Guided Reading Strategies 25.4

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Guided Reading Strategies 25.4
103-107_GRS_CH25_065744-X 12/1/01 12:52 PM Page 106
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Name
Class
Date
25
Guided Reading Strategies 25.4
Modern Chapter 16
Reform and Revolution in Russia
CHAPTER
READING THE SECTION As you read the section, fill in the causes or effects listed below.
1. Cause: Russia was made up of many languages, cultures, religions, and geography.
Effect: _____________________________________________________________
2. Cause: _____________________________________________________________
Effect: Czar Nicholas I instituted the program of “Russification.”
3. Cause: Industrialization created a need for more workers.
Effect: _____________________________________________________________
4. Cause: _____________________________________________________________
Effect: Former serfs moved to cities and became a cheap source of labor.
5. Cause: Czar Alexander II made some social reforms.
Effect: _____________________________________________________________
6. Cause: _____________________________________________________________
Effect: Groups such as the People’s Will turned to terrorism to effect change.
7. Cause: _____________________________________________________________
Effect: Alexander II became more conservative.
8. Cause: New czars used repression to suppress socialist movements.
Effect: _____________________________________________________________
9. Cause: The czar’s troops shoot unarmed strikers.
Effect: _____________________________________________________________
10. Cause: Laws increased the power of landowners and restricted other voting rights.
Effect: _____________________________________________________________
POST-READING QUICK CHECK After you have finished reading the section, in the
space provided, explain why the 1905 revolution did not overthrow the czar.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Guided Reading Strategies
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ANSWER KEY
Chapter 25
(Modern Chapter 16)
Post-Reading Quick Check
kaiser: the emperor who headed the
government
Bundesrat: the upper house or federal council
made up of 58 appointed members
Reichstag: the lower house or legislate assembly
which consisted of 400 members elected by
universal male suffrage
SECTION 1
Reading the Section
1. a nationalist movement whose goals were
liberation and unification
2. a secret society or nationalists who could
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
not work openly
a republic
the pope
a republican and an Italian patriot who
served as chief minister King Victor
Emmanuel II
a strong alliance of Italian states and
Sardinia against France and Austria
join the kingdom of Sardinia
Guiseppe Garibaldi
Victor Emmanuel II
The north was industrial and the south
was agricultural.
SECTION 3
Reading the Section
1. the German Empire
2. anti-Catholic
3. advantage
4. cartels strengthened
5. help
6. Social Democratic Party
7. gained
8. supported
9. liberalism
10. the kaiser
Post-Reading Quick Check
Post-Reading Quick Check
1848: Austria
1849: Italy and Austria
1859: Sardinia and France
1866: Italy
SECTION 2
Bismarck’s government-directed social reforms
were designed to reduce public support for
socialists. Similarly, he had modified the
Kulturkampf because he needed the support
of the Centre Party against a growing socialist
presence.
Reading the Section
2. Napoléon’s rule inspired nationalism in
SECTION 4
3.
5.
6.
8.
9.
11.
12.
the German states.
Industrialization spread and the German
economy moved toward unification.
Bismarck undermined the power of
Prussia’s parliament by ignoring the constitution and collecting taxes without
approval.
Prussia and Austria declared war on
Denmark.
At the Treaty of Prague, the German
Confederation was dissolved.
Bismarck persuaded the independent
states in southern German to join the
North German Confederation.
The Prussian army defeated the French in
a few months of hard fighting.
Allied German states declared the
formation of the German Empire.
Reading the Section
1. Effect: The diversity made unification
difficult.
2. Cause: liberal ideas and restless
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
nationalities
Effect: Alexander II issued the
Emancipation Edict, which freed all serfs.
Cause: Formers serfs were unable to either
buy or rent land.
Effect: He was criticized by both conservatives and radicals.
Cause: The government arrested
Populists.
Cause: radical activity
Effect: Liberals and radicals found ready
support from often-exploited workers.
Effect: The incident triggered the
Revolution of 1905.
Effect: This resulted in a more conservative Duma.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
38 Geography Activities/Guided Reading Answer Key
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ANSWER KEY
Post-Reading Quick Check
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
It failed to overthrow the czar because the
army remained loyal, the French lent money to
the government, and revolutionary groups
were divided in their goals.
European nations
encouraged
Westernizing
very little
great influence
Post-Reading Quick Check
SECTION 5
Christian missionaries helped build schools
and taught in them. They cared for the sick.
Through their efforts, knowledge of medicine,
hygiene, and sanitation spread among native
people.
Reading the Section
Detail A: Austria formed the Dual Monarchy,
also called Austria-Hungary.
Detail B: Austria and Hungary each provided
a market for the other.
Topic II: The Ottoman Empire declined substantially.
Detail B: The rise of nationalism increased
discontent in the Balkan area of the empire.
Detail D: Great Britain supported the Turks in
suppressing self-rule.
Detail A: The Treaty of San Stefano gave selfrule to Bulgaria.
Detail C: Great Britain and Italy each seized
Ottoman territories in Africa.
Detail D: The Balkan League declared war on
the Ottoman Empire and wins.
Detail E: By the end of 1913, the Ottoman
Empire included only the city of
Constantinople and enough land to control
the water route from the Black Sea to the
Mediterranean.
SECTION 2
Reading the Section
Algiers:
What Happened: Occupied by the French,
Algerians fought against French rule for more
than 40 years.
Tunis:
What Happened: Tunis became a French
protectorate, but the Tunisians resented
French control.
Morocco:
What Happened: Morocco became a French
protectorate after France made an agreement
with Britain, Spain, and Italy.
Egypt:
What Happened: The building of Suez Canal
caused Egypt to go deeply into debt. To avoid
bankruptcy, Egypt sold its stock in the canal to
the British who eventually gained control of
the canal.
Sudan:
What Happened: Muhammad Ahmad led a
revolt against Egyptian rule. The British
defeated his followers and prevented France
from gaining control of the Sudan. Great
Britain and Egypt won joint control of the
Sudan.
Post-Reading Quick Check
Among the advantages of the Dual Monarchy
were having a common ruler and a practical
economic arrangement where each provided a
market for the other. Among the disadvantages
were the demands for tariffs by one from the
other, and the division of nationalities persisted because ethnic minorities benefited little
from the Dual Monarchy.
Chapter 26
(Modern Chapter 17)
Post-Reading Quick Check
Control of the Suez Canal would give the
British a more direct sea route to their
colonies in India, Australia, and New Zealand.
Control of the Upper Nile would enable the
British to build dams along the Nile River.
They hoped to store water for irrigation and to
manage the flow of water into the lower Nile.
SECTION 1
Reading the Section
1. takes control of
2. concentrated
3. protectorates
4. created
5. Industrialization
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
39 Geography Activities/Guided Reading Answer Key

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