Market Structure Analysis of Florida Metropolitan and Micropolitan

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Market Structure Analysis of Florida Metropolitan and Micropolitan
Retail Grocery Market Structure Analysis of Virginia
Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas
Prepared for Virginia Community Capital (VCC) by The Reinvestment Fund (TRF)
as part of the ReFresh initiative, supported by JPMorgan Chase | February 2015
Retail Grocery Market Structure Analysis of Virginia Metropolitan and
Micropolitan Areas
Prepared for Virginia Community Capital (VCC) by The Reinvestment Fund (TRF) as part of the ReFresh
initiative, supported by JPMorgan Chase | February 2015
TRF’s Market Structure Analysis measures the concentration of market share within a region’s retail
grocery industry. In general, as the concentration of market share within the top few grocers increases,
the region’s overall level of competition within the industry decreases as it evolves into a tighter
oligopoly.1 An oligopoly is a market condition in which the supply of a good or service is largely
controlled by a small number of entities, each of which is in a position to influence prices, thus directly
affecting its competitors’ ability to sustain profitability. After decades of mergers, acquisitions, and
emphasis on economies of scale, the retail grocery industry has naturally evolved into an oligopoly,
ranging in intensity from tight (fewer majority owners) to loose (more majority owners), based on the
number of owning entities controlling the majority market share.2 TRF’s experience with the
Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative suggests that a tight oligopoly in at least one Pennsylvania
metro area made market penetration especially difficult for local and regional grocers that were not
members of the oligopoly. Conversely, loose oligopolies with less concentrated market share exhibited
fewer barriers to entry for prospective grocers.
Knowledge of a region’s market structure can help VCC tailor its policies and financing programs to
accommodate the competitive climates within its geographic regions. Our market structure analysis
seeks to address the following question: How do the market structures in Virginia’s metropolitan and
micropolitan areas, cities, and counties compare to their nationwide peers, and to what extent do
measures of competition vary within the state? It may be the case that some of Virginia’s regions have
oligopolies that are so tight that a new fresh food retailer would find it especially challenging to be
financially successful, even if it is successful in increasing food access in inequitably served communities.
In such regions, VCC should consider a preservation and expansion strategy to prevent the formation of
new LSA areas, as opposed to new construction financing in existing LSA areas. Ultimately, the projectlevel nature of VCC’s financing decisions will require its staff to analyze LSA areas on a case by case basis
using PolicyMap.
Results from the Market Structure Analysis should not be used to decide whether or not to implement a
fresh food financing program in a given region – it is not a yes or no question. Instead, the results serve
as a precautionary reminder of competitive environments and provide VCC with information that can be
used to tailor each region’s strategy so as to maximize its program’s ability to finance viable fresh food
retailers in underserved communities.
KEY FINDINGS
1
In most cases, this report uses the terms “grocer” and “fresh food retailer” instead of “supermarket” to avoid the
potential for readers to associate the term “supermarket” with very large, big box stores, even though
supermarkets in our store location database can be as small as 1,000 square feet.
2
Ellickson, Paul, 2007. “Does Sutton apply to supermarkets?” Rand Journal of Economics.
1
Market shares in Virginia’s retail grocery industry vary by region, but tend to be concentrated in a
handful of owners, notably Food Lion (Delhaize America), Wal-Mart (including affiliates), Giant, and
Kroger. The following regions3 and cities/counties (explored in more detail later on) exhibit the most
potential for VCC fresh food financing because they are relatively competitive markets or their food
access problems disproportionately affect low-income and/or minority populations – or both:
Richmond, VA Metro Area
Washington, DC-VA-MD-WV Metro Area
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metro Area
Roanoke, VA Metro Area
Winchester, VA-WV Metro Area
Cumberland County
Buchanan County
VCC should note that other parts of Virginia may very well contain individual LSA areas with high mission
fit and competitive markets. This analysis focuses on aggregate LSA results and can overlook the
presence of a single, high mission-fit LSA area within a smaller geographic area. VCC should use
PolicyMap to evaluate all 42 of the state’s LSA areas within the context of this reports regional analysis.
Even if a mission-fit LSA area exists in an uncompetitive region, VCC could focus on opportunities to
expand existing small grocers as opposed to constructing new large stores that might struggle to
compete with members of a tight oligopoly.
TRF’s experience suggests that it is often more economically feasible to preserve and expand an existing
limited-service store4 in order to prevent the formation of a new LSA area than it is to construct a new
store to eliminate an existing LSA area. Opportunities for preservation and expansion are apt to exist in
just about any Virginia region, regardless of how concentrated retail grocery market shares are or how
disproportionate the effects of food access are on low-income populations. Of course, VCC should verify
that a prospective borrower actually needs to expand and/or rehabilitate in order to remain open – the
“but for financing” evaluation is not always easy to conduct, though it must be done in some capacity.
MEASURING OLIGOPOLY IN THE SUPERMARKET INDUSTRY
Our research focuses on the specific structure of the retail grocery industry, as measured by market
share concentration. The concentration of a market can be measured in a variety of ways. Two
common measures are the single-firm (CR-1) and four-firm (CR-4) concentration ratios, defined as the
percentage of the market controlled by the single largest and four largest firms, respectively.5 In most
3
Regions generally refer to Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas, which are types of Census Core Based Statistical
Areas (CBSA) – CBSAs are defined in more detail in the Methodology section below.
4
“Limited-service” stores include superettes and dollar stores; superettes are grocery stores with less than $2
million in annual sales. Limited-service stores do not prevent the formation of an LSA area; only full-service stores
preclude the formation of an LSA area. Store definitions are described in the Methodology section below.
5
The Herfindahl Index is an alternative measure of concentration, defined as the sum of the squares of market
share of the top fifty firms in a market. The Herfindahl Index is commonly used in anti-trust law, and the US
Antitrust Department considers a Herfindahl Index of 0.10 to 0.18 to be loosely concentrated and a Herfindahl
Index above 0.18 to be highly concentrated. However, because the supermarket industry is a tight oligopoly, and
2
industries, a tight oligopoly is considered to have a CR-4 value above 50%, and a CR-4 between 25% and
50% is considered a loose oligopoly. However, there are very few metropolitan areas, and no
micropolitan areas, with a CR-4 value below 50%, as the retail grocery industry has not only evolved into
an oligopoly – it has evolved into a particularly tight oligopoly. As a result, this analysis focuses more on
each region’s CR-1 and CR-2 values where there is much more differentiation among metropolitan and
micropolitan areas. And instead of using threshold values for concentration ratios, we use the relativity
within each type of metropolitan or micropolitan area to identify regions with favorable, unfavorable, or
average measures of competition.
Tables 1 through 4 show market concentration ratios and names of the top 4 owning entities within the
nation’s metropolitan, micropolitan, and custom areas (CR-1, CR-2, CR-3, and CR-4), the CR-1 value for
the family of stores owning the largest market share (Store Family CR-1), and the family name (Top
Family). For brevity, we only show the top 10, middle 10, and bottom 10 regions within each category.
Concentration ratio values are shaded based on the range of values within each column so that green
represents low market concentration (highly competitive), yellow represents average concentration,
and orange/red represents high concentration (highly uncompetitive). Lastly, Store Family CR-1 values
that exceed the CR-1 value are bordered with bold lines in Tables 1 through 4 (e.g., the Virginia BeachNorfolk-Newport News metro in Table 1).
The difference between owner and family CR-1 values are worth noting because store families have the
potential to behave in a manner that is more similar to a single owner, thus acting less competitively
within the family. For example, it may be that Walmart Supercenters and Sam’s Club stores act in
concert when deciding where to locate so as not to cannibalize collective sales, while two separate
owners under the SuperValu/Albertsons family of stores might act much more independently, with less
reluctance to be more competitive with their family members. In the event a family of stores is apt to
avoid intra-competitive behavior, it would make more sense to use the family CR-1 value to measure
competition.6
In Virginia, most metropolitan and micropolitan areas do not show substantial differences in the owner
CR-1 value and the store family CR-1 value, but differences are noted in this report, where relevant. In
some U.S. regions, the family CR-1 is larger than the owner CR-1, suggesting that there is not a clear
market share leader in the region. For example, Kroger owns the most market share (30%) of any
owning entity in the Lynchburg, VA metro area, but the Wal-Mart family of food retail stores (Walmart
Supercenter, Sam’s Club, Walmart Neighborhood Market) owns 31% of the region’s market share.
therefore inherently more concentrated, the Herfindahl Index is not as effective in highlighting differences in
competitive environments among regions.
6
The presence of a larger market share for a family of stores vs. a single owner is not necessarily a good or bad
circumstance; the percentage of market share is the most important indicator. However, some store families
might be more willing to cannibalize their sales than others, thus altering stores’ effects on competition. In other
words, some stores within the same family might not act like a tight oligopoly because they compete against each
other in the same that another store would compete under different ownership.
