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DNA - cloudfront.net
Name:________________________
Unit 4: DNA, Replication, Mitosis, &Meiosis
Mastery Quiz #1: 10/3
Mastery Quiz #2: 10/9
Unit 4 Test: 10/11
U4-1
Where in the cell is DNA?!
Label the following in the picture:
 DNA
 Cell
 Nucleus
 Chromosome
 Gene
(organelle)
*CHROMOSOMES ARE _____________________*
DNA
Answer the following questions while you read the passages on the structure of DNA! (starting on pg. 291)
1. DNA is made of what units? What are the 3 components of each unit?
2. How many types of nitrogenous bases are there? What are they?
3. What are the 2 components of the DNA “backbone”?
Pg. 294:
4. What does a “double helix” look like?
5. What type of bonds hold the two strands of DNA together?
6. Which base pairs will have hydrogen bonds between them?
Pg. 295:
7. Where is DNA located in prokaryotes? WHY!?
8. Where is DNA located in eukaryotes?
9. How many chromosomes do humans have in every nuclei of every cell in their body?
10. How long is the DNA in a human cell nucleus? (pg 296 )
DeoxyribonucleicAcid
(_____) is a _____________ ________ (so it is made of _________________!)
 Found in the ___________ of eukaryotes, _____________ of prokaryotes
 You are ______% identical to the person next to you
 In ___________________, DNA gets compacted into _________________
Complementary Base Pairing
The same nitrogenous bases will always pair together
Adenine (A) pairs with _______________ (___)
Cytosine (C) pairs with _______________ (___)
Try It!:
ATTATCGTA
___________________
Two bases are held together by _________________ bonds
IMPORTANT: Hydrogen bonds are very _______________!
U4-2
U4-3
You try it!
1. The strands below are missing their complementary strands! Write the complementary DNA strand below
each DNA strand given.
Example:
DNA strand: ATGGC
Complementary DNA strand: TACCG
a) A
G
T
b) A
G
C
TT
CC
A
C
G
G
A
G
T
T
C
A
A
G
T
C
2. How do we know that A always pairs with T and G pairs with C?
A scientist named Erwin Chargaff performed experiments which showed that the ratio of A to T is always
1:1, and the ratio of G:C is always 1:1. Look at the data below and answer questions about it so that
you can prove this to yourself!
Source of Sample
Human liver cell
Human lung cell
Fish cell
Bacteria cell
Amount
of A
30
31
28
32
Amount
of G
19
20
22
18
Amount
of C
19
20
22
18
Amount
of T
30
31
28
32
Questions about the chart:
1. Compare the amounts of A, G, C & T in human liver cells. Which nucleotides have the same amount?
2. Compare the amounts of A, G, C & T in human lung cells. Which nucleotides have the same amount?
3. Compare the amounts of A, G, C & T in fish cells. Which nucleotides have the same amount?
4. Compare the amounts of A, G, C & T in bacteria cells. Which nucleotides have the same amount?
5. Look at your answers to #’s 1-4. What pattern are you starting to see?
6. In human lung cells A=31 and T=31. Is the ratio of A:T 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 or 1:4?
7. Which of the four types of cells have about the same amounts of A, G, C and T, and why do you think
they have similar DNA?
8. The ratio of A:T is always 1:1 and the ratio of G:C is always 1:1. This means that the amount of A always
equals T and the amount of G always equals C. Why does this prove that A pairs with T and G pairs with
C?
3. What are A, T, G and C?
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C) are ring shaped nitrogen bases. Adenine and
Guanine are purines. Thymine and Cytosine are pyrimidines.
