Decade of De Gaulle
Decade of De Gaulle
Domestic Developments in France
Collapse of the Fourth republic in 1958
De Gaulle comes back with new constitution
Strong presidency with exclusive responsibility
for foreign policy and defense
Direct elections for presidency
De Gaulle is elected as President
De Gaulle and European Community
Averse to supranationalism
Believes Common Market be a lever to
stimulate French economy
EC will modernize French agriculture
European Europe: intergovernmental
cooperation on political and security affairs
Fouchet Plan (1960)
Continues policy of reconciliation with
1963 Treaty of Friendship and Reconciliation
De Gaulle and Adenauer
Successful rounds of tariff and quota reductions
Common external tariff
Customs Union comes into effect in 1968 –earlier
Extraordinarily high and sustained rates of economic
Merger Treaty –EEC, ECSC, and EURATOM (1967)
Participation in GATT
Agreement with former colonies.
Little progress in transport, energy, competition, and
Empty Chair Crisis
De Gaulle works with Commission to negotiate a
Funding of CAP
Community’s own resources
Commission pushes ahead a complex budgetary system
France withdraws from the Council and its committees.
Announces that France will not accept QMV.
Luxembourg compromise: members agree to disagree.
Undermined the Commission and Community spirit in the
Britain and the European Community
Britain forms EFTA with Austria, Denmark, Norway,
Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland (1959)
Wants free trade but not common external tariff and
EC members fear being sucked into EFTA.
1961 first application for membership.
Relations with Commonwealth
Deep suspicion about membership in Britain
Britain and the EC
Kennedy strongly endorses British membership in EC
as building block of stronger transatlantic relations.
At odds with de Gaulle’s European Europe.
Anglo-American missile accord (1962).
At 1963 press conference, De Gaulle vetoes British
Britain re-applies in 1967
De Gaulle claims Britain has not yet achieved the
necessary political and economic transformation
Member of Council of Europe, OEEC, and
1959 Application for Association Agreement.
1960 military coup.
1963 Ankara Agreement.
Recognizes Turkey as a European state
22 year period of tariff reductions leading to
Joint Parliamentary Committee