INTERWAR YEARS

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INTERWAR YEARS
INTERWAR YEARS
CHAPTER 27
CHINA
IN 1911 CHINA’S NATIONALIST
MOVEMENT MOVED THEM FROM A
MONARCHY AN OLIGARCHY(rule by a small
committee)
 1917 CHINA DECLARED WAR ON GERMAY
HOPING TO REGAIN GERMAN COLONIES
IN CHINA, THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
GAVE THE LAND TO JAPAN
 JAPAN HAD INVADED GERMAN
TERRITORIES IN CHINA DURING THE WAR
AND WERE REWARD FOR IT

CHINA
MAY 4, 1919 THOUSANDS OF CHINESE
STUDENTS PROTESTED THE
NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT FOR
NOT DEMANDING RECOGNITION;
THIS WAS KNOW AS THE MAY 4TH
MOVEMENT
 AS A RESULT IN 1921, THE
COMMUNIST PARTY FORMED, LED BY
MAO ZEDONG

CHINA
THE NATIONALIST AND THE
COMMUNIST FORMED AN ALLIANCE,
THEIR GOAL TO SUBDUE FEUDAL
CHINESE WARLORDS, PUSH FOREIGN
NATIONS OUT
 BY 1927, THE ALLIANCE PROVED TO
BE SUCCESSFUL, BUT CHIANG KAISHEK WANTED TOTAL CONTROL
 HE TURNED ON THE COMMUNIST
AND BEGAN CHINA’S CIVIL WAR

CHINA
MAO WAS ABLE TO ESCAPE WITH
100,000 FOLLOWERS, AT THE END OF
HIS ESCAPE ONLY 8,000 SURVIVED
 THE LONG MARCH AS IT WAS
CALLED; COVERED A 6,000 MILE
ROUTE; IT IS A MAJOR HISTORIC
EVENT OF CHINESE COMMUNIST
HISTORY
 THE COMMUNIST WOULD NOT
RETURN UNTIL WWII

INDIA
IN 1915 MOHANDAS GANDHI
RETURNED TO INDIA, IN HOPES OF
BRINGING FREEDOM TO THE HINDU
PEOPLE
 HE ENCOURAGED MEN TO FIGHT FOR
THE BRITISH DURING WWI, THINKING
THEIR SACRIFICES WOULD HELP THEM
GAIN RIGHTS IN SOCIETY, THE BRITISH
DID NOT CHANGE THEIR CONTROL

INDIA



THIS BROUGHT POLITICAL UNREST TO
INDIA, PROTEST AND DEMOSTRATIONS
AGAINST BRITISH RULE
IN 1919 THE ROWLATT ACTS WERE
PASSED, IT ALLOWED BRITISH TROOPS
TO DEAL HARSHLY WITH PROTESTERS
APRIL 1919, THE AMRISTAR MASSACRE
HAPPENED, 400 PEACEFUL
DEMOSTRATORS WERE KILLED, 1,200
WOUNDED
INDIA
THE MASSACRE ENCOURAGED
GANDHI MOVE FROM HELPING THE
PEASANTS PROTEST THEIR
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS INTO INDIA’S
MOVEMENT FOR INDEPENDENCE
 GANDHI CALLED ON THE PEOPLE TO
NON-VIOLENT PROTEST AND CIVIL
DISOBEDIENCE(REFUSAL TO WORK,
OR BUY), HIS EXAMPLE WAS MAKING
HOME SPUN AND SALT

MIDDLE EAST
AFTER WWI THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
ESTABLISHED THE MANDATE SYSTEM IN
THE FORMER OTTOMAN EMPIRE
 THIS SYSTEM DIVIDED THE MIDDLE EAST
BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND THE BRITISH,
THOUGH SOME COUNTRIES WILL GAIN
INDEPENDENCE SOON, OTHERS WILL
LAST UNTIL THE 1960’S
 TREATY OF SEVRES-OTTOMANS AGREED
TO GIVE UP CONTROL OF ITS LANDS