Questions:
1. What are A, T, G and C?
a. hydrogen bonds
b. nitrogen bases
c. nitrogen bonds
d. hydrogen bases
2. What is the shape of a nitrogen base?
a. straight line
b. ring-shape
c. spiral-shape
d. gladiator-shape
3. How are two nitrogen bases in DNA connected?
a. phosphate bond
b. carbon bond
c. nitrogen bond
U4-4
d. hydrogen bond
4. How do we use nitrogen bases (A, T, G and C) to store genetic information?
We store genetic information in our DNA. Our DNA is made up of 4 different nucleotides. The
nucleotides are different because they contain different nitrogen bases (A, T, G and C). We store
genetic information as patterns of nucleotides in our DNA.The more alike two organisms are, the more
alike their DNA is. For example, the DNA of a tiger and a cat is more alike than the DNA of a cat and a
flower.
Questions:
1. How do we store genetic information in our DNA?
2. True or False. The more alike two organisms are, the more alike their DNA is.
3. The more alike two organisms are, the more alike their DNA is. Based on this statement, look at the DNA
of the animals below, and put them on a timeline based on how alike their DNA is.
Example: Tiger(ACT)___________Mouse(ACC)_______________Flower (CCC)
Put these Animals on the timeline:
Frog: ATGGTTT
Jellyfish: ATTAGGT
Fish: ATTGTTT
Elephant: GGGGTTT
Bird: AGGGTTT
Bacteria: ATTAGGC
Butterfly: ATTAGTT
Starfish: ATTATTT
Bacteria____________________________________________________________________________________Elephant
ATTAGGC
GGGGTTT
U4-5
DNA Replication
What does “replication” mean?!
WHAT is it?
WHERE does it happen?
WHY does DNA need to
make a copy of itself?
Cells divide for an organism to _______ or ______________. Every ______ cell needs
a _______ of the DNA to know how to be a cell. DNA makes an exact _______ of
itself _________ the cell ___________.
1. UNZIP: An enzyme “__________” the 2 strands of DNA by breaking the weak
______________bonds
2. ADD: New nucleotides are added to the old strands
HOW does it occur?
(REVIEW: A= ____; C= ____)
3. ZIPUP: Another _______________ zips the strands back up
4. PROOFREAD: DNA polymerase “______________” the strands to make sure
there are no mistakes
DNA replication is ___________________________ =
parental strand, ___ daughter strand
when the DNA copies itself, it always has ____
Semi: _______________________
Conservative: _______________
Original Strand
Step 1: ______________
Step 2: ______________
Step 3&4: ______________
_______________
Have your DNA and eat it too!
U4-6
Background Information:
When isolated from a cell and stretched out, DNA looks like a twisted
ladder. This shape is called a double helix. The sides of the DNA ladder are
called the backbone and the steps (also called rungs) of the ladder are pairs of
small chemicals called bases. There are four types of chemical bases in DNA:
Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T). They form pairs in very
specific ways: Adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C)
always pairs with Guanine (G).
Your task is to use the following materials and procedure to construct an
edible model of DNA with your partner.
Pre-Lab Questions:
1. What are the 4 different bases and their single letter abbreviations?
2. Write the pair for the following bases:
A:___
C: ___
G:___
T: ___
Procedure:
Step 1: Give the complementary strand for your sequence below:
Sequence: T A C G C A T G
Complementary strand: _____________________
Materials:
2 pieces of licorice
10 toothpicks
pink marshmallows
yellow marshmallows
green marshmallows
orange marshmallows
Step 2: Assemble one side of your DNA molecule. A piece of licorice will form
the backbone and marshmallows will be the nitrogenous bases. Place a
marshmallow on the end of a toothpick so that the point of the toothpick goes
all the way through. Anchor the toothpick into the licorice backbone. Refer to
the table to choose the correct color marshmallow to represent the
nitrogenous bases in your sequence.
Adenine (A) = Green
Thymine (T) = Pink
Cytosine (C) = Yellow
Guanine (G) = Orange
Step 3: Match the nitrogenous base pairs. Place the color marshmallow for
the matching nitrogenous base on the other end of each toothpick.
Remember that A always pairs with T and C always pairs with G!
Step 4: Complete your DNA model. Attach the other backbone so your
model looks like a ladder.
