Part 4-5 Blake, Burns

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Part 4-5 Blake, Burns
The Eighteenth Century
English and American Literature
&
Selected Readings
:魏晓红
:[email protected]
: 13931098970
The Eighteenth Century
An Overview of the 18th Literature
the Development of Poetry
pre-romanticists
Pope, Blake, Burns
Blake, Burns
the Prosperity of Prose
Steele, Addison, Swift
classicism: classicists
Pope, Steele, Addison
The Enlightenment
the Rising of Novels
Defoe, Fielding, Smollett
realism: realists
the Decline of Drama
sentimentalism:
sentimentalists
Goldsmith, Sheridan
Gray, Sheridan
The Eighteenth Century
Sentimentalism
Contents
Pre-romanticism
Blake, Songs
Burns, Red Rose
The Eighteenth Century
Sentimentalism
The Eighteenth Century
Sentimentalism in Poetry (p.192)
the first half of
the 18th century
the classicism—
enlighteners—
Pope—heroic couplet
the middle of
sentimentalism
the 18th century
pre-romanticism
the latter half of
the 18th century
The Eighteenth Century
Definition of “Sentimentalism”
《自主学习与实践》p.24
The Eighteenth Century
Features of Sentimental Writings
discontent with the social reality
struggle against feudalism
1) sentiment
sense the contradictions
dissatisfied with reason
2) countryside for the material
3) sympathy for the poverty-stricken,
expropriated peasants
simple annals(历史记载)of the poor,
still in a classical style
The Eighteenth Century
Representatives of Sentimentalism
• Thomas Gray 托马斯·格雷
• William Cowper 威廉·柯伯
• George Crabbe 乔治·格拉伯
The Eighteenth Century
Thomas Gray
托马斯·格雷
(1716—1771)
p.192
The Eighteenth Century
Gray’s Masterpiece
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
《墓畔哀歌》
a mode of sentimentalist poetry
a keen interest in the English countryside
and a sincere feeling for the life of common people
The Eighteenth Century
“Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.
晚钟响起来一阵阵给白昼报丧。
The lowing herd wind slowly o’er the lea;
牛群在草原上迂回,吼声起落;
The plowman homeward plods his weary way.
耕地人累了,回家走,脚步踉跄。
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
把整个世界给了黄昏与我。
The Eighteenth Century
William Cowper
威廉·柯伯
(1731—1800)
The Eighteenth Century
William Cowper
• William Cowper’s The Task《任务》is a long
poem written in blank verse.
• It is well-known for its description of
country scenes, of woods and brooks, of
plowmen and teamsters(卡车司机) and the
letter-carrier on his rounds(周围).
The Eighteenth Century
George Crabbe
乔治·格拉伯
(1754—1832)
The Eighteenth Century
George Crabbe
• Crabbe’s masterpiece is The
____________
Village , a
peasants
realistic picture of the English ___________.
• Crabbe is called “a Pope in worsted stockings.”
毛袜子
(a person with strong scholarly or literary
interests)
The Eighteenth Century
Other Sentimentalist Poets
1) James Thompson汤姆逊
• Seasons《四季》
2) Edward Young扬格
• Night Thoughts 《夜思》
3) William Collins科林斯
• To Simplicity《致纯朴》,
• The Passions《致情感》,
• To Evening《夜颂》
The Eighteenth Century
Pre-Romanticism
The Eighteenth Century
Definition of “Pre-Romanticism”
《简史》p. 193
(《自主学习与实践》pp.21-2)
The Eighteenth Century
Pre-Romanticists p.193
• Romantic Revival arose in the latter half
of the 18th century, against Classicism.
• The pre-romantic poetry was ushered
(introduced) by Percy, Macpherson and
Chatterton and represented by Blake and
Burns.
The Eighteenth Century
PreRomanticist
s
Thomas Percy珀西:
Reliques of Ancient English Poetry
《英诗辑古》1765
James Macpherson 麦克诽森:
hastened
Fingal 《芬哥儿》1762
the decline
of classicism
Thomas Chatterton 查特顿:
and the revival
The Rowler Papers
of romanticism
《罗利诗篇》
The Eighteenth Century
Chapter 14
William Blake
威廉·布莱克
(1757 - 1827)
The Eighteenth Century
William Blake (1757—1827)
Student’s Presentation
The Eighteenth Century
Features of W. Blake’s Poems
Early attempts at poetry: p.195
Spenserian stanza, Shakespearean,
Miltonic blank verse, the ballad form,
lyric metres
contempt for the rule of reason
—opposed to the classicism
The Eighteenth Century
Features of Blake’s poems
• Blake’s poems seem easy but difficult to
understand for his mysterious images and
symbols, unless versed in ( skilled at ) religious
knowledge.
