Decade of De Gaulle

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Decade of De Gaulle
Decade of De Gaulle
1958-1969
Domestic Developments in France
 Collapse of the Fourth republic in 1958
 De Gaulle comes back with new constitution
–Fifth Republic
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Strong presidency with exclusive responsibility
for foreign policy and defense
Direct elections for presidency
 De Gaulle is elected as President
De Gaulle and European Community
 Averse to supranationalism
 Believes Common Market be a lever to
stimulate French economy
 EC will modernize French agriculture
 European Europe: intergovernmental
cooperation on political and security affairs
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Fouchet Plan (1960)
 Continues policy of reconciliation with
Germany.
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1963 Treaty of Friendship and Reconciliation
De Gaulle and Adenauer
Honeymoon Beginning
 Successful rounds of tariff and quota reductions
 Common external tariff
 Customs Union comes into effect in 1968 –earlier
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than expected.
Extraordinarily high and sustained rates of economic
growth
Merger Treaty –EEC, ECSC, and EURATOM (1967)
Participation in GATT
Agreement with former colonies.
Little progress in transport, energy, competition, and
social affairs
Empty Chair Crisis
 De Gaulle works with Commission to negotiate a
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comprehensive CAP.
Funding of CAP
 Community’s own resources
 National contributions
Commission pushes ahead a complex budgetary system
France withdraws from the Council and its committees.
Announces that France will not accept QMV.
Luxembourg compromise: members agree to disagree.
Undermined the Commission and Community spirit in the
Council.
Walter Hallstein
Britain and the European Community
 Britain forms EFTA with Austria, Denmark, Norway,
Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland (1959)
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Wants free trade but not common external tariff and
agricultural policy
EC members fear being sucked into EFTA.
 1961 first application for membership.
 Agricultural policy
 Relations with Commonwealth
 EFTA commitments
 Deep suspicion about membership in Britain
Britain and the EC
 Kennedy strongly endorses British membership in EC
as building block of stronger transatlantic relations.
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At odds with de Gaulle’s European Europe.
Anglo-American missile accord (1962).
 At 1963 press conference, De Gaulle vetoes British
accession.
 Britain re-applies in 1967
 De Gaulle claims Britain has not yet achieved the
necessary political and economic transformation
Turkey
 Member of Council of Europe, OEEC, and
NATO
 1959 Application for Association Agreement.
 1960 military coup.
 1963 Ankara Agreement.
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Recognizes Turkey as a European state
22 year period of tariff reductions leading to
Customs Union
Association Council
Joint Parliamentary Committee

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