Step 5: Twist your DNA model. Carefully twist your DNA molecule so that it
looks like a double helix.
Step 6: Label the DNA model. Label (and color!) the drawing to the right
according to your model. Use the following words:
 Sugar phosphate backbone
 Cytosine
 Adenine
 Thymine
 Guanine
 Hydrogen bond
Step 7: Simulate DNA replication.One partner will break the toothpicks in
the center to separate the two strands. Use another stick of licorice, more marshmallows, and toothpick
halves to form the new DNA strand!
U4-7
Post-Lab Questions:
1. Which color marshmallow was always paired with green? Why?
2. Which color marshmallow was always paired with yellow? Why?
3. What did the licorice represent? What are the two components called?
4. What represented the hydrogen bonds in your model? What happened to them when you replicated your
DNA?
5. After you replicated your single strand of DNA, how many strands of DNA did you have? Were they
complete? Were they identical?
EOC questions:
5. Which nitrogen bases are needed to complete
the DNA strand pictured below? Give your answer
in order from top to bottom.
A.
B.
C.
D.
T,A,G,C
A, T, G,C
A,T,C,G
C,G,T,A
6. What is the role of enzymes in the DNA replication
process?
A. Enzymes read the DNA code and build a new
DNA molecule from scratch
B. Enzymes link together to form a template for a
new DNA molecule to be built
C. Enzymes split the DNA molecule in half, then
transport matching nitrogen bases to each rail
D. Enzymes link adjacent nucleotides together,
becoming an integral structure of the DNA
7. When one DNA molecule is replicated, the result is
two DNA molecules. What is true of the second
DNA molecule?
A. It is identical to the first DNA molecule
B. The sequence of bases, from top to
bottom, is opposite the first DNA molecule
sequence
C. It is half the size of the first DNA molecule
D. It is twice the size of the first DNA molecule
8. Color the DNA molecule according to the code that you create.
Coloring Codes:
Example: phosphates (P): purple
Phosphates (P):
__________
Deoxyribose (D):
________________
Thymine (T):
____________
Adenine (A):
______________
Guanine (G):
_____________
Cytosine (C):
_______________
Hydrogen Bonds:
_________________
U4-8
2 Types of Reproduction
Reproduction! Sex or Not?
Use Page 17—3rd paragraph “Reproduction” to answer the following questions.
1. What process do organisms use to make more of themselves (new organisms)?
2. What are the two types of reproduction?
3. Use your book to write the definition of SEXUAL REPRODUCTION in your notes (page 17).
4. How many parents are required during sexual reproduction?
5. Use your book to write the definition of ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION in your notes (page 17).
6. How many parents are required during asexual reproduction?
WHO are we even talking about?!
What organisms even participate in this asexual reproduction that only requires ONE parent? Do humans or
other complex or simple animals make babies this way? No! We all know that it “takes two to tango” for
animals like humans and lions and dogs and birds. So which types of organisms can make babies that are
identical to themselves without the help of a mate? There are a few types of organisms that usually do
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION, make identical copies of themselves: bacteria and fungi. But wait! Plants can too!
So each of these three types of organisms: bacteria, fungi and plants can make identical copies (clones) of
themselves.
1. What three types of organisms can undergo asexual reproduction?
2. How many parent cells are involved in asexual reproduction that does NOT require a mate?
3. Describe how the organism (baby) produced during asexual reproduction compares to the parent in
one sentence.
Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction below:
Sexual
Asexual
Put the following
words into the
appropriate part of
the venn diagram:







1parent
2 parents
Identical (clones)
Variation (differences)
Humans
Bacteria
Plants
U4-9
Check it out!: Reproduction Stations
At each station, circle whether it is sexual or asexual reproduction and record the organism that you are
observing.