3
METHODOLOGY
Using Trade Dimensions grocery retail data7 containing ownership information for all grocers, we
calculated the market share for all grocery store owners within each geographic region, as defined by
the U.S. Census Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSA).8 CBSAs must contain a core area with at least
10,000 inhabitants surrounded by adjacent communities (e.g., townships, boroughs, counties) having a
high degree of economic and social integration with that core. CBSAs are categorized as either
micropolitan or metropolitan statistical areas: a micropolitan statistical area must have at least one
urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 inhabitants, while a metropolitan area must have at
least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants. For this analysis, we split metropolitan areas
into two categories – major (at least 1 million inhabitants) and minor (fewer than 1 million inhabitants) –
to accommodate differences in average market concentration between the two groups and to highlight
larger regions with more name recognition. This report often refers to Micropolitan CBSAs as “micro”
areas. Counties that are not part of a CBSA are considered rural counties, which are typically too sparsely
populated to yield differentiation among owning entities’ market shares.
In addition to CBSAs, some of the tables in this report show results for eight custom regions within
Virginia, as requested by VCC. The University of Virginia's Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service
created these eight regions based on their cities and counties’ proximity, geography, demographic
characteristics, and shared socioeconomic conditions, with the goal of providing a more accurate picture
of how Virginia is changing. These regions consist of multiple counties and cities and are known as:
Central, Eastern, Hampton Roads, Northern, Richmond, Southside, Southwest, and Valley.
Trade Dimensions defines supermarkets as full-line grocery stores with annual sales volume of $2 million
or more, including conventional supermarkets, supercenters, wholesale clubs, limited assortment (e.g.,
Save A Lot, Aldi), and gourmet food stores (e.g., Whole Foods, Trader Joe’s). Note that this analysis
focuses more on the actual owners as the unit of analysis and less on a store family (e.g., SuperValue,
Wal Mart) or marketing group name (Save A Lot, Piggly Wiggly). As previously mentioned, store families
should be accounted for when their CR-1 or CR-2 values are higher than the top two owners in a region,
but in general, our focus on store owners is intended to create a more accurate measure of market
share as it relates to competition.
For example, the owners of Save A Lot, Shoppers Food Warehouse, and Farm Fresh Supermarket all
operate as part of the SuperValu family of grocery stores, which has 70 locations throughout Virginia.
However, each of these owners has a distinct market share because it actively competes with stores
owned by others, including its family members, yet avoids competing with its own stores. In other
words, we assume that each affiliate behaves independently and rationally in a competitive
marketplace.
Market shares are calculated by dividing each owner’s total sales (across all owned stores) by the
specified region’s total grocery sales. We primarily use single-firm (CR- 1) and two-firm (CR-2) measures
to characterize market structures for major metropolitan, minor metropolitan, micropolitan, and custom
regions, though three-firm (CR-3) and four-firm (CR-4) are included for reference. TRF’s review of the
literature suggests that the retail grocery industry is a natural oligopoly, thus we use market
concentration measures to determine where each region fits along the continuum between a loose and
7
8
Trade Dimensions is a division of Nielsen formerly known as the Nielsen Media Corporation.
http://www.census.gov/population/metro/
4
a tight oligopoly, relative to the competitive climate among its nationwide peers. Peers are established
within major and minor metropolitan areas and micropolitan areas. By comparing areas within these
broad regional categories, we are able to observe relative differences among places that fall within
appropriate population ranges.
RESEARCH RESULTS AND FINDINGS
Tables 1 through 3,below, and Table 4 in the Appendix show results for Virginia’s major metro, minor
metro, micropolitan, and custom areas, respectively, along with results for their nationwide peers as a
way to establish relativity in measures of competition. For brevity, we only show the top 10, middle 10,
and bottom 10 regions within each category. As an example, Table 1 shows that Virginia’s major metro
areas rank in the top half, nationwide, based on CR-1 values. The Virginia Beach metro area ranks 11th
(out of 51) and metro Richmond ranks 12th in terms of their CR-1 competitive measures – in other
words, their low single-firm concentration ratio indicates high levels of competition. Based on TRF’s
experience with fresh food retail lending, regions with low levels of competition (tight oligopoly) can
make market penetration difficult for local, regional, and/or smaller grocers that are not members of
the oligopoly. Meanwhile, high levels of competition (loose oligopoly) suggest that market
penetration would be less difficult for new grocers.
Low CR-1 = Loose Oligopoly = Competitive = Potential for easier market penetration
High CR-1 = Tight Oligopoly = Uncompetitive = Potential for difficult market penetration
Major Metropolitan Areas in Virginia (Table 1)



While Food Lion (Delhaize America) owns the most market share in the Virginia Beach and
Richmond metro areas, at 23% (CR-1) these areas have a loose oligopoly, thus they are highly
competitive and favorable to VCC’s fresh food financing objectives
Farm Fresh and Giant/Martin’s are the second largest market share owners in Virginia Beach
and Richmond, respectively
Giant owns 30% of market share in the Washington, DC metro area, while Safeway has the
second highest share at 15%, suggesting that this region’s competitive measure is closer to the
nationwide average (32%): an oligopoly that is neither tight, nor loose
Minor Metropolitan Areas in Virginia (Table 2)


Virginia has 8 minor metro areas with CR-1 values ranging from 22% to 49%
o Charlottesville has a notably competitive (loose) oligopoly, while Harrisonburg, and
Lynchburg are only slightly more competitive than the national average
o The remaining five areas (Winchester, Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, KingsportBristol-Bristol, Danville, and Roanoke) are relatively tight oligopolies (less competitive
than average), ranking in the bottom half of all micropolitan areas nationwide
Market shares are predominantly owned by Food Lion (4 – Charlottesville, Harrisonburg,
Lynchburg, and Danville) and Kroger (2 –Blacksburg and Roanoke)
5
o

The other two areas (Winchester and Kingsport-Bristol) are predominantly owned by
Giant/Martin’s and Food City
Walmart owns the second largest market share in 6 of the 8 minor metro areas, with shares
ranging from 18% in Danville and 23% in Roanoke to 27% in Blacksburg and 29% in Winchester
o Lynchburg has a remarkably equal distribution, and a large amount, of market share
owned by the top three entities: Kroger owns 30%, Food Lion has 29%, and the WalMart family of stores owns 31% (Walmart Supercenter at 25% and Sam’s Club at 6%)
o Kroger owns the second largest market share (17%) in metro Charlottesville, 4
percentage points behind Food Lion (21%)
Micropolitan Areas in Virginia (Table 3)


All of Virginia’s micropolitan areas are more competitive than the national micropolitan area
average (CR-1 = 40%) with Staunton at 28%, Culpeper and Bluefield both at 29%, and
Martinsville at 38%
Plurality market shares in Virginia’s micropolitan areas are owned by Food Lion and Walmart,
with Kroger owning the second largest share in three out of four micropolitan areas (Staunton,
Bluefield, and Martinsville)
Custom Regions (Cities and Counties) in Virginia (Appendix Table 4)








Central: While some of the region’s cities and counties show competitive markets, many are
highly uncompetitive; Food Lion owns the most market share, though Kroger tends to own a
higher market share in the region’s cities
Eastern: Markets in this region are notably uncompetitive and predominantly owned by Food
Lion, with the exception of Essex and Lancaster counties (Walmart)
Hampton Roads: With the exception of rural cities and counties, this region is highly
competitive, with Food Lion owning the most market share, though SuperValu and Walmart
own higher market shares in a handful of cities and counties
Northern: Although Giant owns the most market share in all counties and nearly all cities (only
the cities of Manassas Park, Fairfax, and Fredericksburg are not predominantly owned by Giant),
this region has a highly competitive market in most areas
Richmond: The region’s more rural cities and counties are uncompetitive and tend to be
dominated by Food Lion; urban and suburban cities and counties are much more competitive,
with market shares spread more evenly among Kroger, Martins, and the Wal-Mart family of
stores
Southside: This region is notably uncompetitive, as Food Lion and Walmart have substantial
market shares in Southside cities and counties
Southwest: Food City (operated by “K VA T Food Stores”) owns a dominant share of the market
in the far southwestern cities and counties near Kentucky, making it rather uncompetitive;
Walmart owns the largest market share in most other cities and towns, but not to an extent that
prevents these areas from being more competitive
Valley: With the exception of a few cities (e.g., Roanoke, Staunton, and Waynesboro), this
region is very uncompetitive; market shares are heavily concentrated into Food Lion, Kroger,
and Walmart, depending on which sub-regional cities and counties are under consideration
6
Table 1: Market Structure Analysis - Major Metropolitan Areas
Vi rgi ni a Ma j or Metropol i ta n Area s vs . Top/Mi ddl e/Bottom 10 Peer Area s
Metro Area Na me
CR-1
Ra nk
(51)
CR-1
Owner w/ Hi ghes t
Ma rket Sha re
Owner w/ 2nd Hi ghes t
CR-2
Ma rket Sha re
CR-3
Owner w/ 3rd Hi ghes t
Ma rket Sha re
CR-4
Store
Owner w/ 4th Hi ghes t Fa mi l y
CR-1
Ma rket Sha re
Top Fa mi l y
Vi rgi ni a Bea ch, VA-NC
11
22% Food Li on
40% Fa rm Fres h
54% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
62% DECA Commi s s a ry
22%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca Inc
Ri chmond, VA
13
23% Food Li on
42% Gi a nt/Ma rti n's
59% Kroger
71% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
23%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca Inc
Wa s hi ngton, DC-VA-MD-WV
31
30% Gi a nt
45% Sa fewa y
51% Cos tco
57% Shoppers
30%
Ahol d USA Inc
32%
46%
56%
63%
32%
12%
15%
Nationwide Average
New York, NY-NJ-PA
Ka ns a s Ci ty, MO-KS
1
2
12% Stop & Shop
15% Hy Vee
19% Cos tco
29% Hen Hous e/Pri ce Chop
26% Pa thma rk
43% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
31% A&P/Food Emp
56% Cos enti no's
Ahol d USA
Hy Vee Food
Los Angel es , CA
3
15% Ra l phs
26% Vons /Pa vi l i ons
37% Cos tco
45% SuperVa l u/Al berts ons /S 15%
Kroger
Phi l a del phi a , PA-NJ-DE-MD
4
15% SuperVa l u/Acme Ma rke 26% Gi a nt/Ma rti n's
32% Pa thma rk
36% Genua rdi Fa mi l y
15%
SuperVa l u
Da l l a s , TX
5
17% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
35% Kroger
46% Tom Thumb
53% Al berts ons
17%
Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
La s Vega s , NV
6
21% Smi th's
38% SuperVa l u/Al berts ons /S 49% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
57% Food 4 Les s
21%
Kroger
Sa cra mento, CA
7
21% Sa fewa y
36% Ra l ey's /Food Source
45% Bel Ai r
52% Cos tco
21%
Sa fewa y
Mi nnea pol i s , MN-WI
8
21% Cub
33% Ra i nbow
42% Super Ta rget
49% Sa ve A Lot (Jerrys )
21%
SuperVa l u
Sa n Di ego, CA
9
21% Vons /Pa vi l i ons
35% SuperVa l u/Al berts ons /S 48% Cos tco
57% Ra l phs
21%
Sa fewa y
Bi rmi ngha m, AL
19
25% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
41% Publ i x
52% Wi nn Di xi e
58% Sa m's Cl ub
25%
Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
Ba l ti more, MD
20
26% Gi a nt
38% Sa fewa y
45% Shoppers
49% Food Li on
26%
Ahol d USA
Detroi t, MI
21
27% Kroger
41% Mei j er
49% Cos tco
55% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
27%
Kroger
Sea ttl e, WA
22
27% Sa fewa y
38% QFC
49% Cos tco
59% Fred Meyer
27%
Sa fewa y
Ri vers i de, CA
23
27% Sta ter Bros .
