetrical approach and the
lowest curve for duty-limited operation time (about 500
hours/year). The curve appropriate to the inlet situation
should be used to determine the minimum water level in
the sump to preserve reliable operation of the pumps.
Pump station model testing
Hydraulic models are often essential in the design of
structures that are used to convey or control the flow
distribution. They can provide effective solutions to
complex hydraulic problems with unmatched reliability. Their costs are often recovered through improvements in design that are technically better and yet
less costly. Model testing is recommended for pumping stations in which the geometry differs from recommended standards, particularly if no prior experience with the application exists. Good engineering
practice calls for model tests for all major pumping stations if the flow rate per pump exceeds 2.5 m3/s (40 ,000
USgpm) or if multiple pump combinations are used.
Tests are particularly important if:
• Sumps have water levels below the
recommended minimum submergence
• Sumps have obstructions close to the pumps
• Sumps are significantly smaller or larger than
recommended (+/- 10%)
• Multiple pump sumps require baffles to control
the flow distribution
• Existing sumps are to be upgraded with
significantly greater discharges.
A model of a pumping station usually encompasses a
representative portion of the headrace, the inlet structure,
the forebay and the pump bays. The discharge portion of
the flow is seldom included. Testing may encompass the
following flow features and design characteristics:
• Inlet structure: flow distribution, vortex formation,
air entrainment, intrusion of sediment and debris.
• Forebay and pump bays: flow distribution, mass swirl,
surface and bottom vortices, sediment transport.
• Operating conditions: pump duty modes, start
and stop levels, pump down procedures.
8
Model testing can also be employed to seek solutions to problems in existing installations. If the cause
of a problem is unknown, it can be less expensive to
diagnose and remedy with model studies rather than
by trial and error at full scale. The pump manufacturer’s involvement is often required in the evaluation of
the results of model tests. Experience is required to
determine whether the achieved results are satisfactory and will lead to proper overall operation.
We can offer guidance regarding the need for
model tests and assist in their planning, arrangement and evaluation.
Computational modeling
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has the
potential of providing far more detailed information
of the flow field at a fraction of cost per time needed
for the model tests. It has been more and more accepted as a tool in station design in combination with
Computed Aided Design (CAD) tools. It is possible to
obtain a more efficient method for numerical simulation of station design utilizing CFD. It offers increased
qualitative and quantitative understanding of pumping station hydraulics and can provide good comparisons between various design alternatives. However,
the possibilities of CFD should not be overestimated.
Difficult cases are encountered where free surface
effects are important. Also, a phenomenon like air entrainment is difficult to capture with CFD analysis.
Both model tests and CFD have advantages and disadvantages that need to be evaluated in each individual
case. We can advise on a good combination between
model tests and CFD.
Corrective measures
The designs described in this brochure have been
proven to work well in practice. However, in some applications–perhaps due to limitations of space, installation of new pumps in old stations, or difficult approach
conditions–not all the requirements for a good, simple
design can be met. Sometimes, for example, it may be
impossible to provide adequate submergence so that
some vortexing or swirl may occur. Corrective measures
must then be undertaken to eliminate the undesirable
features of the flow, particularly those associated with
excessive swirl around the pump tube, with air-entraining surface vortices and with submerged vortices.
Swirl around the pump tube is usually caused by an asymmetrical velocity distribution in the approach flow. Ways
should be sought to improve its symmetry. Subdivision
of the inlet flow with dividing walls, and the introduction
of training walls, baffles or varied flow resistance are
some options that may achieve this result. Alternatively,
a reduction of the flow velocity, for example, by increasing the water depth in the sump, can help to minimize
the negative effects of an asymmetrical approach.
or from erosion of the propeller blades. They can be eliminated by disturbing the formation of stagnation points
in the flow. The flow pattern can be altered, for example,
by the addition of a center cone or a prismatic splitter
under the pump, or by insertion of fillets and benching between adjoining walls, as in some of our standard
configurations.
