breach of contract
Remedies for Breach of Contract
• Remedies available to the injured party under
the general contract law
• Contractual parties fully perform their
obligations and gain the benefits they
• If a party fails to perform part or all of the
required duties under the contract, then
breach of contract occurs. The other party
cannot get the benefits it bargained for.
• What types of breach of contract are
Nonperformance, delayed performance
and defective performance.
• What are the buyer’s remedies for the
What are the seller’s remedies for the
• What are the buyer’s remedies for the
(1) The buyer may avoid the contract and
(2) The buyer may ask for specific
(3) The buyer may cover and claim
2. Delayed performance
(1)The buyer may give a grace period.
(2) Although a grace period is given,
the seller does not perform within
this period. Then the breach is
fundamental, the buyer may avoid
the contract and claim damages.
3. Defective performance
(1) The buyer may reject the nonconforming goods and ask the seller to
deliver conforming goods.
(2) The buyer may ask the seller to repair
(3) The buyer may reduce the price.
(4) If the former three remedies are not
available, the buyer may avoid contract
and claim damages.
• What are the seller’s remedies for the
1.The seller may grant the buyer a grace period
2.The seller may ask for specific performance,
e.g., make payment.
3.The seller may resell the goods and claim the
difference between the contract price and the
selling price if the buyer does not take the
4.The seller may avoid contract and claim
• Remedies for breach of contract outlined
in the CISG include ---1. avoidance of the contracts,
2. sellers’ right to remedy or cure,
3. sellers’ additional time to perform,
4. price reduction,
5. money damages,
6. specific performance.
• Fundamental breach and avoidance of
1. What is a fundamental breach under the
Art.25 defines a fundamental breach as
one that will substantially deprive one party
of what he is entitled to expect under the
According to the CISG, one party can avoid
the contract only in the case of a
fundamental breach of the other party.
In this way the CISG makes efforts to keep
the parties in their contractual relationship.
( Compare the CISG and the UCC in this
2. How to avoid a contract under the
(1) “avoidance” refers to a party’s right to
cancel the contract.
(2) How may a buyer avoid the contract if
the seller commits a fundamental
cancel/ notify/ protect/ return
(3) Notice of avoidance– Art.49
A. How to make an effective avoidance?
The buyer’s avoidance rights are not
effective until the seller is given notice.
B. Under what situation may the buyer
lose his right to avoid the contract?
If the buyer does not notify the seller
of the intention to avoid within a
reasonable time after the buyer knew
or have known of the breach.
•Seller’s right to remedy/cure under
1. Seller’s right to remedy within the time
for performance (prior to the delivery
(1) What time is “ the delivery date ”?
The “date for delivery” under the
contract is the date the seller hands the
goods over directly to the first carrier
unless the parties specify otherwise.
• Two supplementary problems:
(1) Where is the place of delivery if the contract of
sale involves carriage of the goods?
The seller exercises his obligation to delivery
while handling the goods over to the first carrier
for transmission to the buyer. (Art. 31)
(2) If the contract of sale involves carriage of the
goods, when does the risk pass from the seller
to the buyer?
The risk passes to the buyer when the goods are
handed over to the first carrier for transmission
to the buyer in accordance with the contract of
(2) Seller’s right to remedy within the
time for performance (prior to the
---- Under what circumstances can the
seller exercise the right to remedy?
• The seller has delivered some goods to
the buyer before the delivery date.
• Exercising the right to remedy does not
cause unreasonable inconvenience
or expense to the buyer.
Under these circumstances the
buyer may not avoid the contract
until the time for performance
expires; before the time for
performance expires the seller
has the right to cure by sending
substitute or replacement goods
if the goods are nonconforming
or the shipment is not complete.
2. Seller’s right to remedy beyond the date
for performance—grace period
In the event that the seller has failed to
deliver the goods, and the time for their
shipment or delivery has passed, what can
the parties do to keep their contract?
(1) The buyer can grant the seller extra
time to perform the contractual obligations.
During this time, the buyer may not avoid
the contract or resort to a breach of
(2) The seller is entitled to ask for
additional time to perform if it does
not cause the buyer “unreasonable
delay” or “unreasonable
If a seller asks a buyer to agree to an
extension of time for delivery and the
buyer fails to respond within a
reasonable time, the seller may
perform within the time requested.
1. Specific performance is used when a court
requires a party to the contract to perform,
or carry out its part of the bargain.
Under the common law, this remedy is
only used where money damages cannot
be calculated or are inadequate; however,
under the civil law, this is the usual
remedy and it is granted quite often
without regard to whether money
damages are inadequate.
2. Specific performance under the
Specific performance may be
granted only if all of the following
conditions are met:
(1) The buyer had not resorted to
(2) The seller has made non-delivery
or delivered seriously
(3) The buyer gave timely notice to the
seller that the goods were
(4) The buyer had made a timely
request that the seller provide