35% SuperVa l u/Al berts ons /S 43% Vons /Pa vi l i ons
50% Cos tco
27%
Sta ter Bros .
Cha rl otte, NC-SC
24
27% Ha rri s Teeter Inc
47% Food Li on
60% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
71% BI-LO
27%
Ruddi ck
Sa l t La ke Ci ty, UT
25
27% Smi th's
39% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
49% Fres h
59% Ha rmons
27%
Kroger
St. Loui s , MO-I L
26
29% Schnuck
44% Shop N Sa ve
56% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
67% Di erbergs
29%
Schnuck
Sa n Jos e, CA
27
29% Sa fewa y
45% Cos tco
53% Lucky
60% Tra der Joe's
29%
Sa fewa y
Chi ca go, IL-I N-WI
28
30% SuperVa l u/Jewel Os co/ 38% Domi ni ck's
45% Cos tco
49% Stra ck & Va n Ti l
30%
SuperVa l u
Ta mpa , FL
42
40% Publ i x
52% Sweetba y
63% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
70% Wi nn Di xi e
40%
Publ i x
Provi dence, RI-MA
43
41% Stop & Shop
56% SuperVa l u/Sha ws Super 62% Pri ce Ri te
66% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
41%
Ahol d USA
Memphi s , TN-MS-AR
44
43% Kroger
57% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
63% Sa m's Cl ub
67% Cos tco
43%
Kroger
Mi a mi , FL
45
47% Publ i x
59% Wi nn Di xi e
65% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
69% Cos tco
47%
Publ i x
Roches ter, NY
46
48% Wegma ns
64% Tops
74% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
79% BJs Whol es a l e
48%
Wegma ns
Mi l wa ukee, WI
47
49% Roundy's
56% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
60% Sa m's Cl ub
63% Wa l greens Co
49%
Roundy's
Loui s vi l l e, KY-I N
48
53% Kroger
64% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
69% Mei j er
73% Sa m's Cl ub
53%
Kroger
Ci nci nna ti , OH-KY-I N
49
58% Kroger
67% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
73% Mei j er
77% Remkes
58%
Kroger
Aus ti n, TX
50
61% H-E-B
70% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
78% Ra nda l l s
82% Sa m's Cl ub
61%
H-E-B
Sa n Antoni o, TX
51
63% H-E-B
76% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
81% Sa m's Cl ub
84% DECA Commi s s a ry
63%
H-E-B
Source: TRF, 2014; Trade Dimensions, 2013
7
Table 2: Market Structure Analysis - Minor Metropolitan Areas
Fl ori da Mi nor Metropol i ta n Area s vs . Top/Mi ddl e/Bottom 10 Peer Area s
Area Na me
CR-1
Ra nk
(315) CR-1
Owner w/ Hi ghes t
Ma rket Sha re
CR-2
Owner w/ 2nd
Hi ghes t Ma rket
Sha re
CR-3
Owner w/ 3rd Hi
ghes t Ma rket
Sha re
CR-4
Owner w/ 4th
Hi ghes t Ma rket
Sha re
Store
Fa mi l y
CR-1
Top Fa mi l y
Cha rl ottes vi l l e, VA
37
22% Food Li on
39% Kroger
53% Ha rri s Teeter Inc
66% Gi a nt
22%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca In
Ha rri s onburg, VA
142
30% Food Li on
51% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
65% Cos tco
76% Gi a nt/Ma rti n's
30%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca In
Lynchburg, VA
149
30% Food Li on
59% Kroger
82% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
88% Sa m's Cl ub
30%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca In
Wi nches ter, VA-WV
201
35% Gi a nt/Ma rti n's
60% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
80% Food Li on
90% Cos tco
35%
Ahol d USA Inc
Bl a cks burg, VA
205
35% Kroger
59% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
79% Food Li on
86% Wa des
35%
Kroger Co/HQ
Ki ngs port, TN-VA
271
44% Food Ci ty
64% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
74% Kroger
78% Food Li on
44%
K VA T Food Stores I
Da nvi l l e, VA
274
44% Food Li on
61% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
72% Sa m's Cl ub
79% Ol d Dutch
44%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca In
Roa noke, VA
293
49% Kroger
65% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
81% Food Li on
88% Sa m's Cl ub
49%
Kroger Co/HQ
Nationwide Average
33%
52%
65%
74%
33%
Scra nton, PA
1
14% Wei s
27% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
39% Pri ce Chopper
49% Gerri tys
14%
Wei s Ma rkets Inc H
Medford, OR
2
16% SuperVa l u/Al berts o 30% Sherms Thunderbi r 45% Sa fewa y
55% C & K
16%
SuperVa l u Inc/HQ
Reno-Spa rks , NV
3
16% Ra l eys Neva da
32% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
48% Scol a ri s
58% Sa ve Ma rt
16%
Ra l eys Superma rket
Cha rl es ton, SC
4
16% Publ i x
32% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
46% BI-LO
59% Pi ggl y Wi ggl y
16%
Publ i x Super Mkts In
Stockton, CA
5
16% Sa ve Ma rt
32% Sa fewa y
46% PAQ
58% Cos tco
16%
Sa ve Ma rt Superma r
Worces ter, MA
6
17% Stop & Shop
29% SuperVa l u/Sha ws S 42% Ha nna ford
53% Pri ce Chopper
17%
Ahol d USA Inc
Ba kers fi el d, CA
7
17% SuperVa l u/Al berts o 28% Vons /Pa vi l i ons
43% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
17%
SuperVa l u Inc/HQ
Kennewi ck, WA
8
17% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
35% SuperVa l u/Al berts o 51% Wi nCo Foods /Sea t 59% Fred Meyer
17%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Poca tel l o, ID
9
18% Cos tco
34% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
48% Wi nCo Foods /Boi s 61% Fred Meyer
18%
Cos tco Cos Inc
18% Sa ve Ma rt
27% Vons /Pa vi l i ons
37% Food Ma xx
46% Wi nCo Foods /Sa cra
18%
Sa ve Ma rt Superma r
Fres no, CA
10
37% Food Ma xx
Spri ngfi el d, MO
154
31% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
51% Ra mey/Pri ce Cutter 64% Sa m's Cl ub
74% Gerbes /Ba ker's
31%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Ca rs on Ci ty, NV
155
31% Sa ve Ma rt
50% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
66% Ra l eys Neva da
81% Smi th's
31%
Sa ve Ma rt Superma r
Mi dl a nd, TX
156
31% H-E-B
57% Al berts ons
79% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
88% Sa m's Cl ub
31%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
La fa yette, IN
157
31% Kroger
53% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
64% Ma rs h/Ma i nSt
72% Mei j er
31%
Kroger Co/HQ
Lewi s ton, ID-WA
158
31% SuperVa l u/Al berts o 49% Cos tco
65% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
75% Sa fewa y
31%
SuperVa l u Inc/HQ
Pi tts fi el d, MA
159
31% Pri ce Chopper
55% Bi g Y/Fres h Acres
78% Stop & Shop
84% BJs Whol es a l e
31%
Gol ub Corp/HQ
Cha tta nooga , TN-GA
160
31% BI-LO
56% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
64% Food Li on
69% Publ i x
31%
Lone Sta r Funds
Ol ympi a , WA
161
31% Sa fewa y
42% Cos tco
53% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
61% SuperVa l u/Al berts o
31%
Sa fewa y Inc/HQ
Spri ngfi el d, MA
162
31% Bi g Y/Fres h Acres
62% Stop & Shop
67% Pri ce Ri te
71% Cos tco
31%
Bi g Y Foods Inc
Jones boro, AR
163
31% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
47% Kroger
60% Sa m's Cl ub
68% Town & untry
31%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Spri ngfi el d, OH
307
56% Kroger
71% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
78% Mei j er
83% IGA/Sa veALot
56%
Kroger Co/HQ
Wa co, TX
308
57% H-E-B
77% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
86% Sa m's Cl ub
89% Brooks hi re Bros
57%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
Vi ctori a , TX
309
57% H-E-B
78% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
88% Sa m's Cl ub
91% Sa ve-A-Lot
57%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
Browns vi l l e, TX
310
58% H-E-B
77% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