Air-entraining vortices may form either in the wake of the
pump tube or upstream from it. They form in the wake
if the inlet velocity is too high or the depth of flow is
too small. Also, they form upstream if the velocity is too
low. In either case, these vortices can be eliminated by
introducing extra turbulence into the surface flow, i.e. by
placing a transverse beam or baffle at the water surface.
Such a beam should enter the water at a depth equal to
about one quarter of the tube diameter and be placed at
a point about 1.5–2.0 diameters upstream of the tube. If
the water level varies considerably, a floating beam can
be more effective. In some cases, a floating raft upstream
of the tube will eliminate air-entraining vortices. This raft
may be a plate or a grid. Both forms impede the formation
of surface vortices. An alternative is the use of an inclined
plate similar to that shown in the draft tube installation.
Back wall and floor
splitter plates.
Surface baffle for
vortex suppression
D
D/4
1.5–2.0D
Back wall vortex caused
by floor splitter only.
Relatively small asymmetries of flow can be corrected by
the insertion of splitter plates between the pump tube and
the back wall of the sump and underneath the pump on
the floor. These plates block the swirl around the tube and
prevent formation of wall vortices. These measures are
integral features in most of our standard configurations.
Submerged vortices can form almost anywhere on the
solid boundary of the sump and they are often difficult to
detect on the site. However, they can be detected much
more readily in model tests. Submerged vortices existence may be revealed by the rough running of the pump
Floating raft or
vortex breaker grid
9
Installation alternatives
The following examples show possible alternatives using Flygt designed installation components.
Installation type 1
Installation type 3
Suitable for pumping liquid
to a receiving body of water
with small level variations or
where a short running time
can be expected, so non-return valves are not required.
This arrangement is simple.
It involves the least possible number of steel components. The pump is set in a circular concrete shaft
with a relatively short tube grouted in place, installation component D3, which is used as the support
structure for the pump. Alternatively, the shaft can
have a rectangular cross-section above the discharge column. The shaft extends above the maximum
water level in the outlet channel to prevent water from
running back to the sump when the pump is shut off.
This arrangement may be
used with either a free
discharge, when liquid is
pumped to a receiving body
of water with small water
level variations, or with a flap
valve, when the water level on
the outlet side varies
considerably so that the
outlet is occasionally submerged. The flow is discharging into a closed culvert through the component E1.
Installation type 4
Installation type 2
An alternative to the concrete shaft is to place the
pump in a steel column
with a collar that rests on
a supporting frame (installation component D1). The
top of the pipe must extend
sufficiently above the maximum water level to prevent
back-flow from the outlet
channel.
10
This arrangement is suitable
whenever the liquid is
pumped to a receiving body
of water with a varying water
level. The outlet is equipped
with a flap valve to prevent
back-flow. When the pump is
not in operation, the valve
closes automatically, preventing water from running back
into the sump. The static
head is the difference between water level in the sump
and water level at the outlet, and it will be kept to a
minimum in this type of installation. Elbow type E2–E4
can be used for discharging.
Installation type 5
This easy-to-install elbow construction allows pumps to work in
combination with a siphon or discharge line. When outlet is submerged a siphon breaking valve is required to prevent back-flow
and allow venting at start. This installation keeps the static head to
a minimum, since the static head will be the difference between the
water level in the sump and the water level at the outlet. Two types
of elbows can be used with this station E2–E4 As in previous cases,
the steel tube rests on a support frame (installation component D1).
Note:
Support bracket (B1) should be used if the free unsupported
length of the column pipe exceeds 5 times pipe diameter.
11
Installation components
The objective in the design and development of installation components is to devise simple systems,
which offer a wide variety of options to deal with most
situations. These components have been developed
to facilitate design work and estimation of costs.
Normally, the installation components will be manufactured locally based on Flygt drawings. The drawings can also serve as a basis for the development of
new or modified components which better match the
local requirements and/or manufacturing facilities.
Vertical discharge column (D)
in which the pump is set Depending upon the depth
of the station, the installation may consist of one
part (D1) or several parts joined together by flanges
(D2), or it may consist of a short tube prepared for
grouting in concrete (D3).