• Blake’s poems are full of emotion and apparent
presentation of his progressive democratic idea
in symbolism.
The Eighteenth Century
Representatives
•
•
•
•
•
•
Songs of Innocence 1789
《天真之歌》
Songs of Experience 1794
《经验之歌》
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell 1790
《天堂与地狱的婚姻》
The Eighteenth Century
Discussion
An Analysis of Blake’s
Song of Innocence.
pp.197-201
The Eighteenth Century
Songs of Innocence
p.197
• It was written for children.
• Everything in the poem seems to be in
harmony.
• But The Little Black Boy and The Chimney
Sweeper in the collection show the racial
discrimination and suffering.
The Eighteenth Century
Songs of Innocence
"Mother bore me in the southern wild,
And I am black, but O! my soul is white;
White as an angel is the English child,
But I am black, as if bereav'd of light"
("The Little Black Boy")
我妈妈生我在南方荒凉的地方,
我黑,可是啊!我的灵魂洁白;
白得像天使的是英国人的孩子,
可我黑,黑得好像失去了光彩。
(“黑人小孩”)
discrimination
The Eighteenth Century
Songs of Innocence
"When my mother died, I was very young,
And my father sold me while yet my tongue
Could scarce cry 'weep, weep, weep, weep,'
So young chimneys I sweep and in soot I sleep."
("The Chimney Sweeper")
我妈死去的时候我还很小,
我爸卖了我,那时我的小嘴
还叫不出“扫,扫,扫,扫,”
于是你的烟囱我扫,烟灰里我睡。
(“扫烟囱的孩子”)
The Eighteenth Century
Discussion
An Analysis of Blake’s
Song of Experience.
The Eighteenth Century
Songs of Experience
• The contrast between "Songs of
Innocence" and "Songs of Experience" is
of great significance, which marks a
progress in the poet's outlook on life.
• His experience in the later years had
brought a fuller sense of the power of
evil, and of the great misery and pain of
the people's life.
The Eighteenth Century
Against the current of the capitalist world:
Thou hast a lap full of seed
And this is a fine country:
Why dost thou not cast thy seed
And live in it merrily?
你有一个装满种子的裙兜,
这是个美好的邦国:
为什么你不抛撒种子,
欢乐地在其间生活?
The Eighteenth Century
Against the current of the capitalist world:
Shall I cast it on the sand
And turn it into fruitful land?
For on no other ground
Can I sow my seed
Without tearing up
Some stinking weed.
因为没别的地面
可让我把它们播于沙地,
能让我播下种子
把它变为富饶的土地?
而无需拔掉
显见的杂草。
(“你有一个装满种子的裙兜”写于1793年)
The Eighteenth Century
A laughing child upon a cloud
the lapsed Soul weeping in the evening dew
“呼唤迷失的灵魂,哭泣而涕下夜间的露水(汗、泪)”
Is this a holy thing to see
In a rich and fruitful land,
Babes reduc'd to misery,
Fed with cold and usurous hand?
难道这能算是至善,
在富饶多产的土地上—
婴儿的境遇悲惨,
被冰冷的放债的手抚养?
The Eighteenth Century
Holy Thursday 升天节
Is that trembling cry a song?
Can it be a song of joy?
And so many children poor?
It is a land of poverty!
那嘶哭能算是歌声?
能算是欢乐的歌声?
那么多孩子不幸啊,
那是块贫瘠的土地!
The Eighteenth Century
Holy Thursday (升天节)
And their sun does never shine,
And their Fields are bleak and bare,
And their ways are fill's with thorns:
It is eternal winter there.
那里见不着阳光
土地荒芜不毛,
道路为荆棘所网:
冰雪四季不清。
The Eighteenth Century
hate of the church and the clergy
“A Little Boy Lost”: “少年之失”
The priest sat by and heard the child,
In trembling zeal he seiz'd his hair:
He led by his little coat,
And all admir'd the Priestly care.
神父坐在他旁边谛听,
激动地抓住他的头发:
他拽着小外衣揪牢这孩子,
大家都佩服这神父的心机。
The Eighteenth Century
The attack of the religious persecution
The weeping child could not be heard,
The weeping parents weeping in vain;
They strip'd him to his little shirt,
And bound him in an iron chain;
听不见哭着的孩子的声音,
哭着的双亲枉然地哭泣;
他被剥得只剩一件小衬衣,
被用一根铁链子捆起;
The Eighteenth Century
The attack of the religious persecution
And burn'd him in a holy place,
Where many had been burn'd before:
The weeping parents wept in vain.