83% Sa m's Cl ub
86% A & V Lopez
58%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
Ga i nes vi l l e, FL
311
58% Publ i x
68% Wi nn Di xi e
75% Sa m's Cl ub
81% Hi tchcock & Sons
58%
Publ i x Super Mkts In
Ba rns ta bl e Town, MA
312
59% Stop & Shop
76% SuperVa l u/Sha ws S 79% Roche Brothers
82% BJs Whol es a l e
59%
Ahol d USA Inc
McAl l en, TX
313
63% H-E-B
82% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
88% Sa m's Cl ub
90% Juni ors
63%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
Corpus Chri s ti , TX
314
65% H-E-B
85% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
91% Sa m's Cl ub
92% Independent_49888
65%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
St. Cl oud, MN
315
68% Coborns
79% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
86% Sa m's Cl ub
89% Tea l s
68%
Coborns Inc HQ
La redo, TX
316
70% H-E-B
81% Sa m's Cl ub
90% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
93% Super S
70%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
Source: TRF, 2014; Trade Dimensions, 2013
8
Table 3: Market Structure Analysis - Micropolitan Areas
Fl ori da Mi cropol i ta n Area s vs . Top/Mi ddl e/Bottom 10 Peer Area s
Area Na me
CR-1
Ra nk
Owner w/ Hi ghes t
(576) CR-1
Ma rket Sha re
CR-2
Owner w/ 2nd
Hi ghes t Ma rket
Sha re
CR-3
Owner w/ 3rd
Hi ghes t Ma rket
Sha re
CR-4
Owner w/ 4th
Hi ghes t Ma rket
Sha re
Store
Fa mi l y
CR-1
Top Fa mi l y
Sta unton, VA
64
28% Food Li on
50% Kroger
71% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
86% Gi a nt/Ma rti n's
28%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca In
Cul peper, VA
71
29% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
52% Gi a nt/Ma rti n's
71% Food Li on
80% Sa fewa y
29%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Bl uefi el d, WV-VA
87
29% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
49% Kroger
63% Gra nts
74% Food Ci ty
29%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Ma rti ns vi l l e, VA
246
38% Food Li on
59% Kroger
81% Sa ve A Lot (Buehl er)
38%
Del ha i ze Ameri ca In
Nationwide Average
77% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
41%
66%
79%
86%
41%
Tra vers e Ci ty, MI
1
16% Toms
30% Mei j er
43% Spa rta n
53% Sa m's Cl ub
16%
Toms Food Ma rkets
Al l ega n, MI
2
18% Ha rdi ng's
35% Mei j er
52% Spa rta n
64% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
18%
Ha rdi ng Fri endl y Ma
La Gra nge, GA
3
18% Kroger
36% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
53% Pi ggl y Wi ggl y
64% Food Depot
18%
Kroger Co/HQ
Owos s o, MI
4
18% Kroger
36% Mei j er
51% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
64% VG's Center
18%
Kroger Co/HQ
Ora ngeburg, SC
5
19% BI-LO
36% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
48% Pi ggl y Wi ggl y
59% Rei d's
19%
Lone Sta r Funds
Twi n Fa l l s , ID
6
19% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
33% Wi nCo Foods /Boi s 45% Cos tco
57% Ri dl ey's
19%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
As hta bul a , OH
7
19% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
38% Independent_6159 55% Gi a nt Ea gl e
62% Independent_60578
19%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Bea ver Da m, WI
8
20% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
34% Independent_6076 47% Independent_4430 59% Independent_23795
20%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Ga rdnervi l l e Ra nchos ,
9
21% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
40% Cos tco
68% Sa fewa y
21%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Kl a ma th Fa l l s , OR
10
21% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
41% SuperVa l u/Al berts o 60% Sa fewa y
73% Fred Meyer
21%
88% Grocery Outl et
56% Ra l eys Neva da
284
39% Fred Meyer
76% C & K
84% McKa ys
Mount Sterl i ng, KY
285
39% Kroger
73% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
80% Independent_2417 85% Independent_46681
39%
Kroger Co/HQ
Fa l l on, NV
286
39% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
66% Sa fewa y
89% Ra l eys Neva da
39%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Na tchi toches , LA
287
40% Brooks hi re's
77% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
84% Independent_7362 89% Kenya n Enterpri s es
40%
Brooks hi re Grocery
Gra nts , NM
288
40% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
68% Smi th's
89% J H B
100% Independent_59368
40%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
La ra mi e, WY
289
100% NA
40%
Sa fewa y Inc/HQ
97% DECA Commi s s a ry
39%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Brooki ngs , OR
Kroger Co/HQ
40% Sa fewa y
71% SuperVa l u/Al berts o 100% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
Fort Ma di s on-Keokuk, I 290
40% Hy Vee
62% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
79% Ni ema nn
87% Al di
40%
Hy Vee Food Stores I
Pri nevi l l e, OR
40% C & K
62% Eri cks ons Sentry
78% Grocery Outl et
93% Independent_62076
40%
C & K Ma rkets Inc
Ta l l a dega -Syl a ca uga , A 292
40% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
54% Pi ggl y Wi ggl y
66% Wi nn Di xi e
75% Independent_23706
40%
Ga l es burg, IL
293
40% Hy Vee
59% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
76% Ni ema nn
80% Independent_960
40%
Hy Vee Food Stores I
DeRi dder, LA
568
70% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
98% Brooks hi re Bros
100% Wa l greens Co
100% Independent_53260
70%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Ra ymondvi l l e, TX
569
71% H-E-B
100% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
100% NA
100% NA
Sterl i ng, CO
570
72% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
90% Spa rta nNa s h
Kodi a k, AK
571
72% Sa fewa y
88% Al a s ka Commerci a l 96% DECA Commi s s a ry 100% Independent_73209
72%
Ma rbl e Fa l l s , TX
572
72% H-E-B
95% Wa l ma rt Sprcntr
72%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
Bi s hop, CA
573
73% Vons /Pa vi l i ons
80% Independent_5690 86% Sma rt & Fi na l
92% Independent_56197
73%
Sa fewa y Inc/HQ Los
Al a mos , NM
574
90% Smi th's
100% Independent_7439 100% NA
100% NA
90%
Kroger Co/HQ
Snyder, TX
575
97% Uni ted
100% CVS Area 4
100% NA
100% NA
97%
Uni ted Superma rket
291
97% Independent_5678 100% Wa l greens Co
98% Independent_933 100% Wa l greens Co
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
71%
H E Butt Grocery Co/
72%
Wa l Ma rt Stores /HQ
Sa fewa y Inc/HQ
Pecos , TX
576.5 100% Fenn
100% NA
100% NA
100% NA
100% Fenn Foods Inc
Andrews , TX
576.5 100% Thri ftwa y
100% NA
100% NA
100% NA
100% Thri ftwa y
Source: TRF, 2014; Trade Dimensions, 2013
SELECTING TARGETED REGIONS for FRESH FOOD RETAIL INTERVENTION
This section evaluates the potential for Virginia’s metropolitan and micropolitan areas to serve as
targeted fresh food lending areas for VCC. The objective is to assess each region’s measures of
competition and inequitable access, with particular attention to regions with a disproportionate share of
Limited Supermarket Access (LSA) residents living in low-income, minority communities.9 Tables 1
9
TRF’s 2014 LSA Analysis identifies communities in which residents have inequitable access to full-service retail
grocers. LSA Areas and their characteristics can be analyzed at www.policymap.com.
