CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL

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CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL
Monday, April
Back!! 
th
24 -Welcome
CNN
 Go over tests-give out test corrections
 War-torn Brainstorm “12 Years a Slave”

Tuesday, April 25th
CNN
 Intro Notes-Nation in Peril
 “12 Years a Slave”

Unit 5: THE
UNION IN PERIL
1848-1860
THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF
SLAVERY
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Over the centuries, the
Northern and Southern
sections of the United
States developed into
two very different
cultural and economic
regions
There were also
differences in geography
and climate, as well as
religious differences
THE SOUTH BEFORE THE WAR
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Family working the cotton
field on a Plantation
Rural plantation
economy
Relied on slave
labor
“Peculiar
Institution” created
tension
Southerners feared
the loss of slavery
would mean loss of
culture
The South
6
THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR
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The North had a
more diverse
economy
Industry flourished
The North openly
opposed slavery in
the South and the
new territories
The North was more
urbanized than the
South
BOSTON HARBOR
The
North
8
SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES
Wilmot Proviso –
attempt to ban
slavery in lands
gained in Mexican
War – defeated!!
 Gold rush led to
application for
statehood for
California

CALIFORNIA BECAME
A STATE IN 1850
COMPROMISE OF 1850

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Southerners threatened
secession over issue
Henry Clay again
worked a Compromise
For the North:
California would be
admitted as free state
For the South: A more
effective fugitive slave
law
Residents of New
Mexico & Utah would
vote themselves”popular sovereignty”
CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW

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A HARSH FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW
FURTHER INCREASED TENSIONS
Under the law, runaway
slaves were not entitled
to a trial by jury
Anyone helping a slave
escape was jailed for 6
months and fined
$1,000
Northerners were upset
by the harshness of the
new law and often helped
hide fugitive slaves
UNDERGROUND RAILROAD

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Escape from slavery was
dangerous and meant
traveling on foot at night
As time went on,
African Americans and
white abolitionists
developed a secret
network of people who
would hide fugitive
slaves
”Conductors” would
hide runaways in
tunnels and even
kitchen cupboards
HARRIET TUBMAN
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HARRIET TUBMAN 1820-1913
One of the most
famous conductors
was Harriet Tubman
Tubman escaped
slavery and vowed
to help others do the
same
She made 19 trips
back to South and
freed over 300
slaves (Including
her own parents)
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN
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In 1852, Harriet
Beecher Stowe
published her
influential novel,
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
The book stressed
the moral evil of
slavery
Abolitionist
protests increased
Instant best
seller sold
500,000 by
1857
Author Harriet
Beecher Stowe
TENSION BUILDS IN KANSAS

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After Stephen
Douglas worked to
pass the KansasNebraska Act in 1854,
Kansas would vote to
decide on whether
slavery would be
legal or outlawed
Popular Sovereignty
This contradicted the
36’ 30’ of the Missouri
Compromise
BLEEDING KANSAS

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The race for Kansas was
on. Both supporters and
opponents attempted to
populate Kansas to win
the vote over slavery
As the election neared, a
group of pro-slavery
“border ruffians” from
Missouri attempted to
cross into Kansas
Violence erupted –
Bleeding Kansas is the
legacy – over 50 dead
Finally, after years of fighting, Kansas
is admitted as a free state in 1861
Violence in the Senate
 Senator Charles Sumner verbally attacks colleague
for his stance on slavery
 Preston S. Brooks beats Sumner for insulting his uncle
 Southerners applaud Brooks
 Northerners condemn him
19
THE FREE-SOILERS

The Free-Soil Party
objections to slavery
was not a moral
objection to slavery

They believed slavery
drove down wages for
white workers
“Soil”
REPUBLICANS EMERGE AS
LEADING PARTY

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Republicans won all but 3 presidential
elections from 1861-1933
In 1854, opponents of
slavery in the territories
formed a new political
party, the Republican
Party
Goal: Stop the spread of
slavery!
THE DRED SCOTT DECISION
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Dred Scott was taken
by his owner to free
states Illinois &
Wisconsin
Scott argued that that
made him a free man
In 1857, the Court ruled
against Dred Scott
citing the Constitution’s
protection of property
Another ruling against the
Missouri Compromise
DRED SCOTT LOST HIS
CHANCE AT FREEDOM
LINCOLN – DOUGLAS DEBATES
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The 1858 race for U.S.
Senate in Illinois was
hotly contested
between Rep. Abe
Lincoln and Dem.
Stephen Douglas
Slavery in the territories
was debated
Douglas favored
popular sovereignty
while Lincoln was
against the spread of
slavery
Douglas wins!
“THE LITTLE GIANT” VS. “HONEST ABE”
HARPER’S FERRY
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ARSENAL
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BROWN
John Brown plotted a major
slave revolt
On October 16, 1859, he led a
band of 21 men, black and
white, into Harpers Ferry,
Virginia
He hoped to seize a large
federal arsenal, but troops
put down the rebellion
Brown was tried and
executed
View as a martyr in the North
1860 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

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Republicans
nominated Abe
Lincoln while the
Democrats split
Lincoln won the
1860 election with
less than half the
popular vote and no
Southern electoral
votes
Last straw for the
South
LINCOLN MEMORIAL
1860 ELECTION RESULTS
SOUTHERN SECESSION
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Lincoln’s victory in 1860
election convinced
Southerners that they to
secede
South Carolina led the
way, seceding from the
union in December of 1860
Confederate States are
formed with Jefferson
Davis as President

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