Communism and the Cold War in China
Ban Zhao Packet Questions (1-9), Ning Lao (10-11)
1) As a daughter-in-law, Ban Zhao tells the reader that her position
is one of servitude and respect to authority. She has escaped from
the fears of servitude by laboring hard and diligently for her
2) According to Ban Zhao, men must control their wives and be
worthy. Wives must serve their husbands. This is the natural order
of things. Husband and wife must not be too affectionate and
always together. A woman must stay distanced and subservient to
3) Ban Zhao considers the principle duty of a husband to be
authoritative and commanding to his wife and the duty of the wife
is to take care of the home and obey her husband.
4) Husband and wife are complementary parts of the universe
because of the yin and yang. Males and husbands are the
aggressive male element and yin is the yielding female element.
Nature, as in human relationships, to be balanced, must have the
proper mix of yin and yang with the wife in the role of yin and the
husband in the role of yang.
5) According to Ban Zhao, women must be given educations by
their mothers modeled on Confucian principles. The purpose of
this is to teach young girls their role in society, what they are
expected to do, and humility and respect. Ban Zhao says to her
daughters that “I have thought of you all in so untrained a state, I
have been uneasy many a time for you.” I can infer that she gave
her daughters some education, but not as much as she would have
6) Ban Zhao advocates a break from tradition in imploring her
daughters to each write out a set of rules for their daughters. This
was most likely unheard of at her time.
7) Ban Zhao’s claim to lack intelligence suggests her extreme
humility. She was probably not sincere in this claim because she
had the capability to write this book and she advocated extreme
8) Ban Zhao’s essay has become highly regarded by Confucians
because it eloquently states women’s role in society according to
basic Confucian beliefs. It fits perfectly with the Confucian view
of Husband and Wife. The wife being subservient to the husband,
most act in the ways prescribed by Ban Zhao.
9) It would be incorrect for Ban Zhao to be called a feminist. This
is because feminists often argue equality and greater rights for
women. Ban Zhao argues the opposite. However, some may
consider her a feminist simply because of her prominent role as an
author and her gender.
10) Ning Lao and her granddaughter both took ‘the less traveled
path’ for women of their time. Ning Lao rebelled against social
tradition when she left her husband to become a beggar. Her grand
daughter joined that nationalist movement against the Japanese.
They were different because Ning Lao needed much greater
courage to take action than her daughter did.
11) Ning Lao’s account of her life is very significant because it
shows the growing social change in China around the turn of the
20th century. She was one woman who chose to live her own life.
Her story would speak for countless others doing the same thing.
Section 4 – HoWS pgs 1101 - 1106 and Murphey pgs 377 – 391
1) Why were the Communists successful in defeating the
Nationalists? Where did the nationalists go?
a. The Communists were able to defeat the nationalists because
they were able to rally peasant support behind them. After Japan
attacked, the Communists fought ferociously and in the peasant’s
eyes, they were the true nationalists. Also, the land ‘reforms’ that
they proposed were very popular with the peasant masses. The
nationalist leaders and one million Chinese fled to the island of
Formosa and renamed it Taiwan; The Republic of China.
2) Why were the early successes of the communists overshadowed
by the Great Leap Forward?
a. The early successes of the communists were overshadowed by
the Great Leap Forward because even though the communists did
make some gains, they did not make up for the dismal failure that
was the Great Leap Forward. The Great Leap proposed to overtake
Britain in industrial manufacturing by having peasants smelt iron
in crude backyard furnaces. The products of the crude furnaces
was unusable and it took away time from farming. This lead to the
starvation of at least 30 million people.
3) What was Mao’s strategy to regain control of the party and the
country? What were the effects of this ‘movement’?
a. Mao’s strategy to regain control of the party and country was to
create a secondary communist revolution in which all non-Maoist
people would be persecuted and all no-Maoist ideas rejected. This
was the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. All people
suspected of having “rightist tendencies” were persecuted or
‘reeducated.’ Officials, managers, musicians, writers, teachers, and
intellectuals were attacked by the Red Guards, radical Maoist
youth movements that sprung up all over the country. Eventually
however, the Red Guards needed to be suppressed by the military
and this led to a feeling of great resentment.
