world organizations

Comments

Transcription

world organizations
WORLD
ORGANIZATIONS
IGOs
& NGOs
IGOs
• Inter-Government Organizations are
Funded by Member Nations
• Composed of Sovereign States
• May be established for a specific
purpose
Ex. World Bank, EU, UN
Globalization is a process of interaction and
integration among the people, companies, and
governments of different nations. It is a process
driven by international trade and investment and
aided by information technology.
THE UNITED NATIONS
• Founded in 1945 to:
-Provide a forum for disputes among
nations
-Promote universal human rights
-Support economic development
-Work towards world peace
Declaration of Human Rights
"All human beings are born with equal and inalienable
rights"
Promotes human dignity worldwide
Eleanor Roosevelt championed the Declaration
Adopted by UN in 1948
Millennium Development
Goals of the UN
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
End Poverty/Hunger
Universal Education
Gender Equality
Child Health/Maternal health
Combat HIV/Aids
Environmental Sustainability
Global Partnerships
Organizational Structure
• General Assembly - Main body
• Security Council - Elite subgroup
• Secretariat - International
leadership
• Economic & Social Council functional agencies
• International Court of Justice
General Assembly
•
•
•
•
•
•
Main “parliamentary” body
One country, one vote
Grown from 51 to 192 members
2/3 are developing countries
Oversees budget and subsidiaries
Elects non-permanent members to
Security Council
• Makes recommendations or
resolutions
Security Council
• 5 permanent members - US, UK, France,
China and Russia
• 10 Non-Permanent – Azerbaijan, Colombia,
Germany, Guatemala, India, Morocco,
Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, Togo. (2yr
terms) (no veto power)
• Secret ballot voting (2/3) by Gen Assem. –
each geographic region represented
• 9 votes required on substantive matters,
including all 5 permanent members
• Great power – unanimity or veto power
Security Council Functions
• Military Ops
• Economic sanctions
• Weapons inspections
• Election monitors
• Peacekeeping Ops
The Secretariat
• International in character
• Should not be dominated by one
country or region
• Carries out the day-to-day work of
the UN
• World leader -personally steps in to
resolve international disputes or
draw attention to an issue.
Secretary General Antonio Guterres
•https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrI7XCKRF
Nk
U.N. Headquarters in New York City
International
Court of Justice
• Established by UN charter
• Sits in The Hague, Netherlands
• Legal disputes between states
• Provides legal opinions
• 5 SC nations have veto power
International
Criminal Court
Created in 2002
Prosecutions of individuals
accused of genocide, war crimes or
crimes against humanity.
Operates independently of UN
The US does not submit to the ICC
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
rLqIeWnD3VM
The World Bank
Provides low interest loans to developing
countries for education, agriculture and
business projects.
Goal is to promote “inclusive, sustainable
growth.”
(main goal to help poor countries!)
Owned by 183 member nations. Created
after World War II. Located in Washington
D.C. All presidents have been American.
International
Monetary Fund
Also located in D.C. with same members
as World Bank. (main goal to stablize world
currencies.)
Monitors currency markets
Provides loans to developing countries to
stabilize markets
Goal is to “facilitate international trade,
while promoting economic development.”
World Trade Organization
Establishes global rules of trade between
nations
Framework for trade policy:
Non-discrimination (all members treated
equally)
Binding enforceable commitments
Transparency
Not part of UN system
Predecessor was GATT (General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Protests Target WTO
Labor Unions
Environmental Groups
Human Rights
Advocates
Animal Rights Groups
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949
Inter - Governmental Military Alliance
Reflects Cold War divisions
Response to threat from Soviet Union (Warsaw Pact countries)
Mutual defense if attacked by outside power
•
Afghanistan
Intervention - Military Training - Disaster Relief
•
Kosovo
•
Libya
The European Union 1993
Union of 27 European States
• Single market - 26% of global GDP
• Open borders
• Common environmental policy
• Cooperation on security matters
• Reciprocity between court systems
• European Parliament & Court of Justice
The Euro
• Common currency 1999
• 17 of 27 members and other non-members (not
UK)
• Central Bank
Non-Governmental
Organizations
• NGOs are many and varied – civil society
organizations that operate outside of gov’t.
• Some well known NGOs are
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
The Red Cross
Habitat For Humanity
Amnesty International
Doctors Without Borders
CARE
Oxfam
Green Peace
Grameen Bank
What is the Advantage of NGOs?
•
•
•
•
More Flexible
More Focused
More Streamlined
Work Directly With the People “on the
ground”
• Can Be More Critical of Human Rights
Abuses
The Work of NGOs
• Social Justice
• Humanitarian Aid
• Economic Development
• Environmental Preservation
Economic Development
• Microfinance - A new approach to economic
development
• Small loans to needy individuals in developing
areas
• Goal is to promote entrepreneurship
• How is this sustainable development?
Economic Development
• KIVA
o Microfinance Projects
o Creates a positive image
o No starving babies
o Poor people who work hard
support themselves
to
Social Justice
• Amnesty International
o Unlawful imprisonment
o Torture
• Caritas (Catholic Charities)
o Victims of violence, rape, kidnapping
o Eviction or displacement of the poor
• Save the Children
o Support for families
o Education
• The Girl Effect – to end poverty among women
Humanitarian Aid
• Red Cross/Red Crescent
• Doctors Without Borders -
KIVA Entrepreneur
Economic Development
• Grameen Bank
o Founded
by Muhammad Yunus
(won Nobel Peace Prize)
o Grameen – “rural” in Bengali
o Microcredit – small loans to poor
people (esp. for women)
Environmental Preservation
• Greenpeace
o Works
to change attitudes and
behaviors regarding the environment
o Climate and energy (oil, nuclear)
o Promotes safe fishing & anti-whaling
o Sustainable agriculture (against
toxic fertilizers & use of Genetically
Modified Organisms)
Funding for NGOs
• Foundations
o
Grants
• Donations
o
Fundraisers
• Dues or memberships
o
Special interests (AARP)
• Bequests
o
Tax advantages
Problems With Funding
• NGOs are not immune to fundraising
and other financial scandals
• Clinton Foundation?
• A scandal in one organization taints the
entire field
• Fundraising for NGOs is a field in itself

Similar documents