Drawings are available for the following installation
components:
Flygt Formed Suction Intake (Flygt FSI) is preferable for very adverse inflow conditions or when the
pump bay dimensions are less than recommended.
The main function of the intake device is to preserve
an optimal inflow to the pump by gradual acceleration
and redirection of the flow toward the pump inlet.
D1
D2
D3
Discharge elbows (E)
with rectangular exit flange (E1) and discharge elbows
with circular exit flanges (E2, E3, E4).
Flygt FSI
E1
Cover (C)
for discharge elbows (E1 and E2
C
12
E2
Column bracket (B)
for anchoring the tube
B
E3
Supporting frame (F)
for suspending the tube
from ceiling.
F
Cable protection and suspension
for tube installed pumps
For tube-installed submersible pumps, proper cable
protection and suspension is essential for trouble
free operation. Cable suspension and protection
requirements become more stringent with longer
cable lengths and higher discharge velocities.
Installation of pumps
Pump installation can be
facilitated with the aid of
the Dock-Lock™ device
for easy and safe retrieval of pumps in a wet well.
The Dock-Lock consists of a spring-loaded
hooking device, a guide
line and a tension drum.
Because the line guides
the hook, there’s no time
wasted trying to find
the pump shackle. The
device ensures that the
hook actually locks into
the shackle. Pumps are
retrieved safely, easily
and quickly, with minimal maintenance costs.
Flygt cable seal units
for pressurized tube (column)
Flygt cable suspension system
A few basic principles govern good cable protection and suspension practices:
• Cables must be suspended in such a way that if
they should move, they will not come in contact
with any surfaces which could abrade the jacket –
these include pump and tube components, as well
as other cables.
• Cables should be bundled together, using
components which will not cut or abrade the
cables.
• Proper strain relief and support at prescribed
intervals (depending on length) should be
provided Spring-controlled tensioning and an
integrated “guide wire” are recommended for
long cable lengths .
We offer a variety of cable protection and suspension accessories with recommendations to suit
all types of installations and running conditions.
Contact your local Application engineer for information on the best system to meet your needs.
The Flygt cable seal
units with Roxtec sealing technology are
used to make a water
tight cable entry into a
discharge column with
water tight cover.
The cable seal units are
complete with frame,
Roxtec cable seal modules, tightening wedge,
lubricant and installation manual.
13
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for Flygt designed discharge arrangements
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for
Flygt designed discharge arrangements
16” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL7020
E1, E5
H (in)
E1
E1 W=16 K=0.45
E5 W=24 K=0.37
E5 W=31 K=0.35
E5 W=39 K=0.34
E5 W=47 K=0.33
25
20
K
W
HS
D
2
3
Q
H=
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
2g
15
10
E5 Side
16 19
E5 Top
H
5
W
Head losses are comparatively small for systems
using propeller pumps. Even so, an accurate prediction of losses, and hence the total required head,
is crucial when selecting the best pump. Propeller
pumps have relatively steep head and power characteristics, and an error in predicting the total head
can result in a significant change in the power required. A potentially vulnerable situation can arise
if head loss is significantly underestimated, which
can mean that a pump operates against a higher
head, delivers less flow and uses more power.
Conservative assumptions should thus be made in
determining head loss calculations. For all installations described herein, the head losses that must
be accounted for occur in the components of the
discharge arrangement (friction losses in short pipes
are usually negligible). The loss coefficients and the
head loss as a function of the flow rate for the system
components designed by Flygt are shown in the diagrams. For system components not covered by this
document, loss coefficients can be obtained from
their manufacturers or from appropriate literature.