STATION 1
STATION 2
STATION 3
Organism:
Organism:
Organism:
______________
______________
______________
Sexual or Asexual
Sexual or Asexual
Sexual or Asexual
STATION 4
STATION 5
STATION 6
Organism:
Organism:
Organism:
______________
______________
______________
Sexual or Asexual
Sexual or Asexual
Sexual or Asexual
Let’s talk about SEX!
Purpose: to create genetically _________________ offspring!
Gametes:sex cells that come together to make a ________________(fertilized egg)
2 types!:
Egg
Sperm
Females
Males
Haploid vs. Diploid
Diploid (2N): all of your “____________” cells aka: body cells; ____ chromosomes
Haploid cells (N): ____________ & ________ ; ___ chromosomes (**think haploid means half**)
haploid
diploid
Classify the following as
haploid or diploid.
 N









2n
Sperm
Egg
Zygote (fertilized egg)
Liver cell
Heart cell
Nerve cell
Muscle cell
Embryo
U4-10
Process:
Process:
Sexual Life
Cycle
Process:
Process:
Cell Cycle

Two main stages:
1. ______________________
2. ______________________


It takes ___ to ___ hours
____% of a cell’s time is spent in INTERPHASE
Stage
Growth 1 (G1)
Synthesis (S)
Growth 2 (G2)
Mitosis (M)
Cytokinesis
What happens?!
U4-11
Mitosis & Meiosis
(1 cell  2 cells)
(1 cell  4 gametes)
MITOSIS
Type of Reproduction
Used for?
Starts with?
Makes?
# of Divisions?
Variation
(genetic differences)?
MEIOSIS
asexual
sexual reproduction
1 diploid cell (____)
1 diploid cell (2n)
2 __________ diploid cells
4 haploid (n) ___________
2
NO
Picture
4 _______________
U4-12
A Closer Look at Mitosis!
Use the micro-viewer and the insert to help you complete these notes.
The slides show mitosis in an animal cell.
Forward
a. How does an animal begin to develop from single cell?
Slide 1
b. What is the equatorial plate?
Slide 1 – The Zygote
1. Define Zygote:
2. Draw the slide and label structures.
3. Where did the two masses of chromatin come from?
Slide 2 – Pro-Metaphase
1. Draw the slide and label the structures
2. What is happening to the chromosomes?
Slide 2
3. Where are the chromosome pairs moving to?
Slide 3 – Metaphase
1. What is the star-like structure?
2. Where do the star-like structures come from?
3. What structures hold the chromosomes together in the middle?
Slide 4 – Metaphase-Polar view
1. How many chromosomes are seen on the equatorial plate?
2. Look back at slide 3, where are the centromeres located?
Slide 5 – Early Anaphase
1. Draw the slide
2. How many groups are the duplicated chromosomes forming?
Slide 5
3. Chromosomes are pulled by what structure?
4. Where do the spindle fibers attach?
Slide 6 – Anaphase
1. What type of microscope is used to see the chromosomes?
2. What are microtubules?
3. When do Chromosomes look beaded?
Slide 7 – Telophase
1. Draw this slide
2. What is happening to the chromosomes?
3. What is happening to the cell membrane?
Slide 8 – Late Telophase
1. Is the separation complete? yes no
2. What will soon happen to the chromosomes?
3. Is the process of mitosis the same in humans? yes no
4. How many chromosomes did scientists think humans had up until 1958?
5. What enabled scientists to determine humans only have 46 chromosomes?
Slide 7
U4-13
Practice: Mitosis & Meiosis
Part 1:Use the following chart to compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis:
MITOSIS
MEIOSIS
Chromosome number stays the same
Chromosome number divides in half
DNA must first replicate
Takes place in somatic (body) cells
Takes place in sex cells
Divides once
Divides twice
Makes 2 cells
Makes 4 cells
Used for sexual reproduction
Used for asexual reproduction
Cells made are different from their parent cells
Cells made are identical to their parent cells
Used for growth
Used only for reproduction
If you start with 40 chromosomes, you end with 20 chromosomes
If you start with 40 chromosomes, you end with 40 chromosomes
Makes gametes
Makes daughter cells
Makes haploid cells
Makes diploid cells
Part 2: A human has 46 chromosomes in its skin cells.
