Airborne Sensors for the Defence Market A Review

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Airborne Sensors for the Defence Market A Review
Airborne Sensors for the
Defence Market
A Review
23 April 2008
Dr Jim Jack, Advanced Projects Group,
SELEX, Edinburgh
CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Background
• Technologies
• Detector Technology
• LIDAR
• Multi/Hyper-Spectral Imaging
• Brown-Out
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2
INTRODUCTION
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3
THE FUTURE ???
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4
REQUIREMENTS/TASKS
• Airborne Environment
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Classify Objects of significant interest
Objects may be vehicles, people, clouds
Tasks:- Detect, Track, Recognise, Identify
Situational Awareness – Navigation, Landing Aids, Collision
Avoidance, Attitude Control
• Automation
• Limitations - atmosphere, diffraction, digitisation, background
noise, CC&D, Displays
• Air-to-Ground & Air-to-Air Attack
• Day/Night & All Weather
• Presentation to Human Decision Maker
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5
LIMITATIONS TO CURRENT TECHNOLOGY
• Spatial Resolution
• Diffraction Limit Driven by Aperture
• Range Limitation
• Limited Stand-Off Range
• Target Classification
• Poor Resolution, Poor Contrast
• Uncertainty in Target Acceptance
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6
MARKET TRENDS
• Affordability
• COTS/Industrial Standard Equipment
• Upgrade Potential Through Product Life
• Increased Performance
• Multifunction Systems
• Increased Political Considerations
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7
VISION OF THE FUTURE
• Conventional Imaging is Outdated
• Sensors Become Photon Analysers
• Multi Sensor Data Fusion
• Interface to Human Observer
• Technology Supports Range of Applications
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8
POSSIBLE TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS
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Advanced Passive IR
Active IR/Burst Illumination Lidar
Hyper/Multi-spectral Imaging
Vibrometry
Polarimetry - Passive & Active
Laser Rangefinding
Laser Designation
Laser Range Profiling
Remote Spectroscopy
Scanning LIDAR
Millimetric Wave Imaging
9
CURRENT STATUS
• Imaging Sensors
• Several Well Defined Wavebands
• Intensity Based Response
• Spatial Resolution/Angular Resolution
• Target Contrast
• Aperture Limited
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10
Atmosphere
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11
DISPLAYS - Head Up, Head Down &
Head Mounted
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12
DETECTOR TECHNOLOGY
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13
Infrared Detectors - Southampton
Major Defence Programmes
TICM
Harrier
EFA IRST
Challenger
LION
Tornado
Felix
AV8B
TIALD
Products
•Focal plane arrays for Thermal Imaging:
Long Linear: - EFA IRST, STAIRS “C”
2D - 3-5um CMT, 8-12um QWIP
2D - Uncooled
•Missile fuse and guidance detectors
•Detectors for gas analysis & spectroscopy
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Uncooled Long Wave IR
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STAIRS C Imagery
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Typical Current NAVFLIR image
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LIDAR
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Introduction/Background
Joint Anglo-French project mid 1990s.
Test-Bed for advanced LIDAR Systems.
Clara: MultiFunction Coherent LIDAR:
Obstacle warning, ranging, MTI,
Vibrometry, True Air Speed, Laser
Imaging
Laser Illuminators, Targeting Systems,
Countermeasures
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LIDAR Objectives
• Military Objective:
• UAV scans a pulsed laser source to generate a ‘cloud of points’,
• Generate textured map for use by ground/air commanders.
• Civilian Objective:
• Digitise laser returns to determine material properties (vegetation health
etc.)
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LIDAR Block Diagram
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TYPICAL LIDAR SUPPLIER Optech
LIDAR Company
Optech Incorporated,
300 Interchange Way,
Vaughan, Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
L4K 5ZB
Tel: 1-905-660-0808
Fax: 1-905-660-0829
www.optech.on.ca
Point-of-contact: Albert Iavarone.
Description
Based in Canada. Well
established. Design,
manufacture and supply
LIDAR systems and
provide LIDAR survey
services.
Assessment
showed the
Optech Gemini to
be too large to fit
any of the TUAV
airframes.
Solution: Design
and Build Special
LightWeight
LIDAR
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Typical LIDAR Image
Image Provided
by Riegl Ltd
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Environmental LIDAR
• Designed and Built
LIDAR for University
of Edinburgh
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24
MULTI/HYPER-SPECTRAL
SENSING
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25
HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING
Near
infrared
100
Middle
infrared
Far
infrared
Transmittance (%)
80
60
40
20
1
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3
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Image of the Typical Scene
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Pixelated Image of the Scene
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SPECTRAL MAP
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30
BROWN-OUT
LANDING AID
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31
LANDING PROBLEM
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32
QUESTIONS
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33

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