Presentation on the NPT by Scheinman



Presentation on the NPT by Scheinman
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Ambassador Adam M. Scheinman
Department of State
June 23, 2015
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
• Formal Name: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
Proposed 1961
Negotiated 1965-68
Opened for signature 1968
Entered into force 1970
Extended indefinitely 1995
• Nearly Universal
– All but India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Sudan have
– North Korea announced withdrawal in January 2003
Nuclear Weapon States
• Nuclear Weapon State (NWS): A state that
conducted a nuclear test before 1967
– The Depositaries: United States, United Kingdom,
and Soviet Union ratified in 1968
– China and France acceded in 1992
• Any other state must adhere as a Non-NuclearWeapon State (NNWS)
– 185 NNWS have adhered (+ Palestine)
• NPT constrains rights of parties having or not
having nuclear weapons
NPT – Three Pillars
• Nonproliferation
– Article I (non-transfer/nonassistance by NWS to NNWS)
– Article II (non-acquisition by
– Article III (verification and export
• Peaceful Uses
– Article IV (recognizes right to
peaceful use and encourages
• Disarmament
– Article VI (end nuclear arms race,
nuclear disarmament, general
and complete disarmament)
NPT – Other Major Provisions
• Article V (peaceful nuclear explosives –
considered obsolete)
• Article VII (nuclear-weapon-free zones)
• Article VIII (review conferences, amendment)
• Article X (withdrawal, duration/extension)
Nonproliferation Pillar
• Article I: NWS undertake not to transfer nuclear
weapons, and not to assist, encourage, or induce any
NNWS to manufacture, acquire, control nuclear
• Article II: NNWS undertake not to receive, manufacture,
acquire, or seek or receive assistance in the
manufacture of nuclear weapons/explosives
• Article III.1: NNWS undertake to accept IAEA
safeguards on all nuclear material in the state to verify
peaceful use
• Article III.2: All Parties undertake not to export nuclear
material or equipment to NNWS except under IAEA
Peaceful Uses Pillar
• Article IV.1: Recognizes the inalienable right of all
Parties to research, production and use of nuclear
energy without discrimination and in conformity with
Articles I and II
– NPT Review Conferences have concluded that peaceful use
should also be in conformity with Article III
• Article IV.2: All Parties undertake to facilitate and have
the right to participate in the fullest possible exchange of
materials, equipment and information for peaceful use of
nuclear energy
– Does not compel any Party to export to any other
– Must be consistent with Articles I, II, III
Disarmament Pillar
• Article VI: All Parties undertake to pursue negotiations in
good faith on effective measures for:
– Cessation of the nuclear arms race
– Nuclear disarmament
– Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and
effective international control
• Only existing general treaty obligation on nuclear
• Obligation applies to all Parties
– NNWS can contribute to conditions for nuclear disarmament
• Huge gains to reduce and constrain nuclear weapons
since end of the Cold War
• NPT parties disagree on whether Article VI mandates
negotiations to eliminate nuclear weapons.
NPT Review Conferences
• 1995 Review & Extension Conference
Indefinite extension
Strengthened review process: forward and backward look
Principles and Objectives
Resolution on the Middle East zone free of WMD
• 2000 Review Conference
– Consensus Final Document, including “13 steps”
• 2005 Review Conference
– No Consensus
• 2010 Review Conference
– President’s Review (non-consensus)
– Consensus Action Plan: 64 items covering 3 pillars
– Conference in 2012 on a Middle East WMD free zone
• 2015 Review Conference
– No consensus because of Middle East issue
The Prague Agenda - 2009
“The [NPT] basic bargain is
sound. Countries with nuclear
weapons will move towards
disarmament, countries
without nuclear weapons will
not acquire them, and all
countries can access peaceful
nuclear energy.”
Pursue peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons:
Reducing the role and numbers of nuclear weapons
Securing vulnerable nuclear materials
Strengthening the IAEA and global regimes
Building new frameworks for civil nuclear cooperation
Prague Accomplishments
U.S. Nuclear Posture Review (2010)
U.S.-Russian New START Treaty
2010 NPT RevCon Consensus Final Document
Nuclear Security Summits: 3 Head of State gatherings
IAEA fuel bank in Kazakhstan approved
New ENR policy adopted by Nuclear Suppliers Group
Advancing Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Protocols
Iran – choice between sanctions and full compliance
• But…no CTBT, no FMCT, no further US-RF cuts
Political Landscape heading into
2015 Review Conference
• Iran talks underway
• Humanitarian Impacts of Nuclear Weapons
– NGO campaign to ban nuclear weapons
Russian actions in Crimea/Ukraine
P5 (dis)unity on NPT agenda
Stalled Middle East WMDFZ talks
Palestine accession to NPT
North Korean provocations continue
2015 RevCon Synopsis
• Failed to reach consensus on a final document
– U.S., UK, and Canada could not agree to unbalanced
language on Middle East
• Apparent consensus on all other issues
– Tenuous acquiescence on disarmament
– HINW advocates thought it was too weak; 107 signed
Humanitarian Pledge
– France and Russia thought it went too far
• U.S. message
– Treaty itself remains strong
– U.S. committed to action in areas of agreement
2015 RevCon: Disarmament
• Recommended establishment of an Open-Ended
Working Group on nuclear disarmament measures
• Registered concern at the catastrophic consequences of
use of nuclear weapons as a driver for action on
• Encouraged greater transparency by calling on the NWS
to provide regular reports on detailed categories
• Reaffirmed urgent need to start FMCT talks and get the
CD back to work.
• Endorsed International Partnership on Nuclear
Disarmament Verification launched by USG
NPT RevCon: Nonproliferation
• Underscored importance of compliance and
called on non-compliant states to cooperate with
• Reflected growing support for the Additional
Protocol to safeguards agreements and recent
efforts to transition IAEA safeguards to improve
chances to detect undeclared nuclear activities
• Gave increased priority to nuclear security
• No movement on dealing with abuse of
• Strong language on North Korea
NPT RevCon: Peaceful Uses
• Reaffirmed commitment to promote access to
peaceful uses of nuclear energy
• Emphasized new programs that aid developing
countries (Peaceful Uses Initiative)
• Highlighted nuclear safety priority and IAEA
role post Fukushima
• Recognized entry into force of a nuclear liability
• Stressed need for capacity building on safety,
security for nuclear-using states
NPT RevCon: Middle East Issue
• 2010 RevCon called for conference to discuss
a ME zone free of all WMD by 2012
– Postponed as it became clear there was no basis
for agreement
– Informal process involving key regional players in
Switzerland 2013/2014
– No resolution to disagreements on agenda, date,
UN role
• Arabs/Egypt sought new terms in 2015 that
could exclude Israel and the United States
• What next?
Taking forward the NPT
• Bring Russia back to nuclear arms control negotiating table
• Find a way forward on FMCT and lay the groundwork for
CTBT ratification
• Get the P5 to work on nuclear policy issues
• Intensify engagement with NNWS: international verification
partnership; UN OEWG
• Resuscitate Middle East zone process
• Bring NWFZ protocols into force
• Use available institutions on all fronts

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