If one skin cell makes a copy of itself…
If the human needs to create sex cells…
1. Is this mitosis or meiosis?
1. Is this mitosis or meiosis?
2. How many daughter cells are created?
2. How many daughter cells are created?
3. How many chromosomes are in each daughter
cell?
3. How many chromosomes are in each gamete?
Sketch a picture of the process:
Sketch a picture of the process:
U4-14
Part 3: Fill in the blanks.
Mitosis happens in __________ (sex/body cells). In mitosis, one cell divides to form _____ cells. In mitosis, each
new cell has ____________________ (the same/a different) number and type of chromosomes as the original cell.
Meiosis happens in ___________________ (sex/body cells). In meiosis, one cell divides to form ______ cells. In
meiosis, each new cell has _________________ (twice/half/the same) the number of chromosomes as the original
cell.
Part 4: Complete the graphic organizer:
Word bank:
Plant
Sexual
Bacteria
Asexual
Fungi
Mitosis
1
Meiosis
2
2
4
___ cell
division(s)
____osis is a
part of this
Results in ___
cells
3 organisms that do this:
1.
2.
Types of reproduction
3.
____osis is a
part of this
___ cell
division(s)
Results in ___
cells
Part 5: EOC practice
1.
3.
During normal meiotic division of a diploid cell,
the change in chromosome number that occurs
is represented as
A. 4n n
C. 2n4n
B. 2n n
D. n½ n
What process is represented in the diagram
below?
2. A cell with a diploid chromosome number of 12
divided two times, producing 4 cells with 6
chromosomes in each. The process that produced
these four cells was most likely
A. Internal fertilization
B. Asexual reproduction
C. Mitotic cell division
D. Meiotic cell division
4. Uncontrolled cell division is characteristic of
A. Cleavage
C. Regeneration
B. Cancer
D. Crossing over
5.
A. Asexual reproduction
B. Sexual reproduction
C. Meiosis
D. DNA Replication
Warts result when certain viruses cause skin cells to
reproduce at a high rate. This rapid reproduction
of skin cells is due to the viruses causing
A. Cellular digestion
B. Mitotic cell division
C. Synthesis processes
D. Meiotic cell division
U4-15
7.
6. Which is a true statement about normal diploid
cells?
A. They contain only one chromosome of
each homologous pair
B. They contain only half the number of
chromosomes as a gamete
C. They contain homologous pairs of
chromosomes
D. They contain chromosomes that are all of
equal length
8. The diagram below represents chromosomes in a
zygote. Which diagram best illustrates the
daughter cells that result from normal mitotic
division of this zygote?
9.
Which process is represented by the diagram
below?
A. Fertilization
B. Meiosis
C. Binary fission
D. Vegetative propagation
Radiation has caused a mutation in the DNA of a
bird. This change will most likely be passed on to
its offspring if the mutation occurs in its:
A. Sperm cell
C. Feather cell
B. Skin cell
D. Nerve cell
10. Which process is represented by the series of
diagrams below?
A.
C.
B.
D.
11. If a sperm cell in a dog has 40 chromosomes, how
many chromosomes will be found in its liver cells?
A. 10
B. 40
C. 80
D. 20
A. Gametogenesis
B. Fertilization
C. Meiotic cell division
D. Mitotic cell division
12. Presence of a cancerous mass in a lung is the
result of
A. Prolonged exposure to very dry air
B. The introduction of chemicals through the skin
C. Uncontrolled mitotic division and growth of
cells
D. Meiotic cell division
13. Which term best describes the type of cell division
in which parent cells produce daughter cells with
the same number of chromosomes as the parent
cells?