Are such things done on Albion's shore?
在一处圣地他被焚烧,
从前那焚烧过多人:
哭着的双亲枉然地哭泣。
这种事阿尔比思(英格兰的古称)海岸有吗?
(“少年之失”)
The Eighteenth Century
Discussion
An Analysis of Blake’s
The Marriage of
Heaven and Hell
p. 200
The Eighteenth Century
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
• The prose work shows Blake’s spirit of revolt
against oppression.
• He maintains liberty against the law of
bourgeois society.
• One central idea is his denial of the authority
of injustice.
The Eighteenth Century
Proverbs of Hell
"In seed time learn, in harvest teach, in winter enjoy."
“播种时节学习,收获时节教诲,冬天享乐。”
"The busy bee has no time for sorrow."
“忙碌的蜜蜂没有时间去悲伤。”
"He who desires but acts not, breeds pestilence."
“有所欲求而无所行动,就会滋生邪念。”
"The most sublime act is to set another before you."
“最崇高的行为是先人后己。”
The Eighteenth Century
Proverbs of Hell
• If the fool would persist in his folly he would
become wise.
• 傻子如果坚持自己的愚蠢,就会变得聪明起来。
• Eternity is in love with the productions of time.
• 永恒寓于爱之中,带着时间的成果。
• Prisons are built with stones of Law, Brothels
with bricks of Religion.
• 监狱用法律之石建造,妓院用宗教之砖砌成。
The Eighteenth Century
Proverbs of Hell
• What is now proved was once only imagined.
• 现在得到证实的事情曾经只是幻想。
• As the caterpillar chooses the fairest leaves
to lay her eggs on, so the priest lays his
curse on the fairest joys.
• 正如毛虫选择最美丽的叶子产卵一样,神父选择
最美妙的欢乐今宵诅咒。
The Eighteenth Century
Proverbs of Hell
"Improvement makes straight roads,
but the crooked roads without Improvement
are roads of Genius."
“改良带来了笔直的道路,
但未获改良的弯曲小路是天才之路。”
The Eighteenth Century
An Analysis of “The Tyger”
Homework
Autonomous Learning
and Practice
pp. 98-100
The Eighteenth Century
Questions
How to comment
on Blake?
The Eighteenth Century
Comments on Blake p.201
1) Blake was opposed to the classicism of the 18th
century.
2) His poems were full of romantic spirit,
imagery symbolism and revolutionary spirit.
He was a Pre-Romanticist or forerunner of the
romantic poetry of the 19th century.
The Eighteenth Century
Chapter 15
Robert Burns
罗伯特·彭斯
(1759-1796)
The Eighteenth Century
Group Work
Student’s
Presentation
The Eighteenth Century
Poetry of Burns
• The poems of Burns are written in the
Scottish dialect on a variety of subjects.
1) Political poems
2) Satirical poems
3) Lyrics
Mainly, 3
kinds
Examples
The Eighteenth Century
p.192
“Epistle to J. Lapraid” “致拉布雷克书”
common feelings of the working people
我只求大自然给我一点火种,
我所求的学问便全在此中!
纵使我驾着大车和木犁,
浑身是汗水和泥土,
纵使我的诗神穿得朴素,
她可打进了心灵深处。
(王佐良译)
The Eighteenth Century
“For a’That and a ‘That” “不管那一套”
in defiance of the rand and title
of the gentlefolk 嘲弄王公豪绅
不管怎样变化,明天一定会来到
那时侯真理和品格
将成为整个地球的荣耀!
管他们这一套那一套,
总有一天会来到:
那时侯全世界所有的人,
都成了兄弟,不管他们那一套!
(王佐良 译)
Last Para.
The Eighteenth Century
“Bruce at Bannockburn”
“罗伯特布鲁士向班诺克本进发”
songs of patriotism
打倒骄横的篡位者!
死一个敌人,少一个暴君!
多一次攻击,添一份自由!
动手——要不就断头!
(袁可嘉 译)
the 5th stanza
The Eighteenth Century
songs of love and friendship
pp.204-5
The Eighteenth Century
Listen to the record of the poem
The Eighteenth Century
A Red, Red Rose
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
O my luve is like a red, red rose,
啊,我的爱人象红红的玫瑰,
That’s newly sprung in June;
在六月里苞放;
O my luve is like the melodie,
啊,我的爱人象一支乐曲,
That’s sweetly played in tune.
乐声美妙、悠扬。
The Eighteenth Century
A Red, Red Rose
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
As fair thou art, my bonnie lass,
你那么美,漂亮的姑娘;
So deep in luve am I;
我爱你那么深切;
And I will luve thee still, my dear,
我会永远爱你,亲爱的,
Till a’ the seas gang dry.