9
through 3 (above) and Appendix Table 4 show regional measures of competition for major metro, minor
metro, micropolitan, and custom regions, respectively. Tables 5, 6, and 7 (below) show relevant LSA
data for each CBSA region and help draw connections between market structure and the food access
problem, with particular attention to disproportionate effects on low-income communities, as well as
minority populations. This section complements TRF’s summary of Virginia’s LSA Areas.
With the exception of a few minor metro areas, Virginia’s regions exhibit relatively competitive
conditions, which bodes well for VCC’s efforts to create more equitable access to healthy food retailers
via their financing program. Even in regions with less competitive markets (tight oligopolies), market
share concentration measures, alone, should not dissuade VCC from attempting to address food access
problems. Instead, these results serve as a precautionary reminder and provide VCC with information
that can be used to tailor each region’s strategy so as to maximize their program’s ability to finance
viable fresh food retailers in underserved, low-income communities.
For example, while providing LSA Analysis training to CDFIs as part of OFN’s HFFI technical assistance
program, TRF noticed that many CDFIs adopted a strategy to expand existing stores, as opposed to
constructing new ones. This decision was not always based on a perceived level of competition, but
several CDFIs specifically cited the presence of dominant supermarket chains as a cause for concern.
Expanding a smaller, limited-service store (such as a superette) into a full-service store has the same
impact on food access, yet requires much less financial risk on behalf of the CDFI. Also, because the
limited-service stores in LSA areas tend to be isolated from full-service competitors, their expansion into
full-service scale is less likely to put them in direct competition with large members of a region’s
oligopoly. Lastly, smaller grocery stores tend to be owned and operated by local residents, thus adding
a small business development component to VCC’s fresh food financing program.
In regions with tight oligopolies (uncompetitive markets), VCC should use PolicyMap to identify LSA
areas that are near to or even contain limited-service grocers that can be expanded into full service
stores, especially when the nearest market share leader (owner with the highest CR-1 value) is
considerably far away, thus mitigating the effects of a tight oligopoly on a store’s potential to compete.
Note that in Tables 5, 6, and 7 the columns labeled Low-Income Area Ratio and Minority Race/ Ethnicity
Ratio use a color ramp to illustrate high (red), moderate (yellow), and low (green) values among
Virginia’s regions. The intent is to help readers quickly identify which areas’ low-income or minority
populations are overrepresented in LSA areas – in other words, regions where low-income or minority
populations constitute a larger share of the LSA population than the general population.
10
Major Metropolitan Areas
Table 5: LSA Figures for Virginia's Major Metropolitan Areas
Sorted i n Des cendi ng Order by Popul a ti on i n LSA Area s
Total
Population
(2010)
Population
in LSA
Area Name
% of
% of LSA
% of
Gen
Pop in
Pop in
Pop in
Low Inc
LSA
Low Inc
Area
Area
LowIncome
Area
Ratio*
Minority
Race/
Ethnicity
Ratio**
Wa s hi ngton, DC-VA-MD-WV
5,582,170
407,283
7%
45%
29%
1.5
1.2
Ri chmond, VA
1,258,251
81,116
6%
55%
29%
1.9
1.4
Vi rgi ni a Bea ch, VA-NC
1,671,683
74,713
4%
40%
29%
1.4
1.5
US Ma j or Metro Avera ge
3,304,391
237,234
7%
40%
30%
1.3
1.3
Vi rgi na (s ta tewi de)
8,001,024
364,087
5%
33%
25%
1.3
1.2
306,675,006
20,102,395
7%
36%
29%
1.2
1.2
Na ti on
Sources: TRF, 2014; Trade Dimensions, 2013
* Low-Income Area Ra tios a re ca lcula ted by dividing the % of LSA res idents living in low-income communities by the metro
a rea 's % of a ll res idents living in s uch communities .
** Minority Ra ce/Ethnicity Ra tios a re ca lcula ted by dividing the % of minority res idents living in LSA a rea s by the overa ll
metro a rea 's % of minority res idents .
Washington, DC Metropolitan Area
The Washington metro area exhibits competitive measures just below the nationwide average for all
major metro areas (CR-1 = 30% vs. 32% national average). More importantly, 45% of DC’s LSA residents
live in low-income communities, compared to only 29% of the region’s general population. In other
words, LSA residents are 1.5 times as likely to live in low-income areas compared to the general
population, meaning the region’s food access problem disproportionately affects low-income
populations.10 Food access in DC metro more likely to be a problem for minorities, but no more than the
nationwide average.
DC metro’s average competitive measures and the tendency for its food access problem to
disproportionately affect low-income communities make this region a candidate for food access
intervention. However, given the area’s vast geographic expanse, VCC is advised to carefully inspect LSA
areas using PolicyMap to make sure prospective grocers’ locations represent targeted areas based on
the organization’s mission.
Richmond Metropolitan Area
The Richmond metro area is highly competitive compared to the nation’s major metro area average (CR1 = 23% vs. 32% national average). More importantly, 55% of Richmond’s LSA residents live in lowincome communities, compared to only 29% of the region’s general population living in low-income
communities. In other words, LSA residents are twice as likely to live in low-income areas compared to
the general population, meaning the region’s food access problem disproportionately affects low-
10
“Low-income” in this analysis is defined as a median household income that is at or below 80% of the
metropolitan area median income (AMI); for non-metro areas, the calculation is 80% of the median household
income for all non-metro areas within the same state.
11
income populations. Food access in Richmond is also much more likely to be a problem for minorities,
where their share of the LSA population is 1.6 times their share of the general population.
Richmond’s favorable level of competition and the tendency for its food access problem to
disproportionately affect low-income, minority communities make this region a strong candidate for
food access intervention.
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA Metro Area
The Virginia Beach metro area is also a relatively competitive market compared to the nation’s major
metro area average (CR-1 = 22% vs. 32% national average). While not as severe as in the Richmond
metro area, Virginia Beach metro’s food access problem disproportionately affects low-income and
minority populations. Low-income residents comprise 40% of all LSA residents, yet only 29% of the
general population. Similarly, minority populations’ share of the LSA population is 1.5 times their share
of the general population.
Virginia Beach metro’s favorable level of competition and the tendency for its food access problem to
disproportionately affect low-income, minority communities make this region a strong candidate for
food access intervention. In light of the metro area’s vast geographic expanse, VCC should use
PolicyMap to identify specific communities in which its healthy food financing program can increase
access.
Minor Metropolitan Areas
Table 6: LSA Figures for Virginia's Minor Metropolitan Areas
Sorted i n Des cendi ng Order by Popul a ti on i n LSA Area s
Total
Population
(2010)
Population
in LSA
Area Name
% of
% of LSA
% of
Gen
Pop in
Pop in
Pop in
Low Inc
LSA
Low Inc
Area
Area
LowIncome
Area
Ratio*
Minority
Race/
Ethnicity
Ratio**
Ki ngs port, TN-VA
309,544
19,428
6%
13%
25%
0.5
0.5
Roa noke, VA
308,707
10,756
3%
63%
26%
2.4
1.5
Wi nches ter, VA-WV
128,472
10,657
8%
57%
33%
1.8
0.3
Lynchburg, VA
252,634
10,586
4%
6%
23%
0.3
0.2
Da nvi l l e, VA
106,561
5,939
6%
0%
NA
0.0
0.6
Ha rri s onburg, VA
125,228
2,621
2%
52%
28%
1.9
0.2
US Mi nor Metro Avera ge
Vi rgi na (s ta tewi de)
Na ti on
326,988
23,873
7%
35%
28%
1.3
1.2
8,001,024
364,087
5%
33%
25%
1.3
1.2
306,675,006
20,102,395
7%
36%
29%
1.2
1.2
Sources: TRF, 2014; Trade Dimensions, 2013
* Low-Income Area Ra tios a re ca lcula ted by dividing the % of LSA res idents living in low-income communities by the
metro a rea 's % of a ll res idents living in s uch communities .
** Minority Ra ce/Ethnicity Ra tios a re ca lcula ted by dividing the % of minority res idents living in LSA a rea s by the overa ll
metro a rea 's % of minority res idents .
12
Roanoke, VA Metro Area11
The Roanoke metro area contains a highly uncompetitive food retail market in which Kroger owns 49%
of market share and the Walmart family of stores owns 23%. Although these indicators suggest the
potential for difficult market penetration y new grocers, Metro Roanoke’s food access problem makes
the case for intervention, as it disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. Lowincome residents constitute 63% of LSA residents compared to 26% of the general population. It is
worth noting that some of the low-income populations could represent college students. As a result,
VCC should carefully consider prospective store locations to make sure the targeted low-income
populations are in line with the organization’s mission. Also, minority populations exhibit a share of the
LSA population that is 1.5 times their share of the general population, highlighting disproportionate
effects of limited food access.
Given such disproportionate effects on low-income and minority populations, Metro Roanoke stands
out as a candidate for food access intervention. However, the region’s uncompetitive food retail market
indicates that VCC should take a cautious approach to its financing and consider a preservation and/or
expansion strategy for existing grocers, both full- and limited-service. VCC should use PolicyMap to
identify LSA areas that are near to or even contain limited-service grocers that can be expanded into full
service stores, especially when the nearest Kroger or Wal Mart-owned store is considerably far away
(thus mitigating the effects of a tight oligopoly).