HS
D
HS=Static head
0
0
2000
4000
H=Head loss
6000
Q(USgpm)
E2
H (in)
E2
E2 Dout=14 K1=1.41
E2 Dout=16 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=14 K2=0.85
E2 Dout=16 K2=0.77
40
35
Do
r
D
30
r
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
K1: Sharp bend
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
2000
4000
6000
Q(USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
E4 Dout=14 K3=0.60
E3 Dout=14 K3=0.55
E4 Dout=16 K3=0.35
E3 Dout=16 K3=0.32
18
16
E3
E4
Do
14
D
Do
D
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
2000
4000
6000
Q(USgpm)
14
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for Flygt designed discharge arrangements
20” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL7030
22” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL7035
E1, E5
H (in)
E1
E1 W=20 K=0.45
E5 W=30 K=0.37
E5 W=39 K=0.35
E5 W=49 K=0.34
E5 W=59 K=0.33
30
25
K
W
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
25
D
W
HS
D
2g
15
E5 Side
20 24
10
E5 Top
HS=Static head
4000
6000
8000
HS
5
D
2000
E5 Top
H
W
HS
5
0
E5 Side
22 26
10
H
D
H=Head loss
10000
12000
0
W
15
0
K
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
2
3
Q
H=
20
2g
E1
E1 W=22 K=0.45
E5 W=32 K=0.37
E5 W=43 K=0.35
E5 W=54 K=0.34
E5 W=65 K=0.33
30
HS
2
3
Q
H=
20
E1, E5
H (in)
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
10000
12000
Q(USgpm)
E2
H (in)
35
E2
Do
r
E2
E2 Dout=20 K1=1.33
E2 Dout=22 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=20 K2=0.82
E2 Dout=22 K2=0.77
35
30
Do
r
D
30
D
25
r
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
K1: Sharp bend
25
20
r
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
K1: Sharp bend
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
E2
H (in)
E2 Dout=18 K1=1.35
E2 Dout=20 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=18 K1=0.83
E2 Dout=20 K2=0.77
40
Q(USgpm)
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Q(USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
14
14
E4
Do
D
12
E3, E4
H (in)
E3
E4 Dout=18 K3=0.53
E3 Dout=18 K3=0.49
E4 Dout=20 K3=0.35
E3 Dout=20 K3=0.32
16
Q(USgpm)
Do
E4 Dout=20 K3=0.51
E3 Dout=20 K3=0.47
E4 Dout=22 K3=0.35
E3 Dout=22 K3=0.32
12
10
D
10
E3
E4
Do
D
Do
D
8
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Q(USgpm)
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Q(USgpm)
15
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for Flygt designed discharge arrangements
24” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL7040
28” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL7045, PL7050
E1, E5
H (in)
E1
E1 W=28 K=0.45
E5 W=35 K=0.37
E5 W=47 K=0.35
E5 W=59 K=0.34
E5 W=71 K=0.33
35
30
25
K
W
HS
30
D
25
K
HS
D
2g
20
15
15
E5 Top
10
HS=Static head
2000
4000
6000
HS
5
D
0
E5 Top
H
W
HS
5
E5 Side
28 33
10
H
D
H=Head loss
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
W
E5 Side
24 28
0
W
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
2
3
Q
H=
2g
20
E1
E1 W=28 K=0.45
E5 W=41 K=0.37
E5 W=55 K=0.35
E5 W=69 K=0.34
E5 W=83 K=0.33
35
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
2
3
Q
H=
E1, E5
H (in)
HS=Static head
0
0
2000
4000
6000
H=Head loss
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Q (USgpm)
E2
H (in)
60
E2
Do
40
r
35
D
K1: Sharp bend
40
30
25
Do
r
D
20
30
15
20
10
10
0
E2
E2 Dout=20 K1=2.55
E2 Dout=20 K2=2
E2 Dout=24 K1=1.45
E2 Dout=28 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=24 K2=0.9
