Introduction to Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids - Rose

Transcription

Introduction to Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids - Rose
Introduction to Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
6
1
5
N
4
7
N
5
N
8
2
4
N
Purine
9
3
2
N
Pyrimidine
1
O
Base
5´
HO CH2
6
N
O
1´
HO
Nucleoside
N
N
Base
N
H
Adenine
H2N
2´-Deoxyribonucleotide
Monophosphate
Pyrimidines
NH2
Nucleotide
N
H
Nucleotide
Cytosine
Cytidine
Uracil
Uridine
Thymine
Thymidine
O
O
N
Guanine
N
Base
N
Adenosine
O
HN
2´
HO
Purines
N
1´
3´
OH
Nucleotide
Monophosphate
NH2
O
4´
2´
3´
OH
O
1´
Base
5´
O P O CH2
O
4´
2´
3´
HO
O
Base
5´
O P O CH2
O
4´
3
NH
Guanosine
N
H
N
H
O
O
H3C
NH
N
H
O
O
N
N
N
N
H
Hypoxanthine
N
HN
O
O
N
H
Xanthine
N
H
O
O
N
H
N
H
Uric acid
O
O
H
N
HN
O
HN
NH
O
Pseudouracil
H3C
O
CH3
N
N
N
N
CH3
1,3,7-Trimethyl
xanthine
NH2
Adenosine Triphosphate
(ATP)
N
O
O
O
O P O P O P O CH2
O
O
NH2
syn
N
N
N
O P O CH2
O
O
O
HO
OH
N
N
O
HO
NH2
anti
N
N
O
N
O P O CH2
O
N
N
O
O
OH
N
HO
OH
Base-pairing
Thymidine
Ribose
CH3
H
O
N
N
H
H
N
N
O
N
H
Adenosine
N
N
Ribose
CH3
N
N
N
N
Ribose
N6-methyladenosine
H
Cytidine
Ribose
N
N
N
N
O
CH3
H
H
H
N
H
O
N
N
NH2
Guanosine
N
N
Ribose
Ribose
N
N
O
5-methylcytidine
Stereoview of A-Form DNA (from pdb ID 3V9D)
Stereoview of B-Form DNA (from pdb ID 1A36)
Detecting Sequence Information in Double-stranded DNA
Major groove
Thymidine
Ribose
Major groove
CH3
O
N
N
H
H
N
N
O
N
H
Cytidine
H
Adenosine
N
Ribose
N
N
N
O
N
Ribose
Minor groove
Major groove
Minor groove
H
H
H
N
H
O
N
N
Guanosine
N
N
Ribose
Minor groove
Stereoview of estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain bound to DNA (from pdb ID 1HCQ)
DNA Synthesis
Additional
DNA
O
Additional
DNA
O
O
G
O P O
5´
O CH2
O P O
C
O
O
O
O
Direction
of
O P O
DNA
O CH2
synthesis
O
A
H2C O
O P O
T
O
O
O
3´
H2C O
C
O P O
O CH2
H2C O
O P O
G
O
O
O
O
T
H2C O
O P O
O
O
O
O
A
O P O P O P O CH2
O
O
Mg2+ Mg2+
O
HO
O
Additional
DNA
Stereoview of Thermus thermophilus 30 S ribosome subunit (pdb ID 2wdk)
mRNA
A site
P site
E site
23S rRNA
E site
P site
mRNA
A site
5S rRNA
Stereoview of Thermus thermophilus 50 S ribosome subunit (pdb ID 2wdl),
with mRNA and tRNA from pdb ID 2wdk
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