一直到四海涸竭。
The Eighteenth Century
A Red, Red Rose
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Till a‘ the seas gang dry.
一直到四海涸竭。
And the rock melt wi’ the sun;
直到太阳把岩石消融!
And I will luve thee still, my dear,
我会永远爱你,亲爱的,
While the sands o’ life shall run.
只要生命无穷。
The Eighteenth Century
A Red, Red Rose
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
And fare thee well, my only luve,
再见吧,我唯一的爱人,
And fare thee well, a while;
再见吧,小别片刻;
And I will come again, my luve,
我会回来的,我的爱人,
Tho’ it were ten thousand mile!
即使万里相隔!
The Eighteenth Century
An Analysis of “A Red, Red Rose”
Rhetorical Devices
1) Phonological
2) Lexical
3) Syntactical
1) Simile,
1)
Alliteration,
2) Metaphor,
2)Assonance
谐音
3)Personification,
4)Hyperbole,
1)Inversion
5)Paradox矛盾法,
2)Parallelism
6)Repetition,
The Eighteenth Century
Comments on Burns & His Poems
1. Burns was one of the most famous
poets of the peasants in the world.
2. He obtained the characteristic of all old
Scottish songs: simplicity, vividness,
humor, directness and optimism, with
a new spirit of romanticism.
The Eighteenth Century
Comments on Robert Burns
3. As a poet of the laboring people, he pours out
the sentiment of the people.
4. In his poems, he sings of his hometown and his
people, love and friendship, nature, dignity,
revolution, sympathy for the miseries of the
poor, the Negro slaves.
The Eighteenth Century
Comments on Robert Burns
5. His vivid dialects advanced colloquial
language expression of his new poems.
6. He created a kind of symphonic meter(交
响乐格律) of all his own, and lots of his
poems have been set to music.
The p.
Eighteenth
208-9 Century
友谊地久天长(卞之琳译)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
怎能忘记旧日朋友
心中能不怀念
旧日朋友岂能相忘
为了往昔的时光
为了往昔的时光 朋友
为了往昔的时光
再来痛饮一杯欢乐酒
为了往昔的时光
我们曾游荡在荒山上
• 把芬芳的雏菊采摘摇晃
• 我们也曾拖着沉重的步伐
• 到处奔波流浪
• 逝去了往昔的时光
• 我们曾赤脚过河流
• 如今大海的怒涛把我们隔开
• 逝去了往昔的时光
The p.
Eighteenth
208-9 Century
友谊地久天长
• Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
and never brought to mind?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
for the sake of auld lang syne.
The Eighteenth Century
友谊地久天长
• If you ever change your mind,
but I living, living me behind,
oh bring it to me, bring me your sweet love,
bring it home to me.
The Eighteenth Century
友谊地久天长
• I’ll give you jewelry and money too.
That’ s all, all I’ll do for you.
• oh bring it to me, bring me your sweet love,
• bring it home to me.
Yeah~ Yeah~
The Eighteenth Century
友谊地久天长
• Darling, you know I laughed when you left,
but now I know that I only hurt myself.
Please bring it to me, bring your sweet, sweet love,
bring it home, bring it home to me.
The Eighteenth Century
友谊地久天长
• If you ever change your mind,
but I living, living me behind,
oh bring it to me, bring me your sweet love,
bring it home to me.
The Eighteenth Century
友谊地久天长
• For auld lang syne my dear,
for auld lang syne,
we’ll take a cup of kindness yet
for the sake of auld lang syne.
The Eighteenth Century
An Overview of the 18th Literature
the Development of Poetry
pre-romanticists
Pope, Blake, Burns
Blake, Burns
the Prosperity of Prose
Steele, Addison, Swift
classicism: classicists
Pope, Steele, Addison
The Enlightenment
the Rising of Novels
Defoe, Fielding, Smollett
realism: realists
the Decline of Drama
sentimentalism:
sentimentalists
Goldsmith, Sheridan
Gray, Sheridan
The Eighteenth Century
Assignment
1. Memory:Remember the
representative works of each writer
discussed and the writing features.
2. Reading:Read the poems in the book.
3. Self Learning: The Tyger
The Eighteenth Century
Assignment
3. Preview 1:Read Part Five English
Romanticism: Wordsworth, Byron,
Shelley, Keats, Lamb and Scott.
4. Preview 2:Read Part Six Critical
Realism: Dickens, Thackeray, Austen,
Charlotte, Emily, Eliot.
The Eighteenth Century
Goodbye.

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