E2 Dout=28 K2=0.77
r
K1: Sharp bend
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
45
r
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
50
E2
H (in)
E2 Dout=20 K1=1.55
E2 Dout=24 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=20 K2=0.99
E2 Dout=24 K2=0.77
70
Q(USgpm)
5
0
2000
4000
6000
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
Q (USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
E4 Dout=20 K3=0.73
E3 Dout=20 K3=0.66
E4 Dout=24 K3=0.35
E3 Dout=24 K3=0.32
24
20
Q(USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
E3
E4
Do
E4 Dout=20 K=1.34
E3 Dout=20 K=1.23
E4 Dout=24 K=0.65
E3 Dout=24 K=0.60
E4 Dout=28 K=0.35
E3 Dout=28 K=0.32
28
Do
24
D
D
E3
E4
Do
D
Do
D
20
16
16
12
12
8
8
4
0
4
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
Q (USgpm)
16
0
0
1500 3000 4500 6000 7500 9000 10500 12000 13500 15000 16500 18000
Q(USgpm)
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for Flygt designed discharge arrangements
32” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL 7055, PL 7061, PL 7065, LL 3356
36” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt LL 3400
E1, E5
H (in)
E1
E1 W=31 K=0.45
E5 W=47 K=0.37
E5 W=63 K=0.35
E5 W=79 K=0.34
E5 W=94 K=0.33
45
40
30
25
K
W
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
25
D
20
W
HS
D
2g
15
E5 Side
32 37
E5 Top
HS
5
HS=Static head
10000
15000
20000
HS
5
D
5000
E5 Top
H
W
H
0
E5 Side
35 43
10
10
D
H=Head loss
25000
HS=Static head
0
W
15
0
K
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
2
3
Q
H=
20
2g
E1
E1 W=35 K=0.45
E5 W=53 K=0.37
E5 W=71 K=0.35
E5 W=89 K=0.34
E5 W=106 K=0.33
30
HS
2
3
Q
H=
E1, E5
H (in)
0
2000
4000
6000
H=Head loss
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Q(USgpm)
E2
H (in)
50
45
40
35
30
E2
H (in)
E2
E2 Dout=24 K1=2.15
E2 Dout=24 K2=1.62
E2 Dout=28 K1=1.41
E2 Dout=31 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=28 K2=0.85
E2 Dout=31 K2=0.77
r
K1: Sharp bend
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
55
Q(USgpm)
12.5
Do
r
D
E2
E2 Dout=28 K1=1.9
E2 Dout=31 K1=1.38
E2 Dout=28 K2=1.37
E2 Dout=35 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=31 K2=0.84
E2 Dout=35 K2=0.77
r
K1: Sharp bend
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
10
7.5
Do
r
D
25
20
5
15
10
2.5
5
0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Q(USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
E4 Dout=24 K=1.11
E3 Dout=24 K=1.01
E4 Dout=28 K=0.60
E3 Dout=28 K=0.54
E4 Dout=31 K=0.35
E3 Dout=31 K=0.32
25
20
Q(USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
E3
E4
Do
E4 Dout=28 K4=0.96
E3 Dout=28 K3=0.87
E4 Dout=31 K4=0.56
E3 Dout=31 K3=0.51
E4 Dout=35 K4=0.35
E3 Dout=35 K3=0.32
7
Do
6
D
D
E3
E4
Do
D
Do
D
5
4
15
3
10
2
5
0
1
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Q(USgpm)
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Q(USgpm)
17
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for Flygt designed discharge arrangements
40” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL 7076, PL 7081
48” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL 7101, PL7105, LL 3531, LL 3602
E1, E5
H (in)
E1
E1 W=39 K=0.45
E5 W=59 K=0.37
E5 W=79 K=0.35
E5 W=98 K=0.34
E5 W=118 K=0.33
40
35
30
25
K
W
50
HS
45
40
D
K
W
H
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
HS
D
2
3
Q
H=
35
2g
E1
E1 W=47 K=0.45
E5 W=71 K=0.37
E5 W=94 K=0.35
E5 W=118 K=0.34
E5 W=142 K=0.33
55