Winchester, VA-WV Metro Area12
The Winchester metro area’s market shares are slightly more concentrated (i.e., less competitive,
tighter oligopoly) than average (CR-1 = 35% vs. 33% national average), with Giant leading the pack and
Walmart following with 24%. This region also shows considerable food access disparity based on
income, with low-income residents comprising 57% of LSA residents compared to 33% of the general
population; nearly twice the rate. Minority populations are actually underrepresented in LSA areas
compared to their share of the general population.
Metro Winchester’s tendency for its food access problem to disproportionately affect low-income
populations makes this region a strong candidate for food access intervention. However, the region’s
below-average level of competition should be considered when determining the mix of new
construction versus the preservation and expansion of existing stores. VCC should avoid financing new
stores within or near the trade areas of Giant and Wal Mart-owned stores as a way to avoid the effects
of a less competitive environment.
Lynchburg, VA Metro Area
The Lynchburg metro area’s food retail industry is notably uncompetitive, despite its somewhat
favorable CR-1 value of 30% versus the national average of 33%. The reason is that while Food Lion
leads the market at 30% and Kroger is a close second at 29%, the Wal-Mart family of stores also owns
29% of market share. In other words, nearly 90% of metro Lynchburg’s market share is owned by only
three retailers.
11
Roanoke metro includes the following cities/counties: Botetourt County, VA (51023); Craig County, VA (51045);
Franklin County, VA (51067); Roanoke County, VA (51161); Roanoke city, VA (51770); Salem city, VA (51775).
12
Winchester metro includes the following cities/counties: Frederick County, VA (51069); Winchester city, VA
(51840); Hampshire County, WV (54027).
13
Low-income and minority populations are much less likely to live in Lynchburg’s LSA areas. Given the
underrepresentation of low-income and minority populations in metro Lynchburg’s LSA areas, and the
uncompetitive market (tight oligopoly), VCC is apt to face substantial challenges implementing its fresh
food financing program in this region.
Harrisonburg, VA Metro Area
Metro Harrisonburg does not contain enough LSA residents to justify healthy food access intervention,
with the possible exception of smaller-scale expansion projects for limited-service and smaller fullservice grocers.
Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol, TN-VA Metro Area
The Kingsport metro area is primarily located in Tennessee, though its northern boundary extends into
Virginia. Given metro Kingsport’s uncompetitive market, with Food City owning 44%, coupled with the
fact that low-income and minority populations are much less likely to live in LSA areas, VCC is apt to face
substantial challenges implementing its fresh food financing program in this region.
Metropolitan Areas without LSA Residents
The following metro areas do not contain any LSA areas:
Charlottesville, VA
Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, VA
Micropolitan Areas
Table 7: LSA Figures for Virginia's Micropolitan Areas
Sorted i n Des cendi ng Order by Popul a ti on i n LSA Area s
Total
Population
(2010)
Population
in LSA
Area Name
Cul peper, VA
% of
% of LSA
% of
Gen
Pop in
Pop in
Pop in
Low Inc
LSA
Low Inc
Area
Area
LowIncome
Area
Ratio*
Minority
Race/
Ethnicity
Ratio**
46,689
6,649
14%
0%
NA
0.0
0.3
Sta unton-Wa ynes boro, VA
118,502
5,665
5%
16%
26%
0.6
0.6
US Mi cropol i ta n Avera ge
63,184
6,604
11%
19%
25%
0.7
0.8
8,001,024
364,087
5%
33%
25%
1.3
1.2
306,675,006
20,102,395
7%
36%
29%
1.2
1.2
Vi rgi na (s ta tewi de)
Na ti on
Sources: TRF, 2014; Trade Dimensions, 2013
* Low-Income Area Ra tios a re ca lcula ted by dividing the % of LSA res idents living in low-income communities by the
micropolita n a rea 's % of a ll res idents living in s uch communities .
** Minority Ra ce/Ethnicity Ra tios a re ca lcula ted by dividing the % of minority res idents living in LSA a rea s by the overa ll
micropolita n a rea 's % of minority res idents .
Culpeper Micropolitan Area
The Culpeper micropolitan area is highly competitive in relation to its peers (CR-1 = 29% vs. 41% national
average), with Walmart (29%) and Giant (23%) owning the top two market shares. However, none of
Culpeper’s LSA residents live in low-income areas, and minority residents are less likely to live in LSA
14
areas. As a result, VCC should consider a preservation and expansion strategy in these regions’ lowincome communities, but avoid projects that would require a newly constructed grocery store.
Staunton-Waynesboro, VA Micropolitan Area
The Staunton-Waynesboro micropolitan area’s food retail industry is highly competitive, with Food Lion
owning 28% (compared to 41% national average CR-1) and Walmart owning 22%. However, low-income
and minority populations are much less likely to live in LSA areas. Given the minimal representation of
low-income and minority populations in metro Staunton, VCC should consider a preservation and
expansion strategy in these regions’ low-income communities, but avoid projects that would require a
newly constructed grocery store.
Martinsville, VA and Bluefield, WV-VA Micropolitan Areas
The Martinsville and Bluefield micropolitan areas do not contain any LSA areas. VCC should consider a
preservation and expansion strategy in these regions’ low-income communities, but avoid projects that
would require a newly constructed grocery store.
Non-CBSA Cities/Counties
Cumberland County
In Cumberland County, which is not part of a CBSA, 55% of residents (5,529 out of 10,052) live in LSA
areas; and 75% of the county’s LSA residents live in low-income communities. Given that Cumberland
County’s food access problem disproportionately affects low-income populations, VCC should explore
opportunities to financing a new store within the county or perhaps to work with the Dollar General in
Cumberland, VA to expand their fresh food offerings. Another option would be to expand Bryant’s
Grocery in New Canton, VA, which is a few miles west of the county border – Bryant’s is currently a
superette, but could be expanded into a full-service store as a way to eliminate portions of Cumberland
County’s LSA area.
Buchanan County
Buchanan County’s entire LSA population (100%) lives in a low-income area. Because Buchanan County
contains a portion of a larger LSA area extending into West Virginia, VCC should explore options for
financing a new store near the West Virginia border as a way to serve the county’s LSA population, while
also drawing shoppers from West Virginia that would make the store more viable.