4) Who was Deng Xiopeng?
a. Deng Xioaping was the moderate leader who took over after
Hua Kuo-feng, who took over after Mao, and Chiang Ching and
the Gang of Four. He began the second revolution because he
started new modernization of many different aspects of China
5) What were the four modernizations?
a. His four modernizations were agriculture, industry, science and
technology, and national defense.
6) How did the suppression of students in 1989 illustrate the
contradictions of modern China?
a. The brutal suppression of students illustrates the contradiction
inherent in Chinese government because on one hand, capitalist
and democratic reforms are being made. However, the official
party of the government is still strictly Communist and resistant to
political reform. So, while reforms are being taken, the use of force
against protesters at Tiananmen Square shows that China still has
some ways to go before it is fully modernized.
Mao takes control over the mainland and established the People’s
Republic of China
Revolution in agriculture
Redistribution of land
20 million landlords terrorized
Land was confiscated and redistributed at 1 acre per family
China’s First Five Year Plan
1953 – 1957
Half of government’s investment was in industry
Collectivization of private farms – mutual aid teams and
Was rather successful
China’s Second Five Year Plan
1958 – 1962
From Socialism to true Communism
Massive modification of China’s social and economic structure
No private ownership – communal living
Increase in steel and power production
Backyard steel production
Too much, too fast
WORST FAMINE in the history of the world
Disruption of social and economic structure
The Great Leap “Forward”
* Propaganda videos encouraged peasants to work on projects such
as the Yenan canal.
* Projects rarely met expectations in the amount of time and
people necessary to build them.
* For example, the Yenan canal took ten years and 60,000
peasants. These people were building instead of farming.
* Peasants built small furnaces in backyards and villages and
poured much effort into creating steel.
* Forests were decimated and people neglected the regular tasks,
including food production.
* Only steel was made but it was of such low quality that it
couldn’t even be used.
* They had to obey the government’s orders. Steel produced was
impure, weak, and useless.
* This was 1959. No farming was being done and crops rotted and
none were replacing them.
* A major famine followed with a 25% decrease in food
* In a secret report, the party estimated that at LEAST 20 million
people had died.
* The communes were abandoned and peasants had greater
economic freedom again. This helped the economy to recover.
* However, Mao began the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
in an attempt to reinforce Communism and end the free market that
had helped China to recover.
* Revolutionary plays were written for the Beijing opera and actors
were used to “reeducate” people.
* In August 1966, the Great Proletarian Revolution and the “Gang
of Four” – Mao’s advisors and wife, tried to build up Mao’s cult.
Students ere encouraged to rebel and form the Red Guards: groups
that enforced Mao’s policies and attacked non-Maoists.
* The fervor was directed against reformists such as Deng Xiopeng
and Liu. Small children were taught to denounce Mao’s enemies.
Pupils attacked their teachers.
* It was an attempt for Mao to regain power from being only a
figurehead. He attacked traditional beliefs and habits, nationalist
connections, western influences, and moderate communists such as
Liu and Deng.
* The Red Guard was a radical youth movement that caused
millions of young people to go on the march in a fervor of antibourgeois sentiment.
* The Results: Persecution of teachers, officials, violence, factions,
* The West was still blind to the occurrences because of the
* Zhou Enlai = Mao’s second in command in the Cultural
* Toward the end of the revolution, Zhou made a speech urging the
need for modernization.
* In 1976, both Zhou and Mao died.
* Deng Xiopeng emerged the leader in the ensuing power vacuum.
* A more moderate leader, he led reforms in agriculture, science
and technology, medicine, and national defense.
* Deng was a pragmatist; he said that “I don’t care if the cat is
black or white as long as it catches mice.”
* Results: Expansion in trade, purchase of foreign technology, use
of foreign scientists and technicians, capitalistic incentives,
education based on success and merit
* “It is glorious to get rich”
* 1989 – Democratic uprising of one million students in
* They were not content with the lack of political freedom and
* Deng sided with the hardliners and cleared the square with tanks.
Economic prosperity and economic disparity
Capitalist incentives and communist leadership
Foreign investment and burgeoning population
Phenomenal economic growth but little political freedom
The world’s factory but has an enormous trade imbalance.