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
2
3
Q
H=
E1, E5
H (in)
2g
30
20
25
E5 Side
39 47
10
W
HS
D
HS=Static head
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
E5 Side
47 57
E5 Top
15
H
5
0
20
E5 Top
H=Head loss
30000
35000
H
10
HS
D
5
0
W
15
HS=Static head
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
H=Head loss
60000
Q (USgpm)
E2
H (in)
25
20
15
E2
H (in)
E2
E2 Dout=31 K1=1.75
E2 Dout=35 K1=1.35
E2 Dout=31 K2=1.2
E2 Dout=39 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=35 K2=0.83
E2 Dout=39 K2=0.77
r
K1: Sharp bend
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
30
Q(USgpm)
Do
40
r
35
D
E2
E2 Dout=39 K1=1.51
E2 Dout=47 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=39 K2=0.99
E2 Dout=47 K2=0.77
r
K1: Sharp bend
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
45
30
Do
r
D
25
20
15
10
10
5
0
5
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
Q (USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
E4 Dout=31 K=0.85
E3 Dout=31 K=0.78
E4 Dout=35 K=0.53
E3 Dout=35 K=0.49
E4 Dout=39 K=0.35
E3 Dout=39 K=0.32
18
12
E3
E4
E4 Dout=39 K=0.73
E3 Dout=39 K=0.66
E4 Dout=47 K=0.35
E3 Dout=47 K=0.32
22.5
Do
Do
20
D
17.5
D
E3
E4
Do
D
Do
D
15
8
12.5
10
6
7.5
4
5
2
2.5
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
Q (USgpm)
18
E3, E4
H (in)
10
0
Q(USgpm)
0
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
Q(USgpm)
Appendix 1: Head losses diagrams for Flygt designed discharge arrangements
56” Installation pipe inner diameter (D)
Flygt PL 7115, PL 7121, PL 7125
E1, E5
H (in)
E1
E1 W=55 K=0.45
E5 W=83 K=0.37
E5 W=110 K=0.35
E5 W=138 K=0.34
E5 W=165 K=0.33
K
W
HS
D
2
3
Q
H=
HS=Static head
H=Head loss
H
2g
E5 Side
55 67
E5 Top
H
W
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
HS
D
HS=Static head
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
H=Head loss
100000
120000
Q(USgpm)
E2
H (in)
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
E2
E2 Dout=47 K1=1.45
E2 Dout=55 K1=1.13
E2 Dout=47 K1=0.9
E2 Dout=55 K2=0.77
r
K1: Sharp bend
=0
Do
r
K2: Smooth bend
> 0.1
Do
0
20000
40000
Do
r
D
60000
80000
100000
120000
Q(USgpm)
E3, E4
H (in)
E3
E4 Dout=47 K=0.65
E3 Dout=47 K=0.59
E4 Dout=55 K=0.35
E3 Dout=55 K=0.32
30
E4
Do
25
D
Do
D
20
15
10
5
0
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
Q(USgpm)
19
Appendix 2: Submergence diagram for open sump intake design
Appendix 2: Submergence diagram
for open sump intake design
The minimum required submergence of the pump
inlet with open sump intake design is a function of
the flow rate, the pump inlet diameter and the distribution of the flow at the approach to the pump.
Each diagram has three curves for various conditions
of the approaching flow. Because vortices develop
more readily in a swirling flow, more submergence
is required to avoid vortices if the inlet arrangement leads to disturbed flow in the sump. Hence,
the upper curve in the submergence diagrams is
for a perpendicular approach, the middle one is for
the symmetrical approach and the lowest curve for
duty-limited operation time (about 500 hours/year).
The curve appropriate to the inlet situation should
be used to determine the minimum water level in the
sump to preserve reliable operation of the pumps.
Flygt PL 7020
S (in)
80
60
40
20
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
Q(USgpm)
Flygt PL 7030
S (in)
80
60
Note: NPSH required for specific duty point may
supersede submergence requirements.
