DAF Course Architecture Development



DAF Course Architecture Development
Emerging Technologies
Block 10
Be able to identify those technologies that
should be incorporated into a ‘To-Be’ EA
– Identify alternatives for EA components
– Build options from best alternatives, using AnnL
– Select sources for alternatives
Identify Alternatives for EA
• This section covers the generation of
alternative components for EA, from
emerging technologies
Activity: How many options?
• As a team
• For 5 minutes
• List as many different designs for a people
transport vehicle as possible
– That is, front wheel drive diesel, petrol
convertible, rickshaw
Morphology of Technologies
One of the most powerful approaches for
considering appropriate technologies is
“Morphological analysis”
Stripped of its fancy title (morphology means
shape), this approach
• considers the attributes of a system,
• looks at alternative ways of providing those
attributes, and then
• combine these alternatives into (thousands) of
Morphology of a Car
. Human
. horse
Front wheel 0
. Covered
. tray
Two front
. One rear
. Two rear
. > 2 rear
One front
. One rear
. Two rear
.> 2 rear
Components of ICT
Have a look at the list of ICT components
given at the back of the Toolbox
(Note: We are using the component
headings as the attributes in our
In the “Inclusions or Alternatives” column,
you will see several alternatives given for
each component.
Activity: List new alternatives
As a team
For 10 minutes
Pick a component
List alternatives not already given
Be prepared to share the list
Activity: Generate Options
As a team
For 10 minutes
Pair with another team
See how you can combine your list with
their list to generate options
Using AnnL to Design Options
• Open the AL_In workbook on your CD
• Review the contents
– Especially the capability values
List alternatives
Link alternatives
Display Links
Find the Best Alternatives
Build options from the
Report options
Select Sources for Alternatives
• Once the option has been generated, it
should be checked as a whole for risk.
• The risks could be:
– Performance - will it work as a whole?
– Conformance - is it legal, will people want to
use it?
– Price - can we afford it?
Analyze performance or
conformance risk
• Risk is a possible shortfall in a value
• Need indicators of the likelihood of the
shortfall = measures
• Measures are technical contributions to
business values
• Described precisely, to reduce uncertainty
in judgement if not in range of
Form measures
Check links between measures
and values
Assess performance shortfalls
Assess price risk
• In Business Cases (including those involving
EAs), you need to determine the costs and
financial benefits of options
• These financial figures, or “prices”, are traded off
through “Net Present Value”
– Adjustment of income-outgoes according to the year
of expenditure by an official discount rate
• However, what we are interested in is, “Can we
afford it?” or “Is it the best value-for-money”?
– That is, what are the price-related risks of the options
Calculate Price
Report Business Case
Report risks and remedies
Report risks (con)
Remedy risks
You could change something in the design,
rearranging an alternative for some
You could add something external to the
design, such as a training campaign.
These remedies have to be analyzed and
costed to see if the remedy is better
than the risk continuing.
Enterprise Architects, above all others, need
to keep up with emerging technologies.
They need to be able to assess the positive
and negative risks of these technologies,
for the strategic direction, to see what
should be designed into their architecture.
Next Block
• Examine data modelling in more detail

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