The biosphere is divided into
region called biomes.
A Biomes is a group of ecosystems
that exhibit common
environmental characteristics .
Tropical Rain Forest
• Abiotic Factors: 20ºC to 30ºC,
annual precipitation is greater than
200 cm
• Biotic Factors: vegetation—broadleafed evergreen trees, ferns,
• Equatorial
– 4% of Earth’s land surface
– Account for 20% of Earth’s net carbon
• Most diversity of species of any biome
• Animals:
– Birds, reptiles, mammals, amphibians
– monkey, tapir, flying squirrel, birds/parrots,
• Abiotic Factors: from −30ºC to 38ºC
in cool deserts to 20ºC up to 49ºC in
hot deserts; annual precipitation less
than 25 cm
• Biotic Factors: vegetation — brush,
cacti, small plants
•Locations: largely in parts of Africa, and the
southwestern United States and in parts of
Australia, South America, and Asia
• Animals:
– Rodents, kangaroo rat, snakes, lizards, arachnids,
insects, and few birds
• Abiotic Factors: −10ºC to 25ºC, annual
precipitation 25 to 75cm.
– Warm to hot summers, cold winters
• Biotic Factors: vegetation — grasses, small
plants, mosses, lichens
Temperate Grasslands
• Dominant wildlife: predators (coyotes, badgers,
wolves, grizzly bear); herbivores (deer, antelope,
rabbits, prairie dogs, bison); birds (hawks, owls,
bobwhite), insects (ants and grasshoppers)
Location: most of South America, Africa, Australia,
central United States, western Canada & across
southern Asia
Temperate Deciduous Forest
• Abiotic Factors: −10ºC to 25ºC, annual
precipitation 75 to 125 cm
• Biotic Factors: vegetation — sugar maple,
birch, pine, oak, flowering plants, moss
Temperate Deciduous Forest
• Dominant wildlife: deer, black bears,
bobcats, nut and acorn feeders, omnivores
(raccoons and skunks), songbirds, turkeys
• Location: eastern U.S., southeastern
Canada, most of Europe, parts of Japan,
China, and Australia
Conifer Forest-Taiga
• Abiotic Factors: −30ºC to 20ºC , annual
precipitation 30 to 50 cm, soil thaws
completely in summer (NO PERMAFROST
layer) Long, cold winters; short, mild
• Biotic Factors: vegetation — coniferous
trees, ferns, mosses, mushrooms
• animals — snowshoe hare, timber wolf,
weasel, black bear
Conifer Forest-Taiga
Geographic distribution: N. US, N. Asia,
Northern Europe
• Abiotic Factors: −40ºC to 10ºC , annual
precip. is less than 25 cm, windy, permafrost.
– Permafrost present – permanently frozen ground
under the topsoil
• Biotic Factors: vegetation — nearly treeless,
mainly grasses, sedges, and lichens;
• Dominant Plants: mosses, lichens, sedges,
short grasses (ground-hugging)
• Dominant wildlife: birds and mammals that can
withstand harshness; migratory waterfowl, shore
birds, musk ox, Arctic fox, caribou; small rodents
• Geographic distribution: northern N.A., Asia and
– Closest to poles
(7 )
• Grasslands with scattered trees
• Dominant plants: tall, perennial grasses, droughtand fire-resistant shrubs and trees
• Dominant wildlife: predators (lions, leopards,
cheetahs, hyenas, jackals), herbivores (elephants,
giraffes, antelopes, zebras), birds (eagles,
ostriches, weaver birds, storks), insects (termites)
• Geographic distribution: large parts of eastern
Africa, southern Brazil, northern Australia
Marine Biomes
Rocky Intertidal
Marine Biomes-Open Ocean
– Abiotic Factors: temperature range is slight, varying
with latitude and water depth
– Biotic Factors: phytoplankton, fish, dolphins, whales,
seals, sea birds
• Rocky Intertidal
– Abiotic Factors: alternating exposure to
sunlight and submergence
– Biotic Factors: algae, sea urchins, clams,
mussels, starfish
• Estuaries
– Abiotic Factors: temperature change is
– Biotic Factors: algae, mosses, aquatic plants,
insects, shrimp, crabs, amphibians, birds

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