A. Mitosis
C. Spermatogeneis
B. Meiosis
D. Oogenesis
14. Mitosis and meiosis are similar because both
processes
A. Produce diploid gametes from
haploid cells
B. Involve the formation of
chromosomes
C. Make 4 cells
D. Involve the replication of DNA before
division
15. Which sequence represents the correct order of
processes that result in the formation and
development of an embryo?
A. fertilization  meiosis  mitosis
B. fertilization  mitosis  meiosis
C. meiosis  fertilization  mitosis
D. mitosis  fertilization  meiosis
Genetic Variation
Genetic = having to do with the ______.
Variation = __________.
Sources of Genetic
Variation
Definition
AKA: why you don’t look
exactly like your mom or
exactly like your dad!
Example/ Picture
Crossing over
Only in MEIOSIS!
ATC GCA TTA TAT
Gene Mutations
change
ATC CCA TTA TAT
Nondisjunction
Fertilization(animals)
sperm + egg
Pollination(plants)
female gamete + pollen
U4-16
How does this
cause
greater genetic
variety?
U4-17
Unit 4 Study Guide
Sexual vs. Asexual
Distinguishing the differences between asexual and sexual reproduction
Type of Reproduction
Summarizing Word/Phrase
Asexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
MITOSIS
MEIOSIS
What must happen before the cell divides?
What must happen before the cell divides?
How many cells does this process start with?
How many cells does this process start with?
How many cells does this process produce?
How many cells does this process produce?
What is this process used for?
What is the process used for?
What types of cells are produced?
What types of cells are produced?
Explain each part of the process below:
Explain each part of the process below:
What type of reproduction uses this type of cell
division? EXPLAIN.
What type of reproduction uses this type of cell
division? EXPLAIN.
Compare the original cell with the TWO cells
produced during the process.
Compare the original cell with the FOUR cells
produced during the process.
There are haploid cells with one set of chromosomes
and diploid cells with two sets of chromosomes.
Which type of cells are produced? EXPLAIN
There are haploid cells with one set of chromosomes
and diploid cells with two sets of chromosomes.
Which type of cells are produced? EXPLAIN
Does this type of cell division produce variation in the
offspring?
Does this type of cell division produce variation in the
offspring?
DUE ON TEST DAY (10/11/13)
Name: ____________________________
U4-18
Mitosis
Using the mitosis cards, draw each of the six steps of mitosis and describe what is happening in each step:
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
What is
happening?
Drawing
1st
Chromosomes
Sketch the following:
This is a cell with a 2 chromosomes:
1 chromosome
1 pair of homologous
chromosomes
1 chromosome after DNA
replication
1 pair of homologous
chromosomes after DNA
replication
ORIGINAL
CELL
2n
Draw the products of MITOSIS:
How many cells? Are they n or 2n? Are
they diploid or haploid?
What would 1 daughter cell look like after
mitosis & meiosis?
After MITOSIS:
After MEIOSIS:
Draw the products of MEIOSIS:
How many cells? Are they n or 2n? Are
they diploid or haploid?
U4-19
Genetic Variation
1. What are the sources of genetic variation?
2. What does genetic variation mean?
3. A baby with Down syndrome has too many chromosomes because the chromosomes were NOT correctly
separated. What type of genetic variation is this?
4. How does a mutation (change) in the DNA of a cell cause genetic variation?
5. The scientist who is studying meiosis cannot figure out why the chromosomes have switched parts of their
sequences with one another. Can you help explain to him what occurred?
DNA
1. Label the three parts of the nucleotide to the right:
2. WHY does a cell replicate its DNA?
3. Draw & name the four steps of DNA replication in the chart below:
Original DNA
Step 1: _________________
Step 2: _________________
4. What are the four nitrogenous bases?
1)
2)
3)
4)
5. Give the complementary strand of this DNA molecule.
A T G C CC G T A AA T A T A
____________________________________
6. Label the following on the picture of DNA to the right:
 Phosphate
 Hydrogen bond
 Nitrogenous base
 Deoxyribose
Step 3&4: ______________

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