MIDDLE EAST
TURKEY WAS THE CENTER OF THE
OTTOMAN EMPIRE WITH THE CAPITAL OF
CONSTANTINOPLE
 KEMAL MUSTAFA FOUGHT FOR THE ALLIED
POWERS, IN 1923 FOUGHT AGAINST THEM,
HE WAS DECLARED THE REPUBLIC OF
TURKEY
 HE BECAME KNOWN AS KEMAL ATATURK
“FATHER OF THE TURKS”
 HE SEPARATED GOVERNMENT AND
RELIGION, AND PUSHED FOR
MODERNIZATION OF HIS COUNTRY

PERSIA/IRAN
IN 1921, RAZA KHAN OVERTHREW
THE SHAH OF PERSIA, THEN
CROWNED HIMSELF KING, HE RULE
BY THE NAME OF Reza Shah Pahlavi
 HIS GOAL WAS TO MODERNIZE
PERSIA, HE WANTED TO IMPROVE
EDUCATION, AND INDUSTRY
 IN 1935 HE CHANGED THE NAME OF
THE COUNTRY TO IRAN

FRENCH AND BRITISH MANDATES



DEMANDS AND PROMISES FROM WWI
INFLUENCED BRITAIN AND FRANCE TO
DIVIDE AREAS AROUND THE EASTERN
MEDITERRANEAN
ARABS ORGANIZED BY T.E. LAWRANCE AND
LED BY HUSAYN BIN ALI FOUGHT THE
OTTOMANS DURING WWI, HOPING TO BE
REWARD WITH INDEPENDENCE
IN THE AREA OF PALESTINE, THE BALFOUR
DECLARATION PROMISED THE JEWISH
PEOPLE A HOMELAND, THE COMPLETION OF
THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT OF THE 1890’S
FRENCH AND BRITISH MANDATES
◦ INSTEAD THEY TOOK CONTROL OF THE
LAND, GRADUALLY THEY WOULD SECTION
OFF TERRITORIES INTO COUNTRIES
◦ IN 1921AS A REWARD, BRITAIN GAVE
HUSAYN’S SONS LAND TO RULE, FAISAL
RECEIVED IRAQ(BUT ENGLAND FORMED
THE NATION OF KUWAIT BEFORE THEY
LEFT), AND ABDULLAH RECEIVED
TRANSJORDAN(JORDAN)
◦ JEWISH PEOPLE WERE ALLOWED TO ENTER
PALESTINE TO LIVE, BUT WERE NOT GIVEN
ANY SPECIFIC POLITICAL GURANTEES
ABDULLAH
FAISAL
AFRICA
THE AFRICAN COUNTRIES WERE
UPSET WITH ENGLAND AND FRANCE
BECAUSE:
 THEY DIDN’T REWARD THEIR
COOPERATION IN THE WAR WITH
INDEPENDENCE
 TRADE DECLINED WITH EUROPEANS
 GERMAN COLONIES WERE
REDISTRIBUTED AMOUNG THE
WINNERS

AFRICA
PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES- EST. IN
1919 WAS AN EFFORT BY PEOPLE OF
AFRICAN HERITAGE TO DEMAND
INDEPENDENCE
 NORTH AFRICA-SPECIFICALLY EGYPT
DEMONSTRATED FOR
INDEPENDENCE, IN 1922 ENGLAND
GAVE IT TO THEM, BUT THEY
RETAINED CONTROL OVER THE SUEZ
CANAL

GREAT DEPRESSION
IN THE 1920’S THE AMERICAN
ECONOMY WAS BOOMING, BUT BY
THE END OF THE DECADE IT
BECOMES A BUST, LEADING TO THE
GREAT DEPRESSION
 5 CAUSES-SPECULATION IN STOCK
MARKET; UNTRUE STOCK VALUE;
HIGH CONSUMER CREDIT; DECLINE
IN SPENDING; STRUGGLING
BUSINESSES

GREAT DEPRESSION
OCTOBER 29, 1929, BLACK TUESDAY
 RAPID SELLING OF STOCKS, LITTLE
OR NO BUYING
 INVESTORS HAD TO SHORT SELL TO
TRY AND PAY LOANS
 BANKS HAD NO STANDING CASH,
PEOPLE DEMANDED THEIR
MONEY(RUN ON THE BANKS)
 INDUSTRIES BEGAN TO CLOSED