15
Table 4: Market Structure Analysis - VCC/UVA Custom Regions
VCC/UVA Custom
Region Name
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Central
Eastern
Eastern
Eastern
Eastern
Eastern
Eastern
Eastern
Eastern
Eastern
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
County Name
Albemarle
Amherst
Appomattox
Bedford
Bedford
Campbell
Charlottesville
Culpeper
Fluvanna
Greene
Louisa
Lynchburg
Madison
Nelson
Orange
Rappahannock
Accomack
Essex
King and Queen
King William
Lancaster
Middlesex
Northampton
Northumberland
Westmoreland
Chesapeake
Gloucester
Hampton
Isle of Wight
James City
Mathews
Newport News
Norfolk
Poquoson
Portsmouth
Suffolk
Virginia Beach
Williamsburg
York
Annual Food
Sales
211,801,342
41,903,716
22,305,863
64,861,797
13,576,574
86,812,853
166,143,459
86,270,207
22,749,371
25,332,155
49,412,052
151,810,311
10,978,137
15,976,737
38,480,875
4,090,713
47,351,042
25,180,841
2,671,486
24,022,501
31,374,305
19,618,724
26,657,463
14,421,849
25,066,050
418,144,923
67,251,524
237,652,663
51,102,601
124,260,614
12,731,300
321,384,438
390,133,455
24,116,421
127,506,052
142,392,280
832,731,343
13,983,558
135,609,211
CR-1
0.2414
0.5230
0.4678
0.3700
0.6149
0.3967
0.2952
0.2873
0.7339
0.4634
0.5069
0.3368
0.8555
0.5225
0.5966
0.6122
0.4628
0.6216
0.6250
0.9123
0.3326
0.4787
0.6655
0.6512
0.6245
0.2146
0.3879
0.2371
0.3676
0.3023
0.7377
0.1981
0.1578
0.4760
0.3601
0.3160
0.2018
0.5970
0.4184
Owner w/ Highest
Market Share
Food Lion
Food Lion
Kroger
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Kroger
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Kroger
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Independent
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Independent
Food Lion
Independent
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Farm Fresh
Food Lion/Bloom
Farm Fresh
Food Lion
Food Lion
Farm Fresh
Food Lion
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Food Lion/Bloom
Walmart Sprcntr
CR-2
0.4237
0.9277
0.7895
0.6757
0.8301
0.7212
0.4711
0.5171
0.8624
0.8754
0.8237
0.5946
1.0000
0.7054
0.9492
1.0000
0.7107
0.9532
1.0000
0.9783
0.6652
0.7447
0.8064
0.9117
0.7910
0.4205
0.7293
0.4742
0.6943
0.4955
1.0000
0.3117
0.2957
0.8654
0.5074
0.6092
0.4010
0.8358
0.6570
Owner w/ 2nd
Highest Market
Share
Giant
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Kroger
Independent
Kroger
Harris Teeter Inc
Giant/Martin's
Independent
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Independent
Independent
Food Lion
Independent
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Independent
Independent
Walmart Sprcntr
Independent
Independent
Independent
Independent
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Food Lion
Farm Fresh
Giant/Martin's
Independent
Sam's Club
DECA Commissary
Farm Fresh
Kroger
Food Lion
Farm Fresh
Independent
Food Lion
CR-3
0.5983
0.9681
0.9766
0.9171
0.9262
0.8414
0.5779
0.7107
0.9541
0.9743
0.8997
0.7431
1.0000
0.8622
1.0000
1.0000
0.8685
0.9896
1.0000
1.0000
0.8981
0.8723
0.9004
0.9783
0.9242
0.6252
0.9000
0.6842
0.8781
0.6383
1.0000
0.4225
0.4261
0.9312
0.6507
0.7924
0.5279
0.9347
0.8571
Owner w/ 3rd
Highest Market
Share
Sam's Club
CVS Area 3
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
CVS Area 3
Walmart Sprcntr
Giant
Food Lion
Independent
Independent
Farmer
Food Lion
CR-4
0.7560
1.0000
1.0000
0.9621
1.0000
0.8895
0.6846
0.7953
1.0000
1.0000
0.9419
0.8814
1.0000
Independent
0.9275
CVS Area 3
1.0000
1.0000
Camellia
0.9567
Independent
1.0000
1.0000
Rite Aid Southern Region
1.0000
71
Food Lion
0.9313
Independent
1.0000
Camellia
0.9411
Independent
1.0000
Independent
0.9709
Farm Fresh
0.7846
Farm Fresh
0.9496
DECA Commissary 0.8022
Food Lion
0.9434
Harris Teeter Inc
0.7726
1.0000
Costco
0.5291
Walmart Sprcntr
0.5492
Independent
0.9675
Walmart Sprcntr
0.7570
Farm Fresh
0.8804
DECA Commissary 0.6256
CVS Area 3
1.0000
Farm Fresh
0.9494
Owner w/ 4th
Highest Market
Share
Harris Teeter Inc
Independent
CVS Area 3
Independent
Independent
Food City
Whole
Safeway
CVS Area 3
CVS Area 3
Independent
Sam's Club
Store
Family
CR-1
0.2414
0.523
0.4678
0.37
0.6149
0.3967
0.2952
0.2873
0.7339
0.4634
0.5069
0.3961
0.8555
Independent
0.5225
0.9492
0.6122
Independent
0.4628
Rite Aid Southern Region
0.6216
71
0.625
0.9123
Independent
0.3326
Independent
0.4787
Independent
0.6655
Rite Aid Southern Region
0.6512
71
Independent
0.6245
Sam's Club
0.3653
Independent
0.3879
Walmart Sprcntr
0.2766
Independent
0.5514
Food Lion
0.3023
0.7377
DECA Commissary 0.2403
Food Lion
0.1792
Independent
0.476
Farm Fresh
0.3896
Harris Teeter Inc
0.316
Harris Teeter Inc
0.2356
Walgreens Co
0.597
Kroger
0.4184
Family Name
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Kroger Co/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Kroger Co/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Independent_75055
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Independent_70027
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
SuperValu Inc/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
SuperValu Inc/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
VCC/UVA Custom
Region Name
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Northern
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Richmond
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
County Name
Alexandria
Arlington
Fairfax
Fairfax
Falls Church
Fauquier
Fredericksburg
King George
Loudoun
Manassas
Manassas Park
Prince William
Spotsylvania
Stafford
Caroline
Chesterfield
Colonial Heights
Dinwiddie
Goochland
Hanover
Henrico
Hopewell
New Kent
Petersburg
Powhatan
Prince George
Richmond
Richmond
Amelia
Brunswick
Buckingham
Charlotte
Cumberland
Danville
Emporia
Franklin
Franklin
Halifax
Henry
Lunenburg
Annual Food
Sales
291,985,049
590,857,523
2,492,078,830
118,025,408
69,440,369
119,575,078
97,305,740
37,724,301
775,996,185
120,905,603
1,168,775
834,401,021
226,040,570
212,049,185
25,379,115
595,999,611
92,497,587
25,911,325
19,827,434
210,554,301
710,594,351
27,789,714
26,166,995
62,451,198
22,958,081
46,111,828
8,817,990
260,866,414
10,852,911
12,679,122
17,531,626
9,809,362
1,127,033
123,806,670
20,662,273
68,639,445
33,758,815
45,290,033
69,933,446
9,809,362
CR-1
0.3109
0.2402
0.3283
0.2387
0.6011
0.3229
0.4719
0.5533
0.2878
0.3539
1.0000
0.1688
0.3047
0.4134
0.8224
0.2294
0.3504
0.8055
1.0000
0.2478
0.2262
0.4506
0.6381
0.2506
1.0000
0.6153
0.9467
0.2840
0.9615
0.5761
0.5357
0.7447
1.0000
0.3709
0.4419
0.5473
0.4444
0.4147
0.4626
0.6383
Owner w/ Highest
Market Share
Giant
Harris Teeter Inc
Giant
Shoppers
Giant
Giant
Wegmans
Food Lion
Giant
Giant
Independent
Giant
Giant
Giant
Food Lion
Kroger
Sam's Club
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Giant/Martin's
Food Lion
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
DECA Commissary
Food Lion
Giant/Martin's
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
Independent
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Kroger
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Food Lion
Food Lion
CR-2
0.4503
0.4488
0.4983
0.3979
0.9233
0.5934
0.7467
0.9163
0.4397
0.5438
1.0000
0.3002
0.4709
0.6318
0.9211
0.4535
0.6536
0.8602
1.0000
0.4857
0.4259
0.6618
0.9571
0.4010
1.0000
0.8416
1.0000
0.4760
1.0000
0.7737
0.7262
0.8511
1.0000
0.5816
0.8460
0.7944
0.7226
0.7892
0.7237
0.8936
Owner w/ 2nd
Highest Market
Share
Safeway
Costco
Safeway
Giant
BJs Wholesale
Food Lion/Bloom
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Wegmans
Shoppers
CR-3
0.5575
0.6537
0.5839
0.5040
0.9533
0.7767
0.9076
0.9889
0.5729
0.6840
1.0000
Wegmans
0.3952
Food Lion/Bloom 0.5921
Walmart Sprcntr
0.8139
Independent
0.9836
Food Lion
0.6373
Walmart Sprcntr
0.8680
Independent
0.9106
1.0000
Kroger
0.7087
Kroger
0.5824
Save-A-Lot
0.7520
Food Lion/Bloom 1.0000
Food Lion
0.5514
1.0000
Food Lion
1.0000
Rite Aid Southern Region
1.0000
71
Kroger
0.5600
Rite Aid Southern Region
1.0000
71
Independent
0.8988
Farmer
0.8167
Independent
0.9574
1.0000
Walmart Sprcntr
0.7217
Food Lion
0.9672
Walmart Sprcntr
0.9616
Farm Fresh
0.9699
Walmart Sprcntr
0.9044
Walmart Sprcntr
0.7983
Farmer
1.0000
Owner w/ 3rd
Highest Market
Share
Whole
Giant
Costco
Trader Joe's
CVS Area 3
Safeway
Giant
DECA Commissary
Harris Teeter Inc
Walmart Sprcntr
CR-4
0.6540
0.7508
0.6433
0.6012
0.9720
0.9076
0.9612
1.0000
0.6688
0.7962
1.0000
Safeway
0.4882
Walmart Sprcntr
0.7032
Food Lion/Bloom 0.9320
Independent
1.0000
Giant/Martin's
0.7774
Giant/Martin's
0.9695
Walgreens Co
0.9557
1.0000
Walmart Sprcntr
0.8624
Food Lion
0.6987
Independent
0.8421
Rite Aid Southern Region
1.0000
71
Giant/Martin's
0.6266