Lateral approach
Symmetrical approach
Limit of operation (500 hours/year)
40
20
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Q(USgpm)
Flygt PL 7035
S (in)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Q(USgpm)
Flygt PL 7040
S (in)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000
Q(USgpm)
20
Appendix 2: Submergence diagram for open sump intake design
Flygt LL 3356
S (in)
Flygt PL 7055, PL 7061, PL 7065
S (in)
140
75
120
60
100
80
45
60
30
15
40
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
20
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Q(USgpm)
Flygt LL 3400
S (in)
Q(USgpm)
Flygt PL 7076, PL 7081
S (in)
80
90
60
60
40
20
0
4000
8000
12000
16000
20000
30
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
Q(USgpm)
Flygt LL 3602
S (in)
Q(USgpm)
Flygt PL 7101, PL 7105
S (in)
150
100
120
80
60
90
40
60
20
35000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
30
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
Q(USgpm)
Flygt PL 7045, PL 7050
S (in)
60000
Q(USgpm)
Flygt PL 7121, PL 7125
S (in)
210
100
180
80
150
60
120
40
90
20
0
60
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
Q(USgpm)
30
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Q(USgpm)
21
22
Appendix 3: Sump layout alternatives
Appendix 3: Sump layout alternatives
Stations with low level front inlet
Stations with high level side inlet (max 4 pumps)
A–A
A–A
D
D
W.L.
B
0.75D 0.75P
B
B
max 10°
B–B
0.75D
B
B–B
Vmax=0.1m/s
(2ft/s)
Vmax=1.0m/s
(3ft/s)
P
D
to avoid sedimentation
Vmax=0.3m/s
(1ft/s)
B
A
D
A
Vmax=1.7m/s
(5ft/s)
B
P
10° (max 20°)
max D
max(2/3B or L)
1.5D
3D
max(2/3B or L)
Stations with low level side inlet (max 4 pumps)
Stations with high level front inlet (max 4 pumps)
A–A
A–A
D
W.L.
B–B
B 0.75D
B
0.75D
0.75P
~ 0.5P
B
D
B
B–B
P
1.25P
P
D
Vmax=0.5m/s
(2ft/s)
Vmax=
1.2m/s
(4ft/s)
A
B
B
A
Vmax=
1.7m/s
(5ft/s)
min 1.25P
min 3D
max (2/3B or L)
1.5D
3D
max (2/3B or L)
23
Appendix 4: Pump bay alternatives
Appendix 4: Pump bay alternatives
Enclosed intake in steel for Flygt PL pumps
A–A
C
G
60
°
H
Enclosed intake in concrete for Flygt PL pumps
C–C
C
A–A
H H
C–C
G
D
D
max W.L.
max W.L.
B
min W.L.
S
S
N
B
60
˚C
B
B
min W.L.
C
M
P
C
M
P
C
C
B
B
J
J
B–B
K
Splitter
Splitter
L min
W
E
W 2
A
W 2
E
W
A
A
E
E
E
F
W 2
F
A
W 2
A–A
K
L min
B–B
C
D
Recommended dimensions
Enclosed Intake Design
Pump type
24
Nom. dia
(in)
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
P
S
W
PL7020
16
8
8
16
7
13
18
8
16
24
64
13
7
16
32
PL7030
20
10
10
20
8
16
22
10
20
30
80
16
8
20
40
PL7035
22
11
11
22
9
18
25
11
22
33
88
18
9
22
44
PL7040
24
12
12
24
10
20
27
12
24
36
96
20
10
24
48
PL7045
PL7050
28
14
14
28
11
22
31
14
28
42
114
22
11
28
56
PL7055
PL7061
31
16
16
32
13
26
35
16
32
48
126
26
12
32
64
PL7065
31
16
16
32
13
26
35
16
32
48
126
26
12
43
64
PL7076
PL7081
39
20
20
40
16
32
44
20
40
60
162
32
15
40
80
PL7101
47
24
24
48
19
38
53
24
48
72
192
38
18
48
96
PL7105
47
24
24
48
19
38
53
24
48
72
192
38
18
59
96
PL7121
55
28
28
56
22
45
62
28
56
84
222
45
21
56
112
PL7125
55
28
28
56
22
45
62
28
56
84
222
45
21
69
112
Appendix 4: Pump bay alternatives
Flygt FSI
C
A AA
–A
C–C
D
max W.L.