GREAT DEPRESSION
ONCE THE MARKET CRASHED THE
AMERICAN ECONOMY SPIRALED
 UNEMPLOYMENT WAS HIGH, ABOUT 25%
 HOOVER- FELT BUSINESS WOULD RECOVER
ON ITS OWN, SO HE DID NOT EXTEND
GOVERNMENT HELP
 HOOVERVILLES BEGAN TO APPEAR, SHANTY
TOWNS OF HOMELESS, JOBLESS PEOPLE
 HOOVER PASSED THE HALEY-SMOOT ACT-IT
PLACED HIGH TARIFFS ON FOREIGN GOODS
TO ENCOURAGE U.S. PRODUCTION AND
PURCHASES

GREAT DEPRESSION
1932 FDR(FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT) IS
ELECTED PRESIDENT
 HIS RESPONSE WAS CALLED THE “NEW
DEAL” DIRECT GOVERNMENT
INTERVENTION OF THE ECONOMY, IT WAS A
SERIES OF ECONOMIC PROGRAMS TO
PROVIDE JOBS, AND PUT SOME MONEY IN
CIRCULATION
 BRITISH ECONOMIST JOHN MAYNARD
KEYNES PROMOTED THIS TYPE OF
INTERVENTION CALLED DEFICIENT
SPENDING

GREAT DEPRESSION
AFTER WWI THE U.S. WAS THE
DOMINATE ECONOMIC POWER,
EUROPE WAS RECOVERING FROM THE
WAR, GERMANY SPECIFICALLY WAS
STRUGGLING BECAUSE OF THE
TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
 JAPAN’S ECONOMY WAS
COLLAPSING BECAUSE OF THEIR
DEPENDENCE OF FOREIGN
RESOURCES

GREAT DEPRESSION
THE GREAT DEPRESSION CREATED
DESPARATE MEANS IN COUNTRIES
 DICTATORSHIPS WITH EXTREME
VIEWS BEGAN TO GROW
 ITALY-BENITO MUSSOLINI
 GERMANY-ADOLF HITLER
 JAPAN-EXTREME MILITARISM

IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN




MEIJI RESTORATION BEGAN A PROCESS OF
RAPID MODERNIZATION AND
INDUSTRIALIZATION IN JAPAN
AFTER WWI, THE ECONOMY OF JAPAN
SLOWED, THE PEOPLE SUFFERED HARDSHIPS
BEING AN ISLAND NATIONS RESOURCES
WERE LIMITED, MOST HAD TO BE IMPORTED,
CREATING A DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN
SUPPLIES
FORCING THEM TO EXPAND TO SECURE
THEIR OWN RESOURCES
IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN
BECAUSE OF THE SLOW DOWN IN
THE ECONOMY THE MILITARY
LEADERS BEGAN TO TAKE CONTROL,
MAKING THE MILITARY A RESPECTED
ENTITY OF SOCIETY
 “ULTIMATE VICTORY FOR THE PEOPLE
AND THE ARMY” SURRENDER, DEFEAT,
AND RETREAT WERE NO LONGER
PART OF THE JAPANESE VOCABULARY

IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN

MANCHURIAN INCIDENT-JAPANESE
MILITARY ACTING INDEPENDENT OF
THE GOVERNMENT CONQUERED
MANCHURIA IN NORTHEAST
CHINA(COAL/IRON) THEN CREATED
A PUPPET GOVERNMENT OF CHINESE
OFFICIALS, BUT UNDER JAPANESE
MILITARY CONTROL
IMPERIALISM IN JAPAN
JAPAN AND GERMANY BEGAN TO FORM AN
ALLIANCE THROUGH THE ANTI-COMINTERN
PACT-THEY AGREED TO STOP THE SPREAD OF
COMMUNISM(RUSSIA AND CHINA)
 2ND SINO-JAPANESE WAR(1937), JAPAN BEGAN
TO SPREAD INFLUENCE INTO EAST-CENTRAL
CHINA, CONFLICT WOULD BE ABSORBED
INTO WWII, AND END IN 1945
 ONE EVENT OF THE CONFLICT WAS THE
“RAPE OF NANJING” OVER 100K CHINESE
WERE MASSACRED BY THE JAPANESE, MOST
WERE CIVILANS