1.0000
Farmer
1.0000
1.0000
Food Lion
0.6326
1.0000
Independent
0.9712
Independent
0.8810
Independent
1.0000
1.0000
Sam's Club
0.7824
Independent
0.9899
Food Lion
0.9939
Food Lion
0.9892
Farmer
0.9394
Kroger
0.8655
Independent
1.0000
Owner w/ 4th
Highest Market
Share
Shoppers
Safeway
Shoppers
Safeway
Independent
Harris Teeter Inc
Bottom Dollar
CVS Area 3
Costco
Food Lion/Bloom
Store
Family
CR-1
0.3109
0.2402
0.3283
0.2387
0.6011
0.3229
0.4719
0.5533
0.2878
0.3539
1
Costco
0.1688
Costco
0.3047
Shoppers
0.4134
Rite Aid Southern Region
0.8224
71
Walmart Sprcntr
0.2294
Food Lion
0.6536
Independent
0.8055
1
Giant/Martin's
0.2478
Sam's Club
0.2262
Independent
0.4506
0.9571
Save-A-Lot
0.2506
1
0.6153
0.9467
Walmart Sprcntr
0.284
0.9615
Independent
0.5761
Independent
0.5357
Rite Aid Southern Region
0.7447
71
1
Old Dutch
0.3709
CVS Area 3
0.4419
CVS Area 3
0.5473
Walgreens Co
0.4444
Independent
0.4147
Save A Lot (Buehler) 0.4626
0.6383
Family Name
Ahold USA Inc
Ruddick Corp
Ahold USA Inc
SuperValu Inc/HQ
Ahold USA Inc
Ahold USA Inc
Wegmans Food Markets Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Ahold USA Inc
Ahold USA Inc
Independent_66941
Ahold USA Inc
Ahold USA Inc
Ahold USA Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Kroger Co/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Ahold USA Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Military
Delhaize America Inc
Ahold USA Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Independent_71344
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Kroger Co/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
Delhaize America Inc
VCC/UVA Custom
Region Name
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southside
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Southwest
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
County Name
Martinsville
Mecklenburg
Nottoway
Patrick
Pittsylvania
Prince Edward
Southampton
Sussex
Bland
Bristol
Buchanan
Carroll
Dickenson
Floyd
Galax
Giles
Grayson
Lee
Montgomery
Norton
Pulaski
Radford
Russell
Scott
Smyth
Tazewell
Washington
Wise
Wythe
Alleghany
Augusta
Bath
Botetourt
Buena Vista
Clarke
Covington
Craig
Frederick
Harrisonburg
Highland
Annual Food
Sales
33,002,242
63,912,167
17,463,795
16,868,972
31,791,725
39,049,609
6,261,295
6,929,166
1,627,937
56,925,606
61,386,778
41,261,933
25,462,599
13,357,429
19,446,538
25,853,930
5,217,746
27,007,052
144,218,491
4,591,616
70,199,551
14,218,357
28,953,271
38,266,947
42,420,273
113,467,707
117,180,133
93,502,003
40,854,949
10,644,201
40,124,464
3,464,583
38,673,931
1,043,549
12,564,332
22,123,242
3,756,777
169,062,787
147,878,740
1,544,453
CR-1
0.5059
0.6368
0.5602
0.5026
0.7221
0.5512
1.0000
0.5422
1.0000
0.5683
0.5270
0.5216
0.5328
0.6250
0.4293
0.4036
1.0000
0.3381
0.5499
0.9091
0.3623
0.5138
0.4280
0.5181
0.6642
0.3564
0.2761
0.4688
0.4151
0.7843
0.7542
0.7229
0.6206
1.0000
0.7475
0.6486
0.5556
0.4012
0.2007
1.0000
Owner w/ Highest
Market Share
Kroger
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Independent
Independent
Food City
Food City
Walmart Sprcntr
Food City
Food Lion
Food City
Walmart Sprcntr
Food City
Walmart Sprcntr
Kroger
Ingles
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Food City
Food City
Walmart Sprcntr
Food City
Food City
Walmart Sprcntr
Kroger
Food Lion
Independent
Kroger
Independent
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Independent
Giant/Martin's
Costco
Independent
CR-2
0.6957
0.8919
0.9187
0.7501
0.8009
0.7650
1.0000
0.8434
1.0000
0.8799
0.7395
0.7745
0.9836
0.8438
0.6976
0.6458
1.0000
0.6086
0.7236
1.0000
0.5378
0.9541
0.8245
0.6545
0.7872
0.5495
0.5210
0.7338
0.6960
0.9608
0.8375
1.0000
0.8904
1.0000
0.8738
0.9788
1.0000
0.6404
0.3912
1.0000
Owner w/ 2nd
Highest Market
Share
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Lowes
Old Dutch
Food Lion
Camellia
Kroger
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
E&S
Independent
Kroger
Food Lion
Food City
Food Lion
CVS Area 8
Food Lion
Wades
Food City
Food Lion
Ingles
Food City
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Fas Chek
Independent
Independent
Food Lion
Independent
Independent
Food Lion
Independent
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
CR-3
0.8221
0.9507
1.0000
0.8317
0.8748
0.9253
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.9716
0.8351
0.9010
1.0000
1.0000
0.8693
0.7427
1.0000
0.7825
0.8954
1.0000
0.6864
1.0000
0.9380
0.7636
0.8856
0.7064
0.6768
0.8856
0.8799
1.0000
0.8895
1.0000
0.9552
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.8009
0.5720
1.0000
Owner w/ 3rd
Highest Market
Share
Independent
Lowes
Independent
Independent
Independent
Kroger
Owner w/ 4th
Highest Market
CR-4
Share
0.9075 Aldi
0.9784 CVS Area 3
1.0000
0.9035 Independent
0.9102 Independent
0.9659 Independent
1.0000
Independent
1.0000
1.0000
Food Lion
0.9830 CVS Area 8
Independent
0.8963 Grants
Food City
0.9394 Independent
Rite Aid Central Region
1.0000
51
Independent
1.0000
Independent
0.9530 Independent
Grants
0.8396 Independent
1.0000
IGA/SaveALot
0.8752 Independent
Walmart Sprcntr
0.9389 Wades
1.0000
Kroger
0.8053 Food City
CVS Area 3
1.0000 Independent
Save A Lot
0.9856 Independent
Whites Fresh Foods Inc
0.8290 Independent
Food Lion
0.9643 Food untry USA
Sam's Club
0.8591 Grants
Sam's Club
0.8104 Kroger
Pay Less
0.9308 IGA/SaveALot
Food untry USA
0.9821 Food City
CVS Area 3
1.0000
Independent
0.9228 Independent
1.0000
Independent
0.9865 Independent
1.0000
Independent
1.0000
CVS Area 3
1.0000
1.0000
Food Lion
0.9440 Costco
Walmart Sprcntr
0.7202 Giant/Martin's
1.0000
Store
Family
CR-1
0.5059
0.6368
0.5602
0.5026
0.7221
0.5512
1
0.5422
1
0.5683
0.527
0.5216
0.5328
0.625
0.4293
0.4036
1
0.3381
0.5499
0.9091
0.3623
0.5138
0.428
0.5181
0.6642
0.5133
0.4007
0.4688
0.4151
0.7843
0.7542
0.7229
0.6206
1
0.7475
0.6486
0.5556
0.4012
0.2007
1
Family Name
Kroger Co/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Independent_61341
Independent_74176
K VA T Food Stores Inc
K VA T Food Stores Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
K VA T Food Stores Inc
Delhaize America Inc
K VA T Food Stores Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
K VA T Food Stores Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Kroger Co/HQ
Ingles Markets Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
K VA T Food Stores Inc
K VA T Food Stores Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
K VA T Food Stores Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Kroger Co/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Independent_61102
Kroger Co/HQ
Independent_29672
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Independent_70144
Ahold USA Inc
Costco Cos Inc
Independent_55888
VCC/UVA Custom
Region Name
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
Valley
County Name
Lexington
Page
Roanoke
Roanoke
Rockbridge
Rockingham
Salem
Shenandoah
Staunton
Warren
Waynesboro
Winchester
Source: TRF, 2014; Trade Dimensions, 2013
Annual Food
Sales
20,949,249
29,297,642
194,567,128
221,388,950
35,324,138
60,698,036
80,186,316
56,445,573
83,718,730
61,673,754
71,691,826
61,105,020
CR-1
0.7970
0.3785
0.2467
0.6316
0.4801
0.5502
0.5856
0.4807
0.2571
0.4061
0.3348
0.3949
Owner w/ Highest
Market Share
Kroger
Walmart Sprcntr
Kroger
Kroger
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Kroger
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Giant/Martin's
Kroger
Walmart Sprcntr
CR-2
0.9564
0.7346
0.4743
0.8172
0.8641
0.8403
0.8296
0.7349
0.4690
0.6810
0.6168
0.7023
Owner w/ 2nd
Highest Market
Share
Independent
Food Lion
Sam's Club
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Food Lion
Walmart Sprcntr
Walmart Sprcntr
Giant/Martin's
CR-3
1.0000
0.8629
0.6460
0.9539
0.9586
0.9262
0.9468
0.8014
0.6809
0.9010
0.8206
0.8902
Owner w/ 3rd
Highest Market
Share
CVS Area 3
Farmer
Food Lion
Food Lion
Independent
Independent
Food Lion
Independent
Kroger
Food Lion
Giant/Martin's
Food Lion
CR-4
1.0000
0.9484
0.7499
0.9775
0.9882
0.9503
0.9637
0.8606
0.8554
0.9687
0.9225
0.9243
Owner w/ 4th
Highest Market
Share
Independent
Walmart Sprcntr
Food City
Independent
Independent
CVS Area 3
Independent
Giant/Martin's
Independent
Food Lion
CVS Area 3
Store
Family
CR-1
0.797
0.3785
0.3315
0.6316
0.4801
0.5502
0.5856
0.4807
0.2571
0.4061
0.3348
0.3949
Family Name
Kroger Co/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Kroger Co/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Kroger Co/HQ
Delhaize America Inc
Wal Mart Stores/HQ
Ahold USA Inc
Kroger Co/HQ
Wal Mart Stores/HQ

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