B
C
M
S
B min W.L.
B
B–B
W 2
W
A
L
A
C
Recommended dimensions
Nom. dia
(in)
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
S
W
PL7045
PL7050
28
14
16
28
-
-
-
-
-
-
58
21
-
-
28
44
PL7055
PL7061
32
16
19
31
-
-
-
-
-
-
69
25
-
-
31
52
PL7065
32
16
25
31
-
-
-
-
-
-
69
25
-
-
43
52
PL7076
PL7081
40
20
25
39
-
-
-
-
-
-
90
33
-
-
39
68
PL7101
48
24
30
47
-
-
-
-
-
-
108
39
-
-
47
82
PL7105
48
24
30
47
-
-
-
-
-
-
108
39
-
-
59
82
PL7121
56
28
35
55
-
-
-
-
-
-
129
47
-
-
55
98
PL7125
56
28
35
55
-
-
-
-
-
-
129
47
-
-
69
98
Flygt FSI
Pump type
25
Appendix 4: Pump bay alternatives
Open sump design for Flygt LL pumps
Open sump design for Flygt PL pumps
C
D
A AA– A
C
D
A–A
C–C
C–C
D
max W.L.
min W.L.
B
B
B
C
P
N
C
P
S
S
B
E
M
B
B
P
J
K
2xD
E
E
E
C
W 2
Splitter
A
W 2
W 2
E
A
A
W
E
W 2
E
A
B–B
Splitter
with cone
L
W
BB– BB
J
C
Recommended dimensions
Nom. dia
(in)
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
PL7020
16
12
8
16
8
-
-
-
20
28
63
8
4
6
32
PL7030
20
15
10
20
10
-
-
-
25
35
79
10
5
8
40
PL7035
22
17
11
22
11
-
-
-
28
38
87
11
6
9
44
PL7040
24
18
12
24
12
-
-
-
30
42
95
12
6
9
48
PL7045
PL7050
28
21
14
28
14
-
-
-
34
48
114
14
7
11
PL7055
PL7061
PL7065
32
24
16
32
16
-
-
-
40
56
126
16
8
12
PL7076
PL7081
40
30
20
40
20
-
-
-
50
70
162
20
10
15
PL7101
PL7105
48
36
24
48
24
-
-
-
60
84
192
24
12
18
96
PL7121
PL7125
56
42
28
56
28
-
-
-
70
98
222
28
14
21
112
LL3356
32
24
16
32
16
-
-
-
40
56
64
16
8
12
LL3400
36
28
18
36
18
-
-
-
46
62
72
18
9
13
LL 3531
LL3602
48
36
24
48
24
-
-
-
60
84
96
24
12
18
26
See minimum
submergence diagram
S
See minimum
submergence diagram
Open sump
intake design
Open sump
intake design
Pump type
W
56
64
80
64
72
96
Xylem (XYL) is a leading global water technology provider, enabling customers to
transport, treat, test and efficiently use water in public utility, residential and commercial
building services, industrial and agricultural settings. The company does business in
more than 150 countries through a number of market-leading product brands, and its
people bring broad applications expertise with a strong focus on finding local solutions
to the world’s most challenging water and wastewater problems. Launched in 2011 from
the spinoff of the water-related businesses of ITT Corporation, Xylem is headquartered in
White Plains, N.Y., with 2011 revenues of $3.8 billion and 12,500 employees worldwide.
In 2012, Xylem was named to the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index for advancing
sustainable business practices and solutions worldwide.
The name Xylem is derived from classical Greek and is the tissue that transports water
in plants, highlighting the engineering efficiency of our water-centric business by
linking it with the best water transportation of all -- that which occurs in nature. For more
information, please visit us at www.xyleminc.com.
Flygt is a brand of Xylem. For the latest
version of this document and more
information about Flygt products visit
www.flygt.com
440 . Design recommendations . 1 . US . 2 . 20121024
1) The tissue in plants that brings water upward from the roots
2) A leading global water technology company

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