DICTATORS
RULERS THAT GOVERN WITH
ABSOLUTE POWER
 3 TRAITS OF A TOTALITARION
GOVERNMENT
 POLITICALLY: SINGLE PARTY
CONTROL, STATE MORE IMPORTANT
 SOCIALLY: CONTROLS DAILY LIFE, USE
OF SECRET POLICE TO TERRORIZE
 ECONOMICALLY: DIRECT
GOVERNMENT CONTROL

DICTATORS




FASCISM IN ITALY BEGAN TO GROW IN 1919
IT IS AN AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENT
THAT PLACES THE GOOD OF THE NATION
ABOVE THE NEEDS AND RIGHTS OF THE
PEOPLE
1922 MUSSOLINI’S MARCH ON ROME, FORCE
THE KING TO NAME MUSSOLINI HEAD OF
STATE
ETHOPIA-ITALY INVADES, TO CONNECT
COLONIES, PROVE THEIR MILITARY, THE
WORLD REFUSED TO DO ANYTHING
DICTATORS






STALIN TAKES POWER IN 1924
HE WORKED TO INCREASE STATE POWER OVER
SOCIETY
5 YEAR PLAN-INDUSTRY AND MINES PLACED ON
QUOTAS, CENTRAL PLANNING OF THE ECONOMY
COLLECTIVIZATION-COMBINED SMALL FARMS
INTO LARGE ONES FOR HIGHER OUTPUT
FARMERS RESISTED, THOUSANDS WERE EXECUTED,
OTHER SENT TO GULAG-LABOR CAMPS IN SIBERIA
WHERE MOST DIED TO HARSH CONDITIONS OF
FORCED LABOR AND CLIMATE
THE GREAT PURGE –ELIMINATED WHO HE
THOUGHT WERE ENEMIES INSIDE THE
GOVERNMENT
DICTATORS



WIEMAR REPUBLIC WAS THE GOVERNMENT
ESTABLISHED BY THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES,
UNPOPULAR BECAUSE THE PEOPLE FELT
THEY GAVE IN A THE PEACE CONFERENCE
HITLER JOINED THE NAZI(NATIONAL
SOCIALIST PARTY) AFTER WWI, HE TOO
OPPOSED THE REPUBLIC, IN 1923 ATTEMPTED
TO OVERTHROW THE
GOVERNMENT(ARRESTED)
WILL IN PRISON HE WROTE “MEIN KAMPF”
(MY STRUGGLE)-DESRIPTION OF HIS
POLITICAL GOALS, EXTREME NATIONALISM,
RACISM
DICTATORS
TO GAIN POWER HE HAD HIS
ENFORCERS “THE BROWN SHIRTS”
INTIMIDATE OPPOSITION, NAZI
PROPAGANDA, MIND
CONTROL(HITLER YOUTH)
 HIS GOAL WAS TO BUILD THE 3RD
RIECH(3RD GERMAN EMPIRE)
 MASSIVE MILITARY BUILD UP, REGAIN
LOST LANDS, PURGE SOCIETY OF
IMPURE PEOPLE

DICTATORS
PART OF THAT PLAN WAS ANTISEMITISM, HOSTILITIES TOWARD THE
JEWS
 AN ATTITUDE THAT EXISTED IN
EUROPE AS A WHOLE
 NUREMBERG LAWS-LEGAL
SEPARATION OF JEWS, DENYING
THEIR CITIZENSHIP, CIVIL RIGHTS,
LIMITED JOB OPPORTUNITIES(1935)

DICTATORS
KRISTALLNACHT-NIGHT OF BROKEN
GLASS
 NOV. 9-10, 1938
 IT ENCOURAGED ATTACKS ON JEWISH
COMMUNITIES ACROSS GERMANY
 100 JEWS WERE KILLED, MANY INJURED,
THOUSANDS OF JEWISH BUSINESSES AND
SYNAGOGUES WERE DAMAGED OF
DESTROYED


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