Document

Comments

Transcription

Document
The 1916 Rising
Intro
• Home Rule had been postponed
indefinitely
• WW1 raging
• most unionists had volunteered in Br army
• Irish nationalists split
• HR leader Redmond wanted them to fight
• Eoin McNeill and Arthur Griffith
disagreed.
Planning a rising
• 1915 - Sean McDermott
and Clarke
• ‘England’s difficulty is
Ireland’s opportunity’
• Aim? To plan a rising
• Military council set up in
IRB
• decided to attack Br
forces in Dublin
• wanted Ireland to be a
Republic
The planners
• IRB planned a rising
• Military council members were Pearse,
Clarke, McDermott
• Pearse - irish school teacher
• wanted irish as national language
• believed the only way to do this was...
• ...with an independent republic
• James Connolly invited to join
• why? He was planning a rebellion with
Irish Citizen Army
• a socialist - wanted worker’s rights
Getting weapons
•
•
•
•
Roger Casement - Germany - guns
Why Germany?
rising planned for Easter
casement’s ship - the aud - captured
Misleading MacNeill
• IRB needed the 11,000 strong Irish
Volunteers
• its leader Eoin MacNeil
• Didn’t know about IRB plans
• IRB forged document
• Claimed the Br govt planned to arrest the
volunteer leaders
• MacNeil shocked
• told volunteers to plan Rebelli
Setbacks to rising
•
•
•
•
•
•
MacNeill found out document fake
cancelled plans for fighting
published cancellation in papers
any hope of nationwide rising ended
casement’s ship captured
so, few weapons
Blood sacrifice
•
•
•
•
the IRB realized Rising was doomed
Patrick Pearse was the leader
They knew they would fail
But decided to go ahead on Easter
Monday
• Why? Idea of the blood sacrifice
• to inspire others to fight
Pearse
Rising begins
• Easter Monday, 1916
• IRB, volunteers and Irish Citizen
Army
• 1500 men
• seized key buildings around city
• four courts, college of surgeons,
Boland’s Mills
• and GPO
GPO
• Headquarters of the Rising
• Pearse read proclamation of the
Irish Republic
• Citizens were puzzled
• british taken by surprise
• sent replacements to city
British Attack
•
•
•
•
•
6,000 soldiers in city
gun ship, the Helga, up Liffey
Shelled the GPO
buildings damaged, people died
So, on Saturday Pearse surrendered
Why did the Rising fail?
• 1. No countrywide rebellion,
• ...so Br could concentrate on
attacking Dublin
• 2. Rebels had few weapons...
• because Aud captured
• 3. Rebels heavily outnumbered by Br
soldiers
Effects of rising
• irish republic annoyed at rebels
• because
of
description
destruction
• so had no sympathy for them
• more Br soldiers in ireland now
• 3,000 people arrested
• leaders of rising put on trial
and
Public opinion changes
•
•
•
•
•
leaders of rising sentenced to death
executed at Kilmainham Gaol
15 leaders executed
Pearse and Clarke
people began to sympathise with
rebels
• admired the rebels’ bravery and
cause
Kilmainham Jail
Wall where the Rising leaders were shot
Executions stop
• Br realized the change in public
opinion
• stopped the executions
• remainder of revels sent to
internment camps
• would be released within a yr
• but the damage was done
• pearse’s ‘blood sacrifice’ had worked
Long-term effects of rising
• 1. Irish people would not be satisfied
with HR anymore
• now people wanted full independence
Effects (2)
• 2. Sinn Fein became v popular
• Br govt blamed Rising on Sinn Fein
• Even though Arthur Griffith had nothing
to do with it
• Sinn Fein would replace HR party
• and become the main political party in
ireland
• the rising is a turning pt in irish history
Sinn Fein
• set up by Arthur Griffith in 1905
• not satisfied with Hr
• wanted to achieve independence by
peaceful means
• promised if elected not to send any MPs
to Westminster
• would set up a govt in Dublin instead
• but not popular before 1916
• why? Most people wanted HR then
After Rising
•
•
•
•
Br called it a ‘Sinn Fein rebellion’
even though SF didn’t take part in Rising
made SF v popular in ireland
the heroes of the Rising left alive were
part of SF
• eg Michael Collins and de Valery
• in 1917 they were released from
internment
New leadership
•
•
•
•
Griffith resigned leadership in 1917
replaced by de Valery
their two aims stayed the same
1. Set up a republic, independent
from Br
• 2. Set up a parliament in Dublin,
independent of Westminster
Popularity grows
• Br planned to introduce conscription
in ireland
• what is conscription?
• all irish parties hated the idea
• but SF got credit for Br dropping
the idea
• became even more popular
1918 General Election
•
•
•
•
•
1st election after WW1
SF won many seats
crushed HR party
HR party were now extinct
SF and the Unionists main parties
from ireland
• but SF didn’t intend to sit in
